Guided by the instructions outlined in this article, you can make an incubator with your own hands. It will have the same functionality as the store device, but will cost you much cheaper. In order to build an incubator with your own hands at home, you do not need to have special skills and knowledge, follow our advice and everything will work out.
Where to start, what tools will you need?
Before you begin assembly, decide on the basic material of which the product will consist. If you have an old refrigerator, you can take it as a basis. Also fit large pieces of foam, not less than 40 to 25 centimeters or a simple cardboard box. The determining factor in the choice of material is its insulating ability.
For heating, you will need to equip the device with a lamp or a heating device, take care of temperature control. In incubators, you can configure auto-rotate by adding additional mechanisms.
An automatic flipping of eggs in an incubator is needed to save time. It is usually installed on large devices designed for 200 or more eggs.
All you need to build:
- A refrigerator (if you intend to assemble an incubator from an old refrigerator), a box or foam.
- Standard incandescent bulbs ranging from 25 to 40 watts. The number of lamps depends on the size of the incubator, a small device for 100 eggs can be heated with four lamps.
- As an alternative to lamps, you can use electric heating elements.
- The tray for the incubator, made of metal mesh or analogues. The net should hold the eggs tightly. In the refrigerator trays from a tree can be installed.
- Thermometer, fan.
- Thermostat (if you are designing an automatic incubator). To do this, you can use bimetallic plates, electrical contactors or barometric sensors.
- The gearmotor (which is what the coup mechanism consists of). If necessary, bearings - 4 pieces, clamps for their couplers.
- Sealant for sealing gaps for insulation, screws, various fixing materials, metal corners.
- A hygrometer is used to track the level of humidity.
Attention! Lamps for heating should be installed at a distance of more than 25 centimeters from the eggs.
Decide on the size of the incubator, decide from what you will collect it. Then pick up all the necessary components from the list above, and you can proceed to assembly.
How to determine the size?
Incubator dimensions need to be planned in advance. This parameter depends on the volume of your production, the number of chickens. The deciding factor in this matter will be the number of eggs that you plan to lay in the device. Also the size of the incubator is influenced by the type of heating system, the location of the lamps and the material from which the device is made.
For more accurate work, you will need dimensional drawings that look something like this:
Figure 1. Sample drawing
Here is a drawing of an incubator of small size (45 eggs) 25 cm wide and 40 cm long.
Dimensions of the model for 100 eggs
Forming the dimensions of the incubator, keep in mind that the temperature of 2 cm from the egg should be in the range of 37.3–38.6 degrees Celsius. Usually make a medium-sized device, designed for 100 eggs. Cells do about 45 millimeters in diameter and 60-80 millimeters in depth. It is recommended to make a replaceable grid so that you can adjust the size for different types of eggs.
Assembling a home incubator with your own hands for 100 eggs, you get a device measuring 60 by 60 centimeters. The device weighs about 3 kilograms. It can be converted and used to accommodate duck, goose, turkey or quail eggs.
If you collect an incubator at home from an old refrigerator, it will take up more space and will hold more eggs than a foam or cardboard item.
Requirements for homemade incubators
Before you build an incubator, you need to know the technical conditions that it must provide.
- When incubating chicken eggs, the number of continuous days of its work is 21 days.
- The eggs in the incubator are laid out at a minimum distance of 10 mm from each other.
- The temperature in the incubator varies depending on the stage of development of the embryo in the egg.
- In the automatic mode, the eggs are turned once every hour.
- Optimum humidity and ventilation is maintained. Air velocity 5 m / s.
To facilitate the work and increase the reliability of the future design, it makes sense to purchase a complete set of automation in a homemade incubator. For example, such as in the figure below.
- The thermostat provides automatic visual control of temperature and humidity.
- Sensors that scan the state of temperature and humidity inside the incubator.
- Transformer 220/12 V.
- Universal tray with automatic rotation. It can be laid either quail or chicken eggs.
The price of this kit is 5 000 rubles. But you can be sure that the incubation process is going on correctly. Temperature and humidity correspond to the specified parameters, and the turning of the eggs occurs on time.
If you are only interested in the automatic rotation of the eggs, then you can purchase a simpler kit.
This photo shows the overall dimensions of the device. They will tell you how to place it in a future incubator.
