Without this vegetable it is difficult to imagine both the harvesting and the vegetable garden. Since pepper loves heat and light very much, its landing is not possible in any conditions. This capricious culture, even in the south, will not produce a bountiful harvest without proper care, and in the Urals in general, apart from leaves and flowers, one can never see anything. Recently, breeders are trying to bring more resistant to cold varieties, yet, growing peppers in the open field or even in the greenhouse, will require a lot of effort and effort.
The best varieties for the Urals
One of the most popular types of pepper is Bulgarian. Of course, this culture requires a lot of attention and care, however it is resistant to adverse conditions, such as a cold and short summer.
The best varieties of bell peppers should be characterized by high productivity, resistance to difficult conditions and be sure to have excellent taste and product quality.
Here are a few varieties and their inherent characteristics:
- Oda violet - this bush is upright, undersized with a strong stem, the fruits of which are cuboid in shape and purple in color. The average weight of one fruit is about 100-150 g, the average yield is about 6 kg per square meter. One of the main advantages of this sort of pepper for the Urals is resistance to diseases.
- Feher. The fruits of this pepper are prism-shaped, juicy, sweet and have a yellowish color. The bush itself is of the stem type, and its maximum height is 60 cm. However, the yield of this bush is lower from the previous variety - only 2.5-5.5 kg per square meter.
- The meal has a huge yield (about 12 kg from one square meter), the fruit of which weighs from 150 to 180 g. The advantage of this pepper is in long storage, as well as in stable yield. Fruits are dark green prism-shaped, with very juicy and tender flesh. A bush of this type is semi-creepy, semi-determinant, about 80 cm high.
- Sort Nikita, not more than 70 cm tall, shtambovy type shrub, and the fruits are yellowish-red, with juicy and tasty pulp and cuboid shape. This pepper is not large in size and weight (only about 70 g). However, it is versatile to use.
- The triton is a fast-growing, branchy plant up to 60 cm high. The fruits are bright red, very juicy and spindle-shaped. The advantage is in a perfect presentation and in good yield (from about 9.5 to 10.5 kg per square meter).
- The fruits of the Intervent are red with a strong, fragrant and sweet flesh, heart-shaped and prism-shaped. The mass of such a fruit is about 225 g, and the yield is from 8 to 10 kg per square meter. Bush branching, vigorous and half-creepy. Pros are great productivity and great taste.
- The medal is a tall, compact and well leafy shrub whose fruits are sweet, red and prism-shaped. By weight, the fruit reaches only 60 g, and the yield is relatively small - about 7 kg. However, this variety is stable, despite the Novosibirsk climate, to strong temperature drops.
- The last variety that can be planted in the Urals is Zarya. This is one of the very early varieties of pepper of excellent quality. Fruits have a beautiful creamy yellow or red color. The weight of one pepper is from 280 to 300 g, and the yield is up to one ton from weave. The plant is medium thick and sprawling.
The correct choice of site for landing
The main rule when choosing a site for planting pepper is the more sun, the better. It is important that during the day he was under the sun, and did not fall into the shadow cover.
The next point is to grow in loose soil rich in nutrients. However, it is not necessary to fertilize it too much with dung or fresh mullein, as well as with various trace elements and preparations.
The landing site must be protected from drafts and strong gusts of wind. They also grow better in the soil of moderate watering, and do not like excess moisture.
Do not forget about the rotation. The basic rules are simple: the best predecessors - beans, cabbage, peas and cucumbers, the best neighbors - tomatoes, because they deter aphid from this delicate plant. The smell of spray beans in this respect is also effective, it will scare away any pests that will take in their head to prevent pepper sprout. From the north, corn is traditionally planted so that it protects the vegetable plant from cold winds.
Preparation of beds
For further proper development of seedlings, it is necessary to choose the time when moving to the street. Ogorodnikov often cares about when to plant planting material. This time comes when frosts pass and falls in May in the south, and in Siberia in the middle of June.
There are some secrets that contribute to good growth of seedlings and abundant crops. Usually the bed is prepared in advance and in several stages. Closer to the fall, you should dig up the soil, putting a little fertilizer with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium into the ground. With the onset of spring and warming, ammonium nitrate must be treated every square meter. In order to avoid diseases, a couple of days before the sprouts relocation, it is advisable to pour the soil with the following solution: dilute one spoonful of copper sulphate with a bucket of water.
