The following crops are included in this group: peas, lentils, vetch, chickens, peanuts, soybeans, beans, mung bean, chickpeas, beans, vigna and lupine, belonging to the Fabaceae family.
They are distinguished by a high content in the seeds of proteins, which include the most important amino acids - lysine, tryptophan, valine, and others. (Shpaar D. et al., 2000). In addition, the seeds of some of them contain a lot of fat (peanuts, soy), minerals and vitamins (A, B1, AT2, C, D, E, PP, etc.), which significantly increases their nutritional value. Leguminous crops are widely used in the food industry (green peas and beans, groats, flour, oil, etc.). They also produce many different materials that are required in everyday life (plant casein, varnishes, enamel, plastics, artificial fibers, extracts for pest control, etc.). Of great importance, these crops are in feed production due to the high protein content in green mass, grain, chaff and straw. Therefore, when preparing protein-balanced diets, they have to be added to grass plants. For example, mixed crops with fodder beans, soybeans and other crops are widely practiced to improve the quality of corn silage.
A significant amount of protein is formed by leguminous plants due to the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen. Nodule bacteria that are located on the roots bind the nitrogen of the atmosphere and enrich the soil. It has been established that on 1 hectare of leguminous crops about 100-400 kg of nitrogen from the air can be fixed. In the literature there are approximately such data for individual crops: lupine - 400, soybean - 150, alfalfa - 140, tributary - 130, clover, peas, vetch - 100. The effectiveness of nitrogen fixation from the air using nodule bacteria depends on many factors: substances, moisture, air, light, low concentration of nitrates that inhibit the activity of nodule bacteria, neutral soil reaction, favorable "temperature (up to + 27 ° C), sufficient amount of organic matter, etc. If conditions are unfavorable e, the nodule bacteria can not completely provide leguminous plants with nitrogen, and they are forced to satisfy their need for it at the expense of the soil.
It is established that well-working nodules have a pink color, and weak ones are white or pale green. To increase their activity along with the seeds, rhizotorphine or nitragin is applied. Nodule bacteria are sticks, which in the free state are strict aerobes and cannot absorb nitrogen from the air. Its fixation in nature is the result of a complex process of interaction between bacteria and plants. Several species of nodule bacteria have been identified, which differ among themselves with respect to the host plant. Some species can infect a whole group of leguminous plants (peas, vetch, fodder beans, lentils, rank), others are very specific and only enter into symbiosis with individual cultures.
Each type of nodule bacteria includes many strains that can adapt not only to different cultures, but also to varieties.
At present, selection of some leguminous crops has already begun, together with the selection of specific strains of nodule bacteria.
The average biochemical composition of seeds of various types of leguminous crops
What nutrients contain beans
Dishes from leguminous crops are very satisfying due to the high content of vegetable protein in them. In religious posts they are now used as a substitute for animal meat. Due to the ease of cultivation, legumes for many centuries have saved the common people from hunger. Today, they remain indispensable food in the human diet.
Today, many nutritionists recommend eating beans as a source of healthy food.
1. For example, regular consumption of meals from legumes strengthens the nervous system. After all, they contain essential amino acids that are needed to build nerve cells.
2. Many legumes are recommended for diabetics in moderation.
3. Useful to eat dishes of beans and allergies, because pectin and fiber cleanse the intestines, improve its microflora.
4. When systematically eating legumes, the level of sugar and cholesterol in the blood remains normal. Vegetable glue (pectin) removes bad cholesterol from the human body.
5. Sprouts of beans rejuvenate the human body, thanks to the manganese contained in them.
Attention! It is important to know! Beans are heavy food! Therefore, they can not be abused. They must be able to properly cook. Beans are recommended to soak before eating, boil well.
Common leguminous crops used in food in the CIS countries
This is the most popular product from legumes. It contains vegetable protein, carbohydrates. Peas are rich in vitamins B1, B6, C. It contains almost no fat, but its fiber content is very high. Common in our opinion, pea has a very rich composition of trace elements and mineral salts.