This kit consists of the following:
- Reversible motor - 14 W, 2.5 rpm,
- Asterisks - 1 meter,
- Limit switches - 2 pieces,
- Mounting bracket
- Connecting wires
The kit is sold already assembled and customized. It must simply be connected to the control thermostat. Price - 3990 rubles.
Connecting this device in a homemade incubator looks like the one shown in the diagram.
But the motorized trays must be in some kind of case. And it matters to the incubator. Indeed, inside it is carried out thermoregulation air exchange for incubating eggs. Therefore, the insulating qualities of the material from which the incubator will be made are very important.
General rules of manufacture
There are rules that are the same for all devices of this kind:
- The material from which the incubator will be made must be dry and clean (without dirt, dyes, fats, mold).
- The size of the incubator is directly proportional to the number of eggs (it is calculated in advance).
- The internal size of the base of the product must be equal to the size of the tray with eggs (taking into account the gap).
- There should be a gap of 5 cm between the tray and the walls of the device for ventilation.
- There must be space for water. The fluid will help control the level of humidity.
- It is necessary to make holes in the design for the hood.
- When assembling a structure, it is impossible to leave a gap between the parts, otherwise it will be difficult to maintain the necessary microclimate inside. All connecting seams are best treated with sealant.
- To better control the process of incubation, it is necessary to equip the device with a viewing window and a thermometer.
We make an incubator from the refrigerator of the old sample
If you decide to build an incubator yourself, it is best to take as a basis an idle fridge. After all, this type of household appliances is designed to maintain a certain microclimate, which is extremely important for the incubation process. In addition, the incubator from the refrigerator will have a number of other advantages:
- The device will have a significant capacity, but at the same time will cost its owner a more modest amount than the purchase of a new incubator of a similar capacity.
- The costs of other components of the incubator will also be negligible.
- Transform the old refrigerator under the desired device is not difficult. The material from which it is made is very malleable.
- Having made a roomy incubator, you will greatly facilitate the process of breeding the young, thereby increasing the profitability of the case.
For the manufacture of the incubator you will need:
- refrigerator (freezer must be removed),
- 4 10 W bulbs
- 4 rounds
- egg trays (plastic),
- water tank
- a metal grid on which trays of eggs will stand,
- plywood in the size of the door,
- simple tools - pliers, screwdriver, etc.
Step-by-step process of creating an incubator:
- Place the refrigerator so that its back wall is the bottom.
- Remove all shelves and wash off grease and dirt thoroughly. Disinfect.
- In the door cut a hole under the thermostat. Insert the device into it and fix with scotch tape.
- On a sheet of plywood, fix the lamp holders with self-tapping screws, pre-supplying power to them. Screw the lamp into the cartridges.
- Fix the resulting structure on the inside of the refrigerator door.
- At the bottom of the future incubator, put the trays with water. You can use a plastic pallet.
- Above the humidification system, fix the metal grid. On it are installed trays with eggs.
Making a vertical incubator from the refrigerator
This type of construction is more convenient than the previous one. First, it turns out more roomy. Secondly, it is more convenient to control the process of incubation.
For the construction of the device you will need:
- old fridge
- sheet fiberboard,
- temperature measuring device
- egg trays,
- fan with motor
- tubular heating element
- putty knife,
- wire d = 6 mm (if you make trays under the eggs themselves),
- putty knife,
- welding machine.
Instructions for making:
- Remove all shelves, trays and thoroughly wash the refrigerator from grease and dirt. Disinfect.
- If irregularities and cracks appear in the refrigerator from time to time, level and seal them with fiberboard and glue (if necessary, use self-tapping screws for more reliable fixation).
- In the ceiling of the refrigerator, make holes for the installation of instruments that measure and control the temperature.
- Install the fan on the back wall so that its engine is outside. At the door, around the perimeter, make holes through which fresh air will flow.
- Place a heating element near the fan (tubular or incandescent lamp). Incandescent lamps - the simplest heating element The role of the heater can perform nichrome wire
- Install egg trays. Install rails for trays When self-manufacturing trays, use wooden boxes. It is possible to make trays for eggs from wooden slats and galvanized mesh. In them, stretch the wire, creating a mesh. The size of the cell must match the size of the egg.
- At the bottom of the incubator, install a pan or trays of water.