Peppers pereopylny too well to plant different varieties nearby. For pure varieties, it is better to highlight the different corners at a distance from each other. If this is not possible due to the scanty size of the garden, you can make the screen of the plants higher. To do this, the aforementioned corn or beans.
And most importantly, never sow sweet pepper varieties near bitter ones, otherwise the entire crop will be bitter.
When the age of seedlings reaches about 55-60 days after sowing, planting in open ground is possible, given two weeks for seedlings. This happens around the end of May, when the temperature of the air at night does not fall below + 14-16 degrees. In turn, this means that seeds should be sown closer to mid-March, and for greenhouse conditions, seeds are sown in mid-February.
Transplant in open soil
Cloudy weather is chosen for this important step. Better yet, start planting peppers in the morning or in the late afternoon, when the planting of the peppers does not fall under the direct scorching rays of the sun. To avoid damage to the root of the bore, pour the soil in the cups so that it falls out in one lump. Since the leaves are very gentle, they should also be followed during the whole process. The 40 * 40 cm scheme is considered the most optimal for planting and caring for pepper seedlings in the Urals. The depth of the pit is recommended to do a little more than the height of the tank, and pour two liters of warm water.
Seedlings are set vertically, the roots are covered with earth, and the leaves are tied to a peg.
Next comes the construction of a greenhouse from the film. The number of layers depends on the degree of cold, the characteristic terrain. The emergence of new leaves, will serve as a good sign that the bore began and strengthened. However, in the Urals one should not relax, the summer is full of surprises, and a film with a covering material should always be at hand.
Further care of the seedlings in the Urals consists of the following steps:
- systematic watering in the absence of strong heat (once every two days),
- soil loosening (5-7 times during the season),
- fertilizer plants 2-3 times per season,
All efforts concerning the care of Bulgarian cultivated pepper should be aimed at creating the most comfortable conditions for the development of this fastidious plant. This is a common procedure for garden crops, which is enough for a good harvest. For an extremely abundant harvest, there are several more secrets:
- wetting of the earth, except for the last half a month,
- bait bees using saucers with syrup, or by spraying leaves on them,
- the correct formation of the bush, which prevents the development of unwanted shoots,
- removal of sprouts every 10 days,
- obligatory watering the beds after feeding.
A huge mistake is considered to be seeding ahead of time, as a result of which the seedlings outgrow, and flowering and even peppercorns appear on it. This is fraught with long-term diseases and delays in the development of the plant. If everything is done correctly and on time, the growth is already noticeable within a week.
Shaping pepper bushes
It is very important when growing medium-sized and tall pepper plants, is the formation, because the harvest itself will depend on it. After trimming several leaves on the plant stem, about 3 side shoots will ascend. Of these, you should choose two strong shoots that will be the skeleton of the plant, and weak shoots must be pinned to one leaf.
After the shoots begin to branch, you need to choose the strongest shoot, and it will be as the main germ. Weaker shoots should be pinned behind the first leaf, while leaving one fruit.
Moreover, every couple of days it is necessary to cut off the leaves, lateral and fruitless shoots that are below the branching of the main stem. It is extremely important to carefully tie each branch in medium-tall and tall plants, because they are fragile and easily broken.
Despite the fact that the cultivation of peppers entails many difficulties, the result is worth it. After all, today there are many dishes where pepper is used, thanks to which your table is diversified. It can be used fresh, canned and frozen. Grow peppers using this technology and get excellent harvest.
About the basic aspects of growing peppers in harsh conditions
In the southern regions, sweet peppers are grown everywhere and, as practice shows, without much hassle. Alas, in more severe conditions, everything is not so simple. Firstly, it is worthwhile to plant only modern early and middle-ripening hybrids, which, unlike traditional varieties of pepper, are cold resistant, set fruit better and produce a more substantial harvest.
Secondly, it is desirable to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, since during the period of prolonged rains (which is common in the Urals, for example) it is very difficult to provide normal conditions for ventilation in greenhouses. At the same time, if quality ventilation is not possible, then due to constant condensation rot will appear on the plants - both on the fruits and on the shoots, and no spraying will not help here.