Especially useful green fresh peas. The calorie content of young, green peas is only 30 kcal. It is more saturated with vitamins and microelements.
Peas are rich in antioxidants that prevent the development of oncology in the body. Antioxidants stimulate the renewal of old cells to new ones. Young green peas have a diuretic effect. It removes excess water from the body.
But dried peas also contain many useful and nutritious elements. The caloric content of this type of pea per 100 grams is about 300 kcal.
Dry soaked peas are recommended to be used by yazvenniki, especially in the form of mashed potatoes. It reduces the acidity of gastric juice.
Beans are also rich in pectin, vitamins, and starch. Beans contain many useful elements, especially important: iodine, iron, potassium, sulfur and calcium.
Haricot beans can be a variety of colors: black, maroon, white. It is sold and stored, at home, in a dry form. The substance, arginine, which is present in beans, participates in the nitrogen exchange processes of our body. This allows you to normalize sugar in the body in diabetics.
Beans contain up to 300 kcal per 100 grams of product. But proteins of this product are easily digested. That's why beans are often used by vegetarians.
Dry beans contain substances that are poorly digested by the human body. Therefore, it must be able to properly cook.
How to cook beans. Before use, it is soaked for about four hours. Then the water in which the beans are wet, is drained. Thus, harmful substances are removed from them and their cooking time is reduced. Then the beans are cooked until soft.
The composition of soybeans is also rich in protein, fiber.
It is very useful for the body of mature women. But natural soybeans are hard to get. Soy is rich in phytoestrogens, which replace the natural hormones in the body of a woman. It also contains a lot of calcium and prevents the development of osteoporosis. If soy beans are taken continuously, they remove the unpleasant manifestations of menopause.
Soy is a high-calorie product. The calorie content of 100 grams of the substance is 400 kcal.
Soy can be found in the composition of various dietary supplements for women, namely: "Estrovel", "Bonisan".
Lentil incorporates fiber, starch, protein. It contains vitamins of group B, A, E. It is rich in minerals: selenium, potassium, boron, copper. It also contains Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.
The calorie content of dry lentils is 119 kcal per 100 grams.
Lentils, like beans, have different colors.
1. Red lentils well treat anemia. It contains a lot of iron and potassium.
2. Green - improves the state of digestion with gastric ulcer, cholecystitis.
3. Black is the most expensive. Its value is compared to black caviar. It has a high antioxidant activity, and therefore inhibits the aging process.
How to cook lentils? Lentils, unlike other legumes, do not need to be soaked before cooking dishes from it. She digest quickly. The beans are washed in several waters. Lentils are cooked for about 20 minutes.
Lentil Stew with Vegetables Recipe
This dish is very tasty, despite the simplicity of its preparation.
1. Pour two times more water into the pot. Than bean Bring it to a boil.
2. In a well-boiling water, add lentils.
3. Five minutes until cooked, salt the dish to taste.
4. Fry the onions and carrots and add to the stewed lentils.
5. Then sweat the dish for a few more minutes.
Legumes, which list has about 18 thousand species, are widely used in food by animals and people. Their root system consists of small tubers that are formed from tissue that appears when nitrogen-fixing bacteria get into the root. They are able to fix nitrogen, thanks to which nutrition is provided not only to the plant itself, but also to the soil.
The fruits of legumes, like themselves, are very diverse. They can reach about one and a half meters in length. These plants are an important reservoir of flora, representing about 10% of flowering species. The most popular and common legumes are soybeans, vetch, beans, lentils, espartit, chickpeas, feed peas, peas, lupins, broad beans and peanuts ordinary.
This product should be included in the list of legumes in the first place, since it is one of the most common and is grown in most regions of the world. Soybeans are a popular food product that is valued for its high protein content and vegetable fat. Because of this, soy is also a valuable component of animal feed.
This is one of the main legumes. Vika is used both in the diet of people and for animal feed. As feed, it is used in the form of hay, silage, grass meal or crushed grains.