Incubator from the refrigerator with semi-automatic turning eggs
This type of construction will significantly save time spent on turning eggs in an incubator.
For the device you will need:
- old fridge
- metal rods d = 8–9 mm (for the axis),
- egg trays,
- metal racks (4–5 cm thick),
- metal plate with holes d = 6 mm (the number of holes must match the number of axes and trays),
- a heating element,
- water tank
- 500g load,
- metal screws,
- two breathing tubes d = 3 cm
- electric and hand tools.
Instructions for the manufacture of homemade incubator (the first two points are the same as when creating the previous unit):
- Draw a vertical axis of symmetry on each side wall.
- On it, using screws, attach the rack to the floor and to the ceiling. In the racks, make holes under the axis according to the number of trays.
- Insert a metal bar into each tray as a rotation axis. Around it will turn the tray.
- Secure the ends of the bars in the racks.
- At one end of the egg boxes, fasten the hole plate using screws or screws. It is necessary to leave a gap of 2 mm between the bar and the wall of the box.
- At the lower end of the strap is attached cargo.
- The top end of the plank is outside the refrigerator. A pin is inserted into one of its holes, which acts as a stopper and allows you to adjust the position of the bar.
- At 1/3 the height of the refrigerator, above and below, holes are drilled on the side wall for the tubes.
- At the bottom of the incubator, on its back wall, heating elements are mounted. The thermostat is connected to them.
- Install the fan in such a way that air flows from it through thermoelements.
- At the bottom of the refrigerator, place a bowl of water. You can drill a hole in the wall and insert a tube to add water without opening the incubator. Attach water topping tank
To rotate the boxes, it will be necessary to raise or lower the bar, fixing its position with a pin.
Incubator out of the fridge with automatic egg turning
With this device you will only install trays with eggs, monitor the water level and pick up hatched chicks. Everything else will do for you technology.
To create an aggregate you need:
- old refrigerator, preferably with a top location of the freezer (you can not remove),
- aluminum or wooden frame,
- glass or clear plastic,
- heat reflective material
- small motor
- profile pipes for racks,
- metal grates under the boxes with eggs,
- metal rods (for the axis),
- chain stars,
- engine timer,
- Limit switches,
- 4 incandescent lamps up to 100 W,
- 4 small fans
Incubator from the fridge: video
The process of creating the unit:
- Remove all shelves, trays and thoroughly wash the refrigerator from grease and dirt. Disinfect.
- In the partition between the refrigerator and freezer, cut the holes for the four fans.
- In the door of the refrigerator, cut out a window that is convenient for you. Sand it around the perimeter. The window is designed to monitor the incubation process.
- Insert the frame with glass or plastic into the hole. All gaps smear sealant.
- Warm the door with heat-reflecting material to keep the heat inside the device.
- From profile tubes, weld two ladders with a refrigerating chamber. Install them near the side walls of the unit.
- Attach the gratings to the “steps” of the stairs so that they can move relative to their horizontal axis.
- Mount the turning mechanism. To do this, on a sheet of metal secure the asterisks from the bike. They play the role of a drive. The leading star is mounted on the pin, driven - on the outer side of the sheet. The sheet is welded at the bottom of the construction with grilles for eggs.
- The power supply of the system is regulated by limit switches.
- The motor is forced to move two timers. The resumption of their work should take place at intervals of 6 hours.
- From the top of the refrigerator, set aside a third of its height and mount the thermostat.
- Lamps set inside the freezer. For their on-off relay answers.
- Install the fans into the prepared holes in the partition between the chambers, fixing them with metallized adhesive tape. Bring power to them.
Results for the manufacture
You are familiar with the manufacture of several types of incubators from an unnecessary refrigerator. Of course, from the first time to create the perfect device will not be so easy - you need some skills and knowledge, do not interfere with patience and perseverance. Also, you may have to make some design changes to suit your specific needs.
- Be prepared to customize the details for your product.
- Selecting the necessary material for the unit, monitor its condition.
- Do not use too leaky parts. This will lead to the fact that after a short period of time you will have to redo the device. A breakdown may occur at the most inopportune moment.
The described methods for the manufacture of incubators are simple and inexpensive. But to make the product durable, you should approach its creation with full responsibility. It is better to pre-think everything, calculate and make a drawing of the device. And then everything will work out for you.
Incubators do-it-yourself: video