Thirdly, in our climate pepper has noticeable problems with pollination. There are several reasons for this state of affairs - these are sharp drops in day and night temperatures (we have a common thing), cold weather (for example, at 18 ... 20 ° C, the fruits are no longer tied), and lack of light. In addition, pollen becomes sterile due to too high temperature in the greenhouse in the sun on hot days. In addition, the lack of potassium or boron (a very frequent phenomenon in the Urals), as well as the presence of condensate (leads to an increase in the pollen moisture) leads to poor fruit sticking. Therefore, it will not be possible to get a guaranteed harvest without regular spraying of plants with fruit growth stimulants (such as “Ovary”, “Bud”, etc.).
Fourth, how sad it is to realize this, but the pepper does not like the Ural climate (even in greenhouse conditions) - it’s too cold and very little sun. The first problem is to some extent resolved by planting in greenhouses (preferably, if the greenhouse is from cellular polycarbonate) on biofuels. As for the sun, there is only one way out - to make the pepper pay less attention to this drawback, and this is realized through regular spraying with growth and development stimulants such as Epin. Such spraying is favorable in many other respects, in particular, they help plants to more easily tolerate cold snaps, temperature drops, etc.
Pepper belongs to plants with a very long growing season - from germination to the beginning of the technical ripeness of fruits, even for the earliest varieties and hybrids, at least 105-110 days pass. Therefore, seedlings can not do without. In our conditions, the seeds for seedlings are sown in mid-February. Since we are talking about purchased hybrid seeds, no special seed treatment is required before sowing. An exception is the soaking of seeds in such modern growth regulators as Mival Agro, Ekogel, Emistim, etc. The fact is that such drugs, among other things, significantly increase the germination energy and seed germination, as well as contribute to the rapid formation of a powerful root system and a dense tillering node.
As you know, pepper is extremely negative about the transplant. Therefore, many gardeners sow the seeds immediately into the soil in separate containers - this is faster, but then at the initial stage of cultivation it will be necessary to light up a large area at once.
Another approach is also possible - to sow all the seeds in one small container at a small distance from each other, but not into the soil, but in structures that are looser in structure, for example, sawdust (transfer from such loose soil turns out to be less painful than transfer from soil ). When using loose soils, the effect of processing in the same growth regulator Mival Agro is complemented by the advantages of loose soil, which makes it possible to achieve simply impressive in terms of bushiness and size of the root system.
It will be even better if a soil hydrogel is added to the composition on which the seeds are sown. Because of this, it will be much easier for you to provide the desired level of soil moisture (under-filling and overflow, so destructive for seedlings) will be practically excluded. In addition, after planting seedlings from the soil with hydrogel into separate pots, the plants immediately start to grow, that is, they do not need time to adapt in the new conditions, because the root system of plants does not get hurt during transplantation.
During the period of seed germination, it is desirable to maintain a temperature of about 24 ... 26 ° C - in this case, high-quality seeds usually germinate in 10-12 days (maybe even earlier if Mival Agro is processed). If the temperature is slightly lower, for example, 20 ... 24 ° C, then the shoots of pepper can be seen no earlier than in two weeks. Since the temperature in 24 ... 26 ° C in apartment conditions is difficult to sustain, it is more convenient to build a mini-greenhouse for the initial growth of heat-loving crops, where the required temperature will be provided by heating the fluorescent lamps. After the emergence of seedlings, the daytime temperature is reduced to 23 ... 24 ° C, and the nighttime temperature is approximately 16 ... 18 ° С. The length of the day should be 12-14 hours, so in the winter without fluorescent fluorescent lamps can not do.
When 1-2-3-3 true leaves appear in seedlings, they are seated in separate containers. Please note that the seedlings of pepper only on some sawdust are transplanted with already 1-2 real leaves, because the sawdust begins to actively absorb nitrogen.
When planting in separate containers of the plant are placed in the usual fertile soil, preferably also flavored with soaked hydrogel. It is recommended by the manufacturer to take 5 parts of the soil on 1 part of the gel, but I am confused by the excessive moisture obtained with this ratio of parts of the soil, and therefore I usually reduce the proportion of hydrogel by half. In addition, it would be better if the gel used is wetted not in ordinary water, but in a solution of complex fertilizers.
Water plants only with warm water as needed in sufficient quantities, but not overflowing. A week after planting seedlings in separate containers, weekly fertilizing with complex fertilizers with a full set of macro- and microelements, for example, Kemira Lux, is started.