The fruits of legumes, especially beans, contain many amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, protein and carotene. Already this is a good reason for regular consumption of this plant. Beans are used as a separate product and for the production of canned vegetables. Studies of the properties of legumes have shown that this type of them is a wonderful natural medicine that stimulates the disposal of many diseases.
This subspecies combines all the benefits of the legume family, primarily due to the large amount of protein, minerals and vital amino acids. In addition, lentils - the champion in its class in the amount of folic acid. Used for processing into cereals and as animal feed.
This is the grass of the legume family. It is used as animal feed both in the form of seeds and green mass, which nutritionally is not inferior to alfalfa. Esparcet is distinguished by its high value as a honey culture.
Chickpeas is one of the most common representatives of the legume genus worldwide. The list of food products produced on its basis is quite extensive. Since ancient times, this species is common in the countries of Western and Central Asia, Africa, North America and the Mediterranean. In particular, this product is used for food and feed purposes.
Chickpea beans are used as food in fried or boiled form, and they are also used to make canned food, soups, side dishes, pies, desserts, and many national dishes. Here you can make an extensive list. Legumes, due to their high content of protein and fiber, but low levels of fat, are often used in a vegetarian and dietary diet.
Already from the name of the culture it is clear how this subspecies is used. It is used as a green forage or for preparing silage. Broad pea beans are a very valuable product for feeding animals.
It is a grain bean crop known throughout Europe since time immemorial. Among vegetable crops, pea beans are the richest natural source of protein, like meat, due to their high content of amino acids, sugar, vitamins, starch and fiber. Green and yellow peas are used for direct consumption, canning and preparation of cereals.
This plant occupies an honorable place among forage crops and is also included in the list of legumes. Lupine is called northern soy, given the high protein content, which is about 30-48%, and fat with a share of up to 14%. Lupine beans have long been used in food and for feeding animals. The use of this product as a green fertilizer helps not to deteriorate the environment and grow environmentally friendly products. Lupine is also used for pharmacology and forestry.
This is one of the most ancient cultures of world agriculture. In Europe, it is grown mainly as a feed crop. For feed use grain, green mass, silage and straw. Bean protein is highly digestible, so they are a highly nutritious food and a valuable component in the production of feed.
Making a list of legumes that are particularly popular, it is impossible not to mention peanuts. Very useful are the seeds of this plant, which contain fatty oil, used in various industries. It is thanks to him that peanuts are in second place among legumes in nutritional value. Its fruits contain about 42% oil, 22% protein, 13% carbohydrates. Most often they are consumed in toasted form, and the vegetative mass goes to feed animals.
These vegetable crops are very valuable and nutritious. Many believe that eating beans can lead to a rapid weight gain, but this is not entirely true. Despite the fact that they are high in calories, all the elements contained in these products are of plant origin, so they do not bear any harm if they are not combined with the consumption of other high-calorie foods. Above is not a whole list of legumes suitable for consumption, in fact there are many more. And this means that even the most sophisticated gourmet will find the kind that suits him.
The benefits of legumes
Bean products have a host of beneficial properties. The main ones are:
- improvement of gastric microflora due to the presence of plant fiber,
- anti-inflammatory properties - prevent the formation of even malignant tumors,
- blood purification, regeneration of blood cells due to folic acid,
- lowering cholesterol levels, improving heart muscle performance,
- antimicrobial and protective functions: successful fight against cold, virus, cough,
- protein supplier - give the body the maximum amount of vegetable protein with a minimum fat content,
- anti-aging and anti-aging functions: improving the condition and color of skin, hair, nails due to manganese.
With such obvious beneficial properties, legumes can also adversely affect the body. It is not recommended to use such products to people suffering from gout, rheumatism, arthritis, having chronic diseases of the stomach.
Fruit representatives of legumes
All leguminous plants are divided into 2 types: fruit (forming fruits, which are used in food), and fodder, which do not have fruiting. In total, the family of legumes includes more than 12 thousand species of plants.
