Herbaceous perennial came to us from North America, where since ancient times was revered for healing qualities. Its height is from 50 to 120 cm.
From a short many-headed rhizome straight reddish stalks are started. The stem leaves of the egg-shaped form are slightly lowered, with points pointed at the edges. The bottom sheets are oblong and rigid, with small irregularities, assembled into a socket.
The large apical basket (13–15 cm in diameter) is distinguished by the central tubes of red-brown color and purple petals, reaching 4 cm in length. The flowering period begins in the second year and lasts 2-2.5 months (from July to the first weeks of autumn).
Grow it seedlings or sowing on an open area. The plant loves light, but it is resistant to frost. Especially well taken on wet soils.
Cultivated in a continental (Central European) climate in the southern and mountainous regions.
For normal development will require sunlight. At the stage of growing seedlings often put fluorescent lamps for additional lighting. Conventional, albeit powerful, light bulbs are not always suitable here.
Shoots and young (up to 1 year) plants in our conditions hardly tolerate shade, so the neighboring flowers should not cover Echinacea. Yes, and adult plants is better to allocate a separate place in the country.
Growing from seed
The most suitable time for sowing is considered the end of February. This simple procedure looks like this:
- First, the seeds are cooked: because of a rather hard shell, they are soaked in water. At the same time, the seeds are wrapped in a napkin and placed on a saucer, where they are moistened. There must get air.
- When they began to "hatch", they take the container (cups, tapes, boxes) and spread the seeds into the substrate to a depth of about 5-7 mm.
- On top of the hole lightly sprinkled with sand (a layer of 1 mm), followed by hydration with a spray bottle. It is not necessary to fill up with soil.
- It remains to cover the container with a film and put in a warm place.
Watering is reduced to spraying barely dried out soil, but not abundant. Sometimes the film is opened for a while, so that the earth breathes (if the pots are near the battery or other heat sources).
You can see the seedlings in 1-1.5 months. Their earlier appearance for our latitudes is rare.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
The method is good, especially if there is an adult bush (from 2 to 4-5 years).
- The bush is dug and cut into cuttings. Each of them must have adventitious roots and at least one kidney.
- They are then placed in a liquid immunostimulant for several hours. You can speed up the process by treating the fungicide.
- Planted in light ground, root collar does not deepen (they remain at ground level). For delenok, the depth should be slightly larger than the rhizome.
Growing medicinal plants in open ground
In addition to the seedling method with further transplantation, many gardeners grow a useful plant in a simpler way, sowing its seeds immediately to the ground. But the weather can adjust the plans, and then have to go back to the seedlings.
For adult plants, the depth of the fossa is made with a small margin for the root.
Weeding and soil care
Mandatory timely cleaning of weeds. Often Echinacea assign a place bordering the neighboring areas from which weeds can penetrate.
Healthy soil or loam often does not need frequent seasonal feeding. For sandy soils, supplements are practiced in the form of ground bedding or humus.
Do not forget about the periodic loosening, which will ensure the flow of air to the roots.
Echinacea need to organize annual feeding. For the best growth they are made twice - in the spring and after flowering. In the second year and then they pour ash with rotted compost for more lush flowering.
There is an important point: if the flower is needed to remove the healing material, then use only organic matter. Nitrogen, potash, phosphate fertilizers are not suitable for such purposes, like any other mineral chemistry. Poor soil will take and compost, and you do not harm health.
In late autumn, the stems are cut, and the root of the neck is easily mulched with compost. If the autumn was warm, then you will notice that the seeds ripen in the first inflorescences.
Harvesting and drying of therapeutic raw materials
Biennial plants are already suitable for therapeutic purposes.
Leaves, flowers and stems are collected during flowering. At this time, they accumulate the maximum amount of nutrients. They are advised to cut off in the morning when the dew is completely gone.
Store such material in dark, dry places (in the attic or under a shed). Flowers can be dried separately, spreading them on the litter in one layer.