From mid-March and up to the moment of transporting seedlings to the dacha at every opportunity, plants are carried out in the daytime to a glazed insulated loggia, which will allow the plants to gradually get used to the real sun and develop more powerful and beautiful. This moment is very important, because the conditions for plant growth in a sunny loggia (with appropriate preparation) are much more attractive than in an apartment under fluorescent lamps.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
This procedure is optional, but the germinated seeds will sprout faster. I put the seeds in a damp cloth (cotton wool, cloth) and put in a warm place. Do not allow drying, the material in which they lie, should always be wet. If all the conditions are met, sprouts will spawn in 3-4 weeks, which means it's time to sow.
Landing and selection of containers for her
Pepper can not be planted too thick, he does not like it, just like picking. Therefore, I immediately select roomy pots with a volume of at least half a liter for each seedling. There is a good experience of growing seedlings in peat tablets and cardboard pots - with their help, seedlings can be transplanted into the ground or large capacity without injuring delicate roots. By the way, the roots of pepper do not tolerate light, therefore, I always use opaque tara.
Pepper seedlings planted at home
Proper soil and air temperature
For pepper optimal - from 25 to 27 degrees Celsius. Especially important is the maintenance of temperature for the root system. Поэтому, как я указала выше, лучше держать перец в теплице, или на теплых грядках. Чтобы избежать перепадов температуры, я размещаю в теплице бутылки с водой или большие камни, которые днем нагреваются, а ночью - медленно отдают тепло.
Без влаги страдает не только рассада, но и взрослые растения. Мне помогает поддержать необходимый уровень влажности мульчирование. With the advent of the first weeds, I mulch the soil with a layer of mulch about 20 cm, then update it every 3-4 weeks. Feeding is also needed. I use infusion of wood ash (2 cups per bucket of water), or nettle infusion mixed with manure. This fertilizer stimulates growth very well and strengthens the immune system of plants.
So that the plants do not stretch out and can build up a good crown, I use pinching. The first flowers are always cut off, they do not allow enough green mass to form. Pinching I spend after the appearance of 3-4 branches on a bush, I pinch each branch at the 5th leaf. I also remove the extra ovaries; too many fruits deplete the plant, increase the ripening period, and the fruits themselves grow small. By the end of the season, when ripening the last harvest, I cut off new flowers - they still will not have time to start, and only hinder the ripening of the existing fruits.
Yellow pepper grown at home
In regions with a cool climate, and a short warm period, I advise you to grow early-ripening varieties of pepper so that you can get a harvest.
When do peppers are planted on seedlings in the Urals?
Pepper heat-loving plantand manages to mature only in the southern regions. In all other areas it is grown only through seedlings, the pepper in the Urals cannot be physically grown on seedlings, it simply does not have time.
Terms of planting pepper seedlings in the Urals. The best days of the lunar calendar will be February 9, 19, 23, and March 7, 20, 22. With the planting it is better not to delay, if you plant later, the crop will not have time to ripen, if it is planned to grow peppers in open ground. The most ideal time will be the middle, or even better, the beginning of February..
In this case, it is necessary to take into account the fact that not every variety of pepper is suitable for planting, but only for Siberian selection, they are most suitable for such conditions. Now the market has a good selection of such varieties and hybrids of this nightshade. The most famous among them is "Red Bull", "Bogatyr", "Merchant" and "Montero". Almost perfect for planting pepper seedlings in the Urals.
How to plant peppers on seedlings in the Urals? So that she grew well, she need a lot of light and good watering. The most suitable temperature in the daytime is + 23 + 25 degrees, at night + 19 + 21. Capacities for planting should be spacious and pretreated with a disinfecting solution from previous plantings.
This mode will allow the seedlings to fully develop, and in the future to get a good harvest. Avoid overflow, lack of light and too close planting of seedlings.. This can provoke many problems in growing seedlings, as well as its diseases.
With a lack of light, seedlings will begin to stretch, and the root system will weaken. At overflow there is a risk of fungal diseases. And with a lack of light and humidity, the leaflets of young shoots of pepper may begin to curl.
Planting and maintenance in the open field
The best time for planting pepper seedlings in open ground - the beginning of Junewhen guaranteed to pass the slightest threat of frost. For cultivation in unprotected soil in harsh Ural conditions, only the early ripening varieties recommended for Siberia are suitable. Other hybrids and pepper varieties may not survive climatic conditions or bring a bad harvest or simply not ripen.
Difficult climatic conditions must be compensated for by soil composition. It should contain a lot of organic matter, and be of a neutral composition. Pepper does not tolerate acidic soil, it starts to hurt from this, and in the conditions of a short summer, the treatment may simply not be enough time, so you should take care of this in advance.