One-year small plant, bearing fruit, which is not only eaten, but also used for industrial purposes. Delicious butter, margarine and chocolate are made from this nut. The caloric value of 100 g of peanuts is 553 kcal, the content of proteins and fats is also high: 27 g and 45 g, respectively. The carbohydrate component of 100 g of peanuts is 9.8 g. During heat treatment and drying of peanuts, its caloric content increases: from 600 to 800 kcal. With the frequent and excessive use of peanuts, obesity may appear. The chemical composition of peanuts is as follows:
- vitamins: B3, B1, B9, B5, B2, B6,
- sodium and others
The advantage of peanuts is really great: it has protective and antioxidant properties, removes toxins, has a small choleretic effect, enhances metabolic processes, eliminates insomnia and nervous overexcitement. In addition, it gives strength and increases the sexual function of men and women. Peanuts go well with vegetables (with the exception of tomatoes), greens, vegetable oils. Poorly compatible with other nuts, honey, pasta, bread, dairy products and other high-calorie foods.
Feedback from web users about the benefits of peanuts
I love walnuts very much, but for the reason that there is more gimp with them: you have to prick them, pull out the kernels, which is not always convenient, I prefer to buy peanuts for myself more often or as it is also called peanuts, and I prefer roasted peanuts . I also love it when peanuts are used in baking.
При всем том, что арахис очень полезен, не стоит забывать, что все хорошо в меру и также следует иметь в виду, что у некоторых на него имеется аллергия.
Нельзя поглощать арахис в больших количествах и об этом стоит помнить особенно тем, у кого имеются проблемы с сосудами, так как арахис имеет свойство сгущать кровь, что может привести к большим проблемам.
Многим известно свойство арахиса положительно влиять на иммунитет во время межсезонных простудных заболеваний.
In addition, you should know that the use of these nuts has a good effect on our skin, because it contains vitamins B1, B2, which have a beneficial effect on the skin.
Annual plant native to South Asia. The fruits are fleshy, they can be of different shades: from light green to black. Caloric content is only 66 kcal per 100 g. During heat treatment, calorie content is lost: for example, stewed beans are only 57 kcal per 100 g. The ratio of BZHU is 6.2: 0.1: 8.5. Composition:
- folic acid,
- vitamins C, D, B5, B1, B2, B6, A,
- fatty acids, etc.
The beneficial properties of beans include: a significant increase in immunity, elimination and prevention of anemia, an anti-tumor effect (eliminates cancer cells), elimination of toxins and harmful radicals, improved sleep and sedation, saturation of bone tissue with protein and treatment of osteoporosis, improvement of vision, improvement of heart function, elimination of caries and much more. Raw beans do not use beans: they are rather solid textures that the intestines cannot digest.
A very tasty and nutritious product that is used both in the food industry and for cosmetic purposes: natural antioxidant substances in its composition improve the complexion, restore damaged hair. It is considered a dietary product due to the low fat content: the caloric content is only 56 kcal per 100 g. The ratio of BJU is 5: 3: 8.4.
- fluorine and many others.
Due to such a rich set of components, peas have extensive beneficial properties: a diuretic effect, normalization of metabolic processes, reduction of the risk of malignant tumor formations, blood saturation with glucose, elimination of seizures and epileptic seizures, improvement of the stomach, etc. Such carbohydrate product as peas, you can not eat with other carbohydrates: baked goods, sweets, potatoes, as well as some fruits (orange, watermelon and kiwi). Best of all this product is combined with fats: vegetable and butter, sour cream, as well as greens and grains.
Chickpea, or chickpea, especially spread in the Middle East, and in terms of popularity, it takes 3rd place after peas and beans. Chickpeas are an integral part of such traditional oriental dishes as falafel and hummus. It is quite high-calorie: 365 kcal per 100 g of raw product. Contains a very large amount of protein - 19 g (per 100 g). Fat a little less - 9 grams, but the indicator of carbohydrate just rolls over: 61 g! Such nutritional value led to the fact that chickpea today is a staple in vegetarianism.