At the end of the seasonal growing season, in the fall, gather roots. They are washed, remove diseased processes. For drying any dry place is suitable. You can even put in the oven, putting the temperature no higher than 60 ° C.
All these raw materials retain healing properties for two years. It is actively used for the manufacture of various tinctures, ointments, and even as an ingredient for firming tea.
Echinacea purpurea grown from seeds, after harvesting helps with:
- colds and flu,
- blood poisoning
- disorders of the urinary tract and liver functions,
- presence of heavy metals in the body,
- skin lesions and burns.
Before taking any folk remedies, think about possible contraindications. They have Echinacea:
- connective tissue disorders
- any autoimmune diseases.
We have seen that purple echinacea is not only pleasing to the eye, but can also be beneficial if we approach the treatment wisely. There are no difficulties in growing it, and minimum skills are needed - everyone will cope. I wish you success!
Echinacea - landing and care
The process of planting itself can be carried out either in autumn or in spring. Hybrid cultivars multiply mainly by dividing (vegetatively) - this method, as well as the generative (by seeds), will be discussed a little later. So, for planting seedlings, you will have to dig up small holes, 5-7 cm deep. The distance between them should be about 25-30 cm. If you plant delenki, see that the holes are a little wider and deeper than the root system of the plant. You can simply deepen the seedling into the soil and gently compress the earth around it, you can also pre-place the compost in the hole, and then the plant itself. After planting the bushes should be watered.
If the echinanacea flower was purchased in a store, in a container or in a pot, then the planting pit should be sufficiently deep and wide (approximately 40 cm). Experienced growers recommend mixing in equal parts compost, garden soil and river sand, this mixture should be filled up by about 1/3 of the hole. Next, the echinacea is carefully removed from the pot by transshipment, together with the earth lump is placed in an already prepared hole. It is recommended that the seedling be immersed in the soil to the depth at which it resided while being in a container.
Keep in mind that only in the second year of life will your echinacea bloom. Growing and caring for it should be in regular generous watering (preferably in the evening). Cleaning weeds, loosening the soil - self-evident garden care. As for fertilizer application, Echinacea can be excellent without them. However, if you want to feed your favorite flower, it is better to start this business from the second year of his life. Usually, echinacea flowers are fed with wood ash and rotted compost mixed in equal parts. It is better to do this in spring or autumn, after the plant has faded. You can also use various complex additives for flowering plants, for example, Agricola.
It is better to break off faded buds immediately, unless, of course, you intend to collect seeds from them. With the onset of autumn, approximately in the last days of October, the ground part of the plant should be cut off, covered with compost and dry foliage. Do not forget that Echinacea purpurea can freeze in the event that winter will be snowless. That is why mulching foliage or spruce branches is welcome. With regard to the collection of inoculum, then it is necessary to collect it only after full maturation of the flowers. Their darkened middle points are an indicator of maturity. Remove the seeds from the center of the bud, remove flower residues, transfer them to a glass container or a cloth bag. Remember that the seeds lose their germination very quickly, so you shouldn’t tighten the echinacea when sowing a new herd.
Echinacea, flower photo:
Speaking of plant care, you can not ignore the topic of pests and diseases. Echinacea has a fairly good immunity, but sometimes it happens. The cause of the disease may be improper care or even weather conditions. Heat and high humidity (frequent rains), as well as temperature changes can provoke the appearance of pepelitsy (powdery mildew). This disease can occur from oversaturation of the plant with nitrogen supplements. In this case, the good old Bordeaux liquid comes to the rescue. If your flower Echinacea was affected by a fungus, then remove all infected fragments as soon as possible.
At an early stage, the problem is easier to cope with, but in a neglected state, in order to save the plant, you will have to resort to treatment with fungicides (for example, Fundazol, Topaz). It is better to completely remove all infected plants from the site, and process the soil after them with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Echinacea flowers are not ignored and insect parasites. If you can collect individual representatives with your hands, such as slugs, then against the rest it is best to use proven tools - Actellic, Karbofos.