To reduce the acidity, you can use chalk or dolomite flour, both tools are good and effective, most importantly safe, since they are completely natural. Mechanical properties more than others loose and loamy soils will do.
Therefore, the land before planting must be specially prepared. To do this, take the sand at the rate of one bucket per square. m. of land. Then dig up everything and how to loosen it. Areas where potatoes grew in the past season are not recommended for planting peppers.
After planting in open ground, young shoots first should protect at night with covering material. For this, gardeners use non-woven "Agrotex" or "Spunboard". After the bushes finally strengthened, protection can be removed.
Further watering grown plants should be plentifulbut not often, about once every 10-12 days. Feed must be 3-5 times per season fertilizers, with the content of phosphorus and potassium. Periodically inspect for pests.
If the Colorado potato beetle wound up, the main enemy of all the nightshade, then it is removed by the preparation "Prestige". Thrips and mites can be washed off with soapy water, if the plant is severely affected, then chemicals can be used.
Such activities for the care of a plant planted in open ground, will bring you a good harvest, which will delight you and your loved ones.
To grow everyone to the envy and surprise of such a southern fruit as pepper in the Urals is a matter for real specialists. But if you are a beginner, do not lose heart, following our instructions, you will achieve good results. Dare, and all you get, good luck and sweet peppers to you.
Resistant varieties of pepper for the climate of the Urals
Choosing a variety of bell peppers for the Ural region, it is better to give preference to early and mid-season varieties with a growing season of 90-130 days.
Agricultural specialists recommend the following adapted varieties:
- "Kolobok" - it is distinguished by small bushes and peppers with an average weight of 85 g, it grows well both in greenhouse conditions and in open ground,
- "Topolyn" - tall bushes bear fruit with large 120-gram red peppers with a pronounced sweet taste, plants are often planted on the trellis,
- "The Firstborn of Siberia" - mid-season variety with plant height up to 50 cm, fruit weight averages 50 g, color changes from yellow to red,
- "Siberian" - mid-season variety, bush height up to 50 cm, large fruits have a weight of 120 g, good for growing in greenhouses, even without heating,
- "Montero" - an early ripe grade, height of a bush is about one meter, bright red peppers weigh on average 65 g, in the Urals it is grown in greenhouse conditions,
- "Pioneer" - about 120 days are required for full maturity, the average fruit weight is 60 g,
- "Winnie the Pooh" - early-ripening variety, the growing season is about 120 days, the fruits ripen at one time, which is convenient when harvesting,
- “Bogatyr” is a mid-season variety, one of the most adapted for the region, the weight of the fruit is about 150 g, it grows well in greenhouse conditions and on the ground,
- "Bull" - mid-season variety, large yellow and red peppers on average grow to 200 g. For the Ural climate this variety is the most optimal.
For sowing seeds, you should purchase a soil substrate for seedlings of peppers in a specialized gardening shop. However, the purchased soil is sometimes oversaturated with fertilizers, which leads to the "burning" of seedlings. Therefore, in order not to worry about the quality of the soil, you can prepare it yourself.
You should not decontaminate the purchased soil, but it is better to treat the prepared soil yourself with potassium permanganate solution (potassium permanganate) and additionally add any antifungal agent. Such disinfection is considered the simplest and at the same time the most effective. In one liter of hot water should be dissolved one teaspoon of potassium permanganate, pour this solution over the ground and allow it to dry.
For growing seedlings you can use any capacity, including peat tablets. The easiest and cheapest way is a wooden box, lined from the inside with plastic wrap and made to the size of the window sill.
However, to avoid further diving, which negatively affects the root system of plants, many experts recommend planting seeds in separate cups.
By the way, before planting, all previously used containers should be treated with a disinfecting solution so as not to carry diseases or pests from previous plantings.
Before sowing the peppers, you should carefully sort out and remove all substandard seeds. After that, you need to check the seed for germination, for this soak it in water at room temperature or in a weak salt solution. As a result, good seeds will settle to the bottom, and empty ones will float to the surface. Naturally, only seeds at the bottom are subject to planting.
To disinfect seeds, you can use the following methods:
- pour them with a weak solution of wood ash,
- warm the seeds in hot water for about half an hour (about 55 ° C),
- for three hours soak them in onion peel (a handful of husks per liter of water).