The composition of chickpeas is:
- vitamins - A, P, B1, PP,
- fatty acid,
- iron, etc.
Chickpeas are poorly compatible with fish, as well as some sweet fruits: melons, watermelons, oranges. It combines very well with greens and green vegetables, vegetable oils. Excessive use of chickpeas can lead to allergic rashes, gas and cramps in the stomach.
None of the products of the legume family caused so much controversy and disagreement as soy. Of course, the gene modification of this product has influenced its qualitative chemical composition and effects on the body, but it cannot be denied that soy has a lot of useful properties. These include:
- lowering cholesterol
- removal of toxic substances and slags,
- normalization of pressure and heart rate,
- tissue repair at the cellular level (in particular, the renewal of brain cells),
- fat metabolism and improvement of metabolic processes in general,
- prevention of glaucoma, muscular dystrophy, osteoporosis, arthritis and many other ailments.
One of the negative properties of the use of soybeans is the ambiguous effect on the thyroid system: for example, in some cases, soybeans contribute to an increase in the thyroid gland and the development of cancer cells. It is not recommended to use soy for pregnant women, children and people suffering from urolithiasis.
Soybean has concentrated a large number of useful elements:
- folic acid,
- vitamins A, B1, B2, C, E, B5, B6.
Thanks to this set of components, soy is actively used in medicine: it helps to treat such serious illnesses as diabetes and atherosclerosis.
The caloric content of soybeans per 100 g of the product is 446 kcal, and the ratio of BJU is 36.5: 20: 30. Soy contains almost the largest amount of protein among vegetable crops, which made it possible to include it in sports and dietary nutrition.
Like other legumes, soy is best combined with greens and vegetables and poorly compatible with bakery products, fatty meats and citrus fruits.
Netizens reviews about the benefits of soy
Lentil is one of the most ancient products used on our planet - according to historical data, lentils were used in the III century BC. er There are many varieties of lentils, it can be of various shapes and colors: from milky white to purple and black. The caloric content of the raw product is 106 kcal (per 100 g). Fat lentils practically does not contain, which allows people to use it in large quantities on a diet. The ratio of BZHU lentils is 25: 1.7: 46.
In addition, it includes:
- vitamins - A, B1, B2, B5, B9, PP, E,
- digestible sugars,
- essential amino acids, etc.
Beans are the product, which can not be eaten raw - it has some toxic components that are destroyed only by heat treatment. Contains many useful macro and micronutrients, vitamins and amino acids:
- vitamins of groups B and C,
- tryptophan others
The caloric content of red beans is 102 kcal, white - 292. 100 g of the product contains 7 g of protein, 17 g of carbohydrates and only 0.5 g of fat. Beans effectively eliminate intestinal infections, tumor formation, treat stomach disorders, normalize metabolic processes, stimulate adrenaline production, control cholesterol and blood sugar levels, eliminate wrinkles and improve skin condition. For medical purposes, beans are used in the form of decoction to normalize food processes and eliminate fatigue and stress.
Thus, with the help of beans, you can not only prepare a tasty dish, but also significantly improve the body. Best of all, haricot harmony with fresh herbs and vegetables, fragrant herbs, vegetable oils. It is badly combined with fish, fruit and fat nuts.
Fodder legumes form the basis of nutrition for livestock and agricultural cattle: animals not only quickly become saturated with such crops, but also acquire useful trace elements and substances.
This annual plant is used as a siderat, feed crop and honey plant. Very early plant that allows you to use it in large quantities for different needs. As a vetch fertilizer, fodder heals the soil, loosens it and clears off pests, scaring them off with its smell. As a fodder crop, it is the most valuable source of food for cattle (nutritionally superior to peas and clover).
In addition, the wiki fodder includes:
- vitamin C,
- selenium, etc.
This bean representative has many varieties (more than 200 species). Clover is an important supplier of protein, so it is massively used for feeding livestock. Clover is used to make flour, silage, and also give animals raw. Like a honey plant, clover has no equal - honey from clover is very tasty and fragrant.