How to propagate echinacea?
As mentioned above, this plant multiplies seeds and division of the bush. The division is considered the most convenient and effective method that is best done in spring (April) or in autumn, when leaves fall from trees. The seed method is rather long-lasting, but it is optimally suited for flower growers living in cold regions. When seeding in the tank, you will have to transplant Echinacea to the open ground. Now let's take a closer look at these two ways.
Reproduction Echinacea division
To do this, choose a healthy bushes that have already turned at least 4 years. The plant must be carefully removed from the ground, making sure that the root system is not damaged. Next, divide the roots in such a way that on each delenka there are 3 or 4 buds of renewal. It is not necessary to disassemble the rhizome into many small fragments, it is enough to select 2-3 well-developed high-quality delenki. After that, the selected parts are recommended to be put into the Kornevin solution (for two hours), and then planted in the soil as described above. When planting, make sure that the root neck is above the ground level. The upper part of the Echinacea is better to cut, so that it directed all its forces to rooting.
Echinacea - growing from seed
To collect seed, too, try to select the most healthy and strong bushes. Seeds can be sown directly in the ground with the onset of spring (April), when there will be confidence that there will be no more frosts. After that, it is enough to sprinkle them lightly with soil and wait for seedlings that will not slow down even at +13 ºC. This method is best suited to those who live in the warm regions of our country. Do not regret the seeds when planting, in any case, then you can always thin out too thick shoots. In other cases, it is better to use the seedling method, pre-sow the seeds in containers.
When to plant echinacea seeds? The best time for this is February or the first days of March. An appropriate soil is poured into the containers, grooves are made into which the seeds are laid down to a depth of no more than 0.5 cm. Between the seeds there should be about 2 cm. From above you must carefully sprinkle them with the thinnest layer of river sand or the same soil into which they were planted. After that you should water your “flower garden” with water from a spray bottle (room temperature). Next, the container must be moved to a room where the temperature varies between +14 .. + 18ºC. At night, it is better to cover it with glass or food film, but in the morning you will have to remove the protection. In such conditions, it can take a month and a half before sprouting Echinacea purpurea. Growing by container method always takes a long time, and this is normal.
Do not forget to periodically moisturize the earth - your efforts will be justified. Having spiked, the seedlings begin to grow rather quickly, as if it compensates for the long weeks of calm in the stage of planting seeds. Keep it away from direct sunlight, but keep it in the light.
When can I replace Echinacea? The sturdy seedlings are planted in open ground after May 10-15 and are surrounded by standard care. Be prepared for the fact that in the first year they will not please you with flowers, but only grow foliage and reach 20 cm in height. But next year you will be able to admire the bright fragrant buds and collect a supply of medicinal raw materials from his own grown bushes.
Echinacea - varieties, photos
Today, there are many beautiful hybrids of Echinacea purpurea. All of them are highly decorative, are honey plants and beautifully compete with each other. Echinacea differ in color, shape of buds, height of stems, but at the same time they are all similar to each other. It is rather difficult to single out some special varieties, and it is even more difficult to describe all the available ones. Below I will present photos of those varieties with which I happened to meet.
Variety Supreme Cantaloupe:
Variety Hot Papaya:
Sort Secret Passion:
Sort of Cranberry Cupcake:
Echinacea Strange photo:
All varieties of this flower deserve attention, they adequately emphasize the features of your landscape design, and if necessary - hide its flaws. From mid-summer to the end of September, you will be given the beauty and aroma of an attractive and not capricious Echinacea. Planting and care in the open field, photos of flowers, the nuances of cultivation are now known to you. Do not waste time, stock up with seeds or delenki.