The prepared soil is poured into the tank, on the bottom of which a drainage is pre-laid (1.5-2 cm). When using one container, the seeds are planted at a distance of 2 cm from each other with a row spacing of 5 cm. The depth of planting is about two centimeters.
When planted in separate cups, 2-3 pieces are placed in each. seeds. When using peat tablets, pour the required amount of water with water, wait for the swelling, then deepen the holes in the upper part by 1.5 cm and lay the seed there. Fill the wells with nutrient mixture, cover the tray with a lid or plastic bag.
After planting the seeds are well watered with water and covered with a film or glass. To grow good seedlings, planting tanks must be in a warm and bright place. It is recommended that the daytime temperature be + 23 ... + 26 ° C, and at night - not below +20 ° C.
Shoots of peppers appear approximately in 5-7 days, after germination of seedlings the film or glass is removed.
For the first three to five days, future seedlings do not require watering, as they were planted in moist soil. With the advent of the first leaf you need to water daily. And when the seedlings grow a little, it should be watered abundantly with a break of 4-5 days.
We must not forget about feeding plants, it is carried out in two stages: after the first 2-4 leaves and after the appearance of more than five leaves at each sprout. When you first feed 5 liters of water, add 10 g of urea and potassium sulfate and 30 g of superphosphate.
On average, one sprout consumes 100 ml of liquid feed. The second stage often coincides with picking and falls on the 2-3rd week after the first feeding. The same fertilizers are used, but in double quantity. In order not to prepare fertilizers on their own, they can be purchased in specialized stores. Do not forget to water the peppers after each feeding and make sure that the fertilizer does not fall on their leaves. The seedlings in the peat tablets do not need any additional feeding.
With the first 4-5 true leaves, the peppers are picked and planted in separate pots. Some gardeners believe that this stage can be neglected and dive right before planting at a permanent place of growth. When diving it is better to take out the ground with several shoots at once and carefully, so as not to damage the root system, to separate them with your hands.
Possible problems with the care of seedlings:
- lack of light leads to excessive stretching of seedlings,
- excessive watering is one of the causes of the fungal infections of the root system,
- lack of moisture leads to drying and twisting of the leaves.
Approximately 10-14 days before disembarking, you should quench the seedlings. For what it is arranged on the windowsill with the window open or carried out on the glazed balcony.
It is only necessary to ensure that the seedlings do not remain in a draft, under intense sunlight and the soil temperature was not lower than 15 degrees Celsius. This technique will allow plants to get used to the surrounding air and with less stress to perceive the landing in the ground.
Planting your own seedlings on a permanent place
The age of transplanted seedlings is usually a little over two months. The best time for planting in open ground - the beginning of June, when there is no threat of frost. The greenhouse can be planted a little earlier - already in the middle of May.
The most unfortunate predecessors for sweet peppers are solanaceous crops - potatoes, tomatoes and hot peppers. Beans, beans, peas, onions, carrots, cucumbers and cabbage are considered good. It is also nice if earlier perennial grasses were growing on the plot.
For planting seedlings in a greenhouse, light sandy soil of neutral acidity is used with a temperature not lower than +15 ° C. The air must be heated from +20 ° C and above.
The following planting scheme is used: a two-line tape with an interline width of 40 cm with a distance between plants of 20-25 cm and a spacing of 80 cm.
In the first branch, the flowers are removed, two shoots remain, as they grow, one strong shoot is left at each branch, and a weak one is tipped off after the first bud. Approximately one month before the end of the season, the tops of all the shoots are pinned.
At the beginning of growth, the bushes are fed with nitrogen fertilizers, and during fruiting it is necessary to use supplements containing phosphorus and potassium.
Given the climatic features of the region and the fact that late frosts sometimes occur, additional shelters should be provided inside the greenhouse. They may be the arc covered with a dense covering material. They can be used, for example, at night, until the weather has finally settled.
In open ground
Difficult climatic conditions are partially compensated by the composition of the soil, which has a neutral pH and contains many organic substances. Pepper feels good in loose loamy soils. Keep in mind that he does not like the acidic environment, so you can add chalk or dolomite flour to reduce the acidity. These are effective, and most importantly, natural and safe products.
Before planting, the ground should be prepared by digging it together with sand from the calculation - a bucket of sand per square meter of land. Bulgarian pepper fit a well-lit place without drafts. The optimal planting scheme: between the seedlings should be left about half a meter, between rows 60-70 cm. As a result, when planting tall varieties per square meter of land should be 4-5 peppers, and undersized - six bushes. The first time after planting in open ground, peppers must be protected by covering them at night with agrotex or spunbond material. After strengthening the bushes protection can not be used.
