Jujube, it is jujube, it is Chinese date, “French breast berry” or unabi - it is an edible fruit of small size, usually round or oval, in a mature state of red-brown color with a sweet and tasty pulp. Leaves simple petiolate, elliptical. It blooms in small flowers of light green color. This miracle berry grows in China, South and Central Asia, Japan, Australia and the Caucasus. These thick-shrubs, cultivated by man, about 5 meters high, grow and bear fruit on the slopes of the mountains, where they receive enough sun and heat, their juicy fruits vary in shape and color, as well as in taste, and sugar content. For food, consumed fresh, dried, dried, or as a preservative.
Spherical drupes of cultivated plants reach the size of a walnut. Their very sweet soft green flesh contains about 40% of carbohydrates, about 5% of proteins, up to 6% of pectins, useful acids, vitamins, tannins and mineral salts. The seeds of this fruit contain yubozid A and B, juybogenin, aglycon yubozide, spinoside.
Zizifus, its seeds, fruits, leaves and even bark, due to their beneficial properties, are among the most valuable pharmacological products, but fruits contain the greatest amount of beneficial substances: ascorbic acid, proteins, acids and sugars, vitamins A, B, C and B-carotene, fats, amino acids, microelements. In large quantities contains coumarins, sterols, flavonoids, triterpenes and its glucosides, isoquinoline alkaloids.
Detailed chemical composition
Zizifus fruits contain such valuable substances:
- vitamin C,
- vitamins A, B, C, b-carotene,
- amino acids
- organic acids
- squirrels and fats.
Of the known minerals in dates are the following:
The seeds of the plant contain a lot of sugar and to a lesser extent other components. But the zizyphus bark is rich in tannins, rutin and saponins, which makes this part of the plant very valuable in medicine.
Interesting fact. Chinese date leaves are valuable for their anesthetic properties. In ancient times, this feature was used for temporary paralysis of taste buds, which, after chewing the leaves for some time, did not distinguish between sweet and bitter tastes. Oddly enough, a person could still identify acid and salt.
Useful properties of zizyphus for humans
Useful properties of the plant are as follows in the human body:
- Soothing. B vitamins have a positive effect on the nervous system.
- Hypotensive. The plant is capable of reducing blood pressure.
- Tonic Fruits saturate the body with a large amount of energy.
- Diuretic. It has a powerful diuretic effect.
- Restorative. The effect of high content of vitamin C.
- Cleansing. Thanks to fiber, accumulated toxins, metals, and cholesterol are eliminated from the body.
- Improves digestion. Fruits activate the bowels, so the product is recommended for people suffering from constipation.
Use in traditional medicine
In folk medicine, use all parts of the plant. Of these, most often prepare tinctures and decoctions. Infusion of leaves, bark or root is used to treat skin injuries - cuts, ulcers, inflammations. The tool is used to wash the wounds and make lotions out of it that need to be changed every 2 to 3 hours. For external use can be prepared and ointment.
Ointment on the basis of zizifus leaves
This ointment is used to treat ulcers and various inflamed swellings. For its preparation you will need to mix fresh, washed and dried leaves of the plant with olive oil. You can use dry leaves of jujube, but they do not have the essential oils of fresh herbs. The proportions should be 1: 5.
- The mixture should be heated on a steam bath to 90ºС.
- After that, close tightly and leave to infuse for 10 days.
- Then everything should be thoroughly grind in a mortar and strain.
With a thick mass, it is necessary to lubricate the affected areas - the medicine stops the inflammatory process and destroys the microbes. But before use, be sure to wash the wound well with herbal decoction.
The drug should be stored in the refrigerator and use within 1.5 weeks. The longer the agent is preserved, the less therapeutic properties remain in it.
The following remedy is recommended to correct digestive problems and to normalize bowel function:
- 20 g of crushed root pour in 500 ml of boiling water and boil for half an hour over low heat, stirring occasionally.
- Boil a little to cool, then filter and dilute with water so that the volume was equal to 500 ml.
- Prepare a decoction in the morning and drink in parts during the day, an hour before meals.
The medicine must be used within 24 hours, and the next day you prepare a new batch.
The following medication is recommended for the treatment of dizziness, tachycardia and various problems with the nervous system:
- Boil 100 g of crushed stones in 500 ml of water for 10 minutes.
- Broth with stones diluted with 20 ml of alcohol 96% and leave to infuse overnight.
- Strain the mixture.