The clover includes:
- essential oils,
- fatty acid,
- organic acids
- vitamins of groups E and B,
- iron, etc.
In addition to feed destination, clover is also used for homeopathic purposes, is actively used in traditional medicine. Its anti-inflammatory, expectorant and wound-healing effects are beneficial for both people and animals.
Feedback from web users about the benefits of clover
The second name of this plant is “wolf bean”: this name came about due to the ability of lupine to absorb all the useful substances and resist various diseases and pests. The main purpose of lupine is food for wild and domestic animals. In addition, it is an excellent honey plant and a decorative element: its bright large buds will be a worthy decoration of the garden plot. Lupine consists of the following substances:
- polyunsaturated fatty acids,
- essential oils,
- essential amino acids
- vitamins C, B, E.
Today there are more than 150 species of lupine, with 12 of them growing only on the sea coasts. Lupine is also used as green manure, it is included in the composition of drugs, it is used as food for fish.
Alfalfa is used not only as a fodder plant: gallstone diseases, disorders of the urinary system, high cholesterol and blood sugar, heart failure and many other ailments are actively treated.
Such a wide range of beneficial effects is caused by a rich set of chemical components and nutrients:
- vitamins of groups B, C, E, D,
- proteins and carbohydrates
- essential oils,
- saturated oils and organic acids,
- manganese, etc.
Alfalfa has been widely used in agricultural technology and rural industry: it is the basis of feed for cattle and small livestock. In the culinary field, alfalfa is also used, albeit on a smaller scale: it is added fresh to salads and soups as a spice.
Fenugreek, or Shambala, has been used since time immemorial as a fodder crop and medicinal plant. For centuries, fenugreek has successfully cured heart and vascular diseases, breast cancer, stimulates milk production during lactation, eliminates hair problems (baldness, loss, severe dryness and brittleness), normalizes blood sugar levels and much more. This is one of the most useful plants among all existing ones.
It consists of the following elements:
- as well as vitamins B6, B9, B12.
This perennial plant is indispensable at the dacha: it is not only a good fodder crop and source for harvesting hay (it has a high value in the agricultural sector), but also an excellent honey plant. Honey indices of sainfoin range from 120 to 220 kg per hectare - the honey turns out light yellow, with a very pleasant aroma. Eating hay from sainfoin favorably affects cattle health, and milk yield increases significantly.
The composition of sainfoin includes such components:
- vitamins B2, B6, C, P, D,
- phosphorus, etc.
Saline is also used in alternative medicine: it treats disorders of the reproductive system of men and women, it helps to increase immunity and resistance to viruses, reduce blood sugar levels, increase hemoglobin, etc. It is noteworthy that this herb does not have any contraindications: it is absolutely harmless to both people and animals.
Considering the different types and varieties of legumes, you can come to this conclusion: regardless of the scope of the destination (feed culture, spice, diet, source of honey, etc.), legumes have a huge benefit. They not only heals the human body, but also are a useful food product. Today's pulses are indispensable not only in the culinary industry, but also in medicine, cosmetology, agricultural technology, and agriculture.
All well-known plant belonging to the legume family. It blooms from late spring to early autumn. It grows mainly in the meadows, in the forest in the meadows. It occurs everywhere.
It has trifoliate bright green leaves. When flowering forms a bright pink, at least - dark red, spherical heads.
Characteristics and types
The name of the family "moth" plant received because of the flowers, similar to moths. Flowers in the family of single or collected in inflorescences, have five petals. The top center is the largest, the two side ones look like wings, and two more twisted inside ones. In the inner petals are one pistil and ten stamens. Pollinated plant bees and less other insects.
Bean has a pivotal root system. Most plant roots have tubers at their tips. Tubers grow due to bacteria in the soil. They form minerals containing nitrogen. Nitrogen is a component of proteins, and legumes are rich in them. They also serve as natural fertilizers because they enrich the soil with nitrogen for other plants. Propagated plants seeds - beans. Their fruits are located in two pods with a hard shell.