Adult bushes should be watered abundantly approximately once every ten days. Three to five times a season should be fed with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus.
Video: how to grow peppers in the northern regions
And second, if you have a greenhouse HEATED AND THERE IS A LIGHT, then it is not very early
Growing peppers in the open field in the southern Urals. Growing pepper seedlings.
Part two. Sowing seeds of pepper for seedlings with a pick and without a pick.
Sowing pepper seeds for seedlings.
Sowing seeds for the cultivation of pepper in the open ground is usually produced in schools, followed by picking.
However, it is believed that peppers very poorly tolerate transplantation, therefore, it is better to sow them immediately in separate containers, in which they will grow before planting in open ground. But in this method of sowing seeds of pepper on seedlings there are significant drawbacks.
Firstly, pepper seeds do not germinate evenly and there is a risk that some of the seedlings will be much inferior to their fellows in growth and development. Secondly, the capacity for seedlings in this case, initially you need to take a volume of at least 0.5 liters, which can cause difficulties with watering, excess moisture will lead to acidification of the soil and seed rotting, lack of water will slow down the germination and development of plants.
In order to avoid a palpable development run-up with uneven germination, some gardeners sow in one glass for seedlings of three to four seeds, thus obtaining the opportunity to select the strongest and strongest seedlings and remove the rest.
But if the seed material is not too much, then this option is not very suitable. It is also inappropriate to sow, in this way particularly valuable seeds. In this case, it is better to apply the crop in schools, followed by picking.
Sowing seeds of pepper on seedlings with a pick.
Sowing seeds of pepper for seedlings is made in schools or seedling boxes with a height of at least 5 centimeters. Tanks are filled with prepared soil, evenly moistened and compacted.
Seeds for growing seedlings of pepper are sown to a depth of two centimeters, keeping a distance of five centimeters between them. Once again, they are lightly moistened, covered with transparent covers or film and put in a warm and bright place in anticipation of sprouts. When all the sown plants have fully grown, the film or cover can be removed, the plants should be placed in a well-lit place.
Watering is carried out as needed carefully under the root until the earthen coma is completely moist.
Sampling the seedlings of peppers.
When the plants formed two true leaves, you can begin to pick.
Pickling seedlings of peppers is carried out in a volume of 0.5 liters. Хорошо для этого подходят обрезанные тетра паки из-под молока, кефира, сока и так далее, с небольшим отверстием в дне для стока лишней поливной воды.
Емкости для рассады наполняют подготовленной заранее почвой на 2/3 объема.
Before picking seedlings of peppers, plants are plentifully shed with water and planted in cups, deepening to cotyledon leaves.
Since the peppers love to grow in a pair, in one cup you can immediately swoop down on two plants.
Planted plants evenly shed water and transferred to a well-lit place.
For better survival in the first days, it is necessary to maintain a temperature in the daytime of 20 to 22 degrees, at night to reduce to 14 degrees.
The next watering is carried out not earlier than 5-6 days after the pick.
Sowing pepper seeds on seedlings without picking.
You can also grow seedlings of peppers without picking. To do this, prepared containers with a volume of 0.5 liters per 2/3 are filled with earth and moistened evenly. Seeds are sown in 3-4 pieces to a depth of 2 centimeters, containers are covered with a film and placed in a warm place.
At emergence of shoots, plants move to window sills.
Watering is made by necessity only at the root.
When seedlings of peppers without picking form from three to five leaves, you need to reject. Remove weaker sprouts, leaving a pair of the most developed plants in the cup.
In the future, when growing seedlings of pepper, they monitor the moisture content of the earthy coma, preventing drying and over-wetting. Observe the temperature regime.
Part one. Preparation of soil-mix and pre-sowing preparation of pepper seeds - read HERE.
Part Three Hardening pepper seedlings, watering and feeding - read HERE.
Adding an article to a new collection
We tell how to grow healthy, strong seedlings and not lose a crop.
It would seem that growing the seedlings is easy: sowed the seeds, waited for seedlings, raised the seedlings to the desired size and transplanted into the ground. But if you want the plants not to hurt, get accustomed to the new place and enjoy the high yield, you have to try a little.