The regimen is as follows: 1 tablespoon of infusion to drink 4 times a day. The duration of treatment is a week. Then it is important to take a break in the month, after which it is possible to repeat the therapy if necessary.
The benefits of bark, leaves, fruits, seeds of zizifus
From the fruits of Chinese date can be prepared a decoction for breastfeeding women who have problems with the production of milk.
Also seeds of zizyphus unabi will be useful:
- to improve digestion,
- to calm the nervous system.
In ancient times, dates were used as a therapy for jaundice in children. In addition, they are recommended for diseases or abnormal liver function, as well as during a sore throat.
After a few days of regular use of tea, a permanent effect will appear - sleep will become stronger, anxiety will pass, a person will be calmer to respond to external stimuli.
- Broths and infusions of leaves have a beneficial effect on the digestive tract, eliminate inflammation on the skin by calming the cells and destroying bacteria in wounds.
- A decoction of any parts of the plant will be useful in diseases of the lungs. For treatment, they not only drink the resulting tea, but also breathe steam rising from a saucepan with hot tea. You can also use a decoction for colds, sore throat, laryngitis and other diseases of the throat.
Use of unabi in cosmetology
For cosmetic purposes, the plant is used to heal hair and skin. Broths from the root and leaves of zizifusa, cooked at home, help to cure weakened locks, prone to loss. After a few rinsing decoction, they become stronger, fall out less, look more shiny and silky.
Also, the infusion of leaves is used to wipe the skin. It helps well against inflammation of the skin and excessive secretion of sebum.
Jujube in cooking
In cooking, use only the fruit of ziziphus.
- Most often they are eaten fresh.
- They can also be stored for a long time by canning, drying and drying.
- Dried jujube is a tasty and healthy snack, along with prunes and dried apricots.
- From canned unabi, you can make spicy snacks to the table or serve as an independent dish.
- Delicious, sweet and fragrant jam is the most common option for making Chinese dates.
- Zizifus fruits are used to make compotes.
Canned zizifus recipe
The original cooking method is zizifus stuffed with garlic in a marinade. Such a preparation can be used as an independent snack, as well as serve as an excellent addition to a hot meat dish.
- jujube fruits - 1.9 kg,
- apple cider vinegar - 180 ml,
- bay leaf - 10 g,
- black pepper peas - 5 g,
- garlic - 15 g,
- salt - 50 g,
- sugar - 15 g,
- water - 1.2 l,
- vegetable oil - 90 ml.
- Rinse the unripe green jujube fruits and allow to dry.
- Peel the garlic, disassemble and put it on the bottom of the sterile container with pepper and bay leaf. From above, lay the jujube fruits as tightly as possible, then cover them with bay leaf and a clove of garlic.
- Heat the water, not bringing it to a boil, so as not to damage the fruit during pouring. Add sugar, salt and vinegar, hold for a few minutes on the fire until the ingredients are completely dissolved.
- Fill the fruit with marinade, and then with vegetable oil, which will increase the shelf life of the workpiece. Close the container with a sterile cap and send in a cool place for long-term storage.
Jujube recipe for candied fruit
To preserve the fruits of jujube in the form of sweet candied fruit is a great way to replenish the vitamin reserve in the winter. It is known that sweet preparations prepared in this way retain useful and nutrients throughout the year, without changing their properties.
- jujube fruits - 950 g,
- sugar - 750 g,
- citric acid - 5 g,
- water - 650 ml.
- Wash the jujube fruits, dry and pierce in some places with a wooden skewer.
- Prepare syrup from water and sugar by boiling these ingredients for a few minutes.
- Put the fruit in the syrup and cook them for a quarter of an hour, stirring occasionally. Remove the blank from the stove and let it stand for a couple of hours, then repeat the procedure again, adding citric acid.
- Fold the cooked fruit on a sieve to remove excess syrup.
- Spread the prepared fruit on a flat and clean surface to dry completely at room temperature.
- Transfer the finished candied fruit of zizifus to a glass jar and store in a dry and cool place.
Dried jujube compote - recipe
Dried jujube fruits are most often used in recipes of vitamin compotes and tinctures. Jujube involves simple cooking, which does not require special culinary skills from lovers of healthy products. Consider a quick recipe for a drink of zizifus and honey.
- jujube fruits - 900 g,
- water - 2.9 l,
- honey - 50 ml.
- Fill the prepared fruits of zizifus with water and boil for half an hour until completely softened.
- Squeeze the finished fruit, and cook the liquid obtained from them to a thick consistency.
- Add honey to the finished drink and pour it into glass containers. When used, dilute with water.