Step 1 - Preparation of seedling containers
Prevention of any diseases of seedlings begins even before sowing, namely with the preparation of containers and soil.
If containers for seedlings were used before, they must be disinfected without fail.
For the disinfection of containers, you can use a pink solution of potassium permanganate
Step 2 - Soil Preparation
If you are a novice gardener, it is best to buy ready-made soil mixture from a trusted manufacturer in a specialty store.
Of course, you can prepare the soil and at home. In this case, the quality of the soil mix will depend on how well you keep the optimal proportions.
The composition of the soil for seedlings depends on the specific vegetable culture.
After preparing the mixture, it is worth checking it for acidity (using ordinary litmus paper). For each culture, the optimum pH values are different, but on average they range from 6.0 to 7.0 units.
In the soil mixture for seedlings can not add soil, where during the past year manure was introduced (pig, horse, cow). Often there are salt lizuntsa that do not allow plants to absorb water with nutrients. Salinity of the soil can lead to the death of seedlings.
Ready soil without fail disinfect. Home soil or calcined, or steamed in an oven, double boiler or microwave.
With the destruction of infectious agents, such measures cope well, but at the same time with the pathogens the whole complex of living organisms is killed.
Before sowing, the soil must not only be disinfected, but also enriched with nutrients
Depletion of the soil after disinfection can adversely affect the health of seedlings. For example, due to the die-off of nitrifying bacteria, ammonia accumulates very quickly in the soil and easily digestible manganese is formed, which is very dangerous for many plants.
To enrich the soil beneficial microorganisms, use preparations containing fungicidal and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, potassium and phosphomobilizing bacteria (for example, Biocomplex BTU for soil, 10 ml per 5 liters of water).
Between the introduction of biological products and the sowing of seeds should take a little time (from two to three days).
Step 3 - seed preparation
The main objectives of pre-sowing treatment - to reject poor quality seeds and increase the germination of the remaining, to improve the quality of seedlings.
At home, the seeds can be subjected to the following procedures:
- warming up
- treatment with fertilizers and growth stimulants,
Naturally, it is not necessary to apply all methods of preseeding preparation on the same seeds at once. A combination of two or three is enough. For example, hardening, bubbling and disinfection.
If you are going to grow seedlings from purchased seeds that have undergone treatment (dressing, inlay, drazhirovanie), in addition to prepare them for planting is not necessary.
In no case should not skip the stage of disinfection of seeds. Keep in mind that most of the infectious diseases are transmitted through seeds, although the disease can occur only on an adult plant.
For example, when cucumber seeds are infected with Fusarium, the mycelium of the fungus grows along with the stem of the plant, and only when young cucumbers begin to appear, it activates its “activity”, resulting in the appearance of external symptoms - wilt, tissue death, fruit rot. Therefore, the seeds before sowing must be decontaminated.
The easiest and most affordable way seed disinfection - soak them for 20-30 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), then rinse in clean water and dry.
Most homemade methods of seed disinfection kill only a fraction of the pathogens.
True, it should be understood that potassium permanganate can destroy only those pathogens that are on the surface of seeds. Infectious pathogens that "live" inside the seed, this procedure is not terrible.
It is reasonable to combine disinfection with seed heatinghowever, at home it is not always possible to maintain a stable temperature of 40 ° C for three days. There is a risk of overheating the seeds and damaging part of the embryo.
Of course, destroying all pathogenic microorganisms can chemical disinfectants, but none of them are recommended for home use - it can be dangerous! Only one way out - turn to bacterial drugs that contain fungicides. For example, Biocomplex BTU (when using this drug, you can do without additional treatment with fertilizers and growth stimulants).
To fungicides, fertilizers and regulators linger longer on the seeds and give a good effect, you can use the Liposam bioplastyr, which plastically covers the surface of the seeds with a polymer shell. At the same time, it retains moisture in the seeds. At 0.5 liters of water enough 5 ml of adhesive.
Step 4 - Sowing
After the seeds, soil and containers are prepared, it’s time to start sowing directly.
The main thing that should be strictly followed is the time of sowing and the depth of seed embedding. The sowing date is calculated based on the estimated date of planting the seedlings and the optimum age of the plants at this point. Naturally, for each crop (and even for each variety), these data will differ.
Depth of embedding seeds in the soil - an important condition for the successful cultivation of seedlings
All basic information on sowing, planting and growing is indicated on the packaging. We give the approximate timing of seed germination, depending on the culture.