Jujube Jam - Recipe
- jujube fruits - 800 g,
- sugar - 800 g,
- water - 400 ml
- citric acid - 10 g
- Wash the jujube fruits, dry and pin each berry with a fork.
- Add sugar and citric acid to boiling water, boil a little and pour sweet syrup over the prepared fruit.
- Hold the berries in the syrup for several hours, then cook for half an hour, stirring.
- Pour the prepared jam into sterile jars and close with sterile caps.
Zizifus: planting and cultivation of zizifus
In recent years, it has become very fashionable to have on your garden plot any exotic plant. Such "exotic" is particularly popular with both experienced and novice gardeners.
Moreover, preference is given to usually fruit-bearing crops, unpretentious care. One such plant is the jujube. It is also known by other names: Unabi, Chinese date, Jojoba, etc.
Its homeland is North China, where it has been grown for several centuries. Currently, this fruit-bearing plant can be found in many countries with a warm subtropical climate, where the summers are hot and the winters are mild. Zizifus is also growing in the Caucasus, Ukraine and southern regions of Russia.
Today we will talk about zizifus, which is popular among gardeners: planting and cultivating zizifus is how they are produced, a description of the plant, let us say, how its fruits are useful - we’ll find out, find out and discuss:
What does ziziphus look like? Plant description
This is a small tree or a tall bush. One and the other name will be true, since the height of an adult plant does not exceed 5 meters. He has a wide, spreading, very beautiful crown. Jujube does not lose its attractiveness at any time of the year and, like any fruit-bearing tree, is especially valued for its fruits.
Fruits of Chinese date - drupe with a thick, dense flesh that has a sweet or sour-sweet taste. In general, the taste, and in color too, they resemble apple drying.
Fruits are rich in valuable nutrients, especially potassium, magnesium and have healing properties. They are harvested still immature, as soon as the color of their skin ceases to be green. After which they are dried, or prepare compotes, mashed potatoes, cooked marmalade.
Fresh, dried fruit is used in the treatment of colds. They will help with diseases of the liver, kidneys, as well as the stomach, heart, etc. Fresh, they can be stored in the refrigerator for a month. Dried, dried - stored for at least a year. At the same time do not lose healing properties.
Planting and growing ziziphus
Planting of seedlings is carried out in early spring in order to exclude freezing of the roots in winter, which sometimes happens during autumn plantings. Before planting, prepare a pit, the dimensions of which should be about a meter per meter.
Add mineral fertilizers, manure, mix with the soil. Plant a seedling, cover it tightly with soil, tamp. After planting, young saplings water abundantly.
The plant is very demanding on the quality of the soil. It prefers to grow on moderately moist loam, which contribute moderately nutrients. If the soil is too dry, lean, the harvest will be low. Too fertile soil can provoke abundant growth of green mass, to the detriment of fruiting.
Do not forget that Ziziphus is a plant with cross-pollination. Therefore, you should not plant only one tree. To actively fructify, plant on the site several different varieties. Do not worry that young trees grow very slowly the entire first year after planting. This is one of the features of Chinese dates. Therefore, formative pruning crowns begin only one year after landing.
In addition to seedlings, you can plant plant seeds. However, in this case, the decorative and healing qualities of the plant will be significantly lower. Derived from the seeds of jujube usually prickly with small fruits.
But if you still decide to experiment, remember that the shell of the seeds is quite hard, from which the percentage of germination is not great. Before planting seeds, conduct scarification and stratification.
The fruits of young plants will begin to form at 4-5 year of the growing season. However, you can get a full harvest only in 10 years.
Zizifus cultivation - care:
As we already mentioned, the tree is unpretentious, does not require any special care. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into account some of its features, so that the fruiting is abundant, and the fruits are tasty and sweet.
Immediately, we note that Chinese date is a drought-resistant, heat-tolerant plant. He will not suffer from strong, even 40-degree heat, in the absence of watering or rain. But the first year, if the summer is too hot and dry, young trees are better to water occasionally.
Jujube can withstand not only intense heat, but frost up to 25 degrees. It easily restores the damaged crown. Spring April frosts are not terrible for him. At the same time, having once planted a Chinese date on the site, your children, grandchildren and even great-grandchildren will enjoy the fruits of your work. After all, a tree can live up to a hundred years.
Jujube almost does not get sick, it does not damage pests. Therefore, no preventive measures to carry out unnecessary.
To get a high percentage of fruiting in spring, place a transparent film around it, 3 m high, on 3-6 supports to create a microclimate.