And let you succeed!Sort Little Red Riding Hood
The content of the article
Little about the plant
Echinacea is from South America. It is known there since time immemorial. The Indians, the indigenous inhabitants of those places, gave her a romantic name - "Evening sun". Pretty accurate name. Especially with regard to the most common form in our country - "Echinacea purpurea". Sometimes there is another name for it - “Rudbeckia purple". It is believed that he himself called it Karl Linnaeus, who described it and placed it in the genus Rudbecky. But over time, this decision was revised, and Echinacea was allocated to a completely separate genus of the Astrovye family. Unlike the Indian name, the translation of the name of this plant from Greek into our native language is less romantic. Echinacea (Echinacea) - prickly. This is a rather tall flower, often reaching a height of 1.5 meters. It blooms profusely and for a long time with beautiful large flowers, leaving behind a considerable amount of seeds in the seed. This fruit is bristling with seeds - the thorns that gave the name to the flower. In addition to Echinacea purpurea, other varieties have been developed that are different in color: pink-orange (Muskalon melon variety), yellow (Cleopatra variety), dark red (Sonnelah variety), orange (Julia variety), golden (Passion Flute).
Growing Echinacea Seed
As mentioned, after flowering, Echinacea leaves a large number of seeds. Here they should be used for reproduction. This can be done by sowing them directly in open ground or growing seedlings.
In the open ground, echinacea seeds are sown in spring, when the earth is warm enough. The most acceptable temperature for their germination lies within + 12-13 degrees. Seeds simply sprinkle over the surface of the earth and cover with a thin layer of earth. You can pre-screen the seeds. To do this, they must be placed in a glass of warm water for a couple of days. Those seeds that sink to the bottom will be suitable for sowing.
But this method, although easy, has a disadvantage. When the spring weather is capricious, the tender sprouts of Echinacea are easily damaged and do not survive. Much safer to grow seedlings.
Growing Echinacea seedlings
Sowing seeds is carried out in late February - March. Selected seeds are sown in containers with light soil to a depth of no more than 0.5 cm. After sowing, the soil is moistened with an atomizer, covered with a transparent material to create the conditions of the greenhouse and placed in a warm place for germination. Wait for the emergence of echinacea shoots will take a long time. Порой ожидание длится 40 – 45 дней. На протяжении этого времени проверяйте влажность почвы и проветривайте емкость.After the emergence of shoots, caring for echinacea seedlings is the same as for seedlings of other flowers and vegetables. When the seedlings are strong enough and the weather is warm, the seedlings can be planted in open ground.
Planting echinacea in open ground
Plants grown from seed are planted in the spring, and divided bushes can be planted in both spring and autumn.
For planting, choose a well-lit area with fertile soil. Echinacea does not like sour earth. If necessary, spend its deoxidation. Ideal to make dolomite flour in the ground, but you can make the usual liming. Also avoid planting in sandy ground and in places with stagnant water that is too wet.
For the planting of Echinacea seedlings, make small holes with a depth of 5 centimeters. But basically this depth will depend on the size of your seedlings, its root system. The distance between the seedlings in a group planting maintain 30 centimeters. Approximately the same scheme is maintained for planting part of the bush Echinacea. Only make a landing hole slightly larger than the size of the plant root system. It is advisable to pour a small amount of compost or humus soil on the bottom of the pits. In this case, the size of the landing fossa for Echinacea, do with such an additive.
Echinacea loves frequent and abundant watering. If summer is not rainy, then it is desirable to water daily. Do not water the plant in daytime heat. The most favorable time for this is after sunset.
Fertilize Echinacea can only begin in the second year of life, when it comes the period of flowering. Fertilizers are applied twice. The first time - before flowering, in the spring and the second time - at the end of the flowering period. You can also use ready-made mineral fertilizers, but the most preferred are top dressing with a mixture of ash (ash) and well-rotted manure.
Crop and seed collection
After the plant has faded all wilted flowers must be removed along with a small section of the stem. But if you plan to collect the seeds, they should be given some time to ripen. Determine the maturity of the seeds of echinacea can shade seed baskets. Ripe seeds usually have a dark, almost black tint.
In most regions, this flower tolerates winter without much difficulty. But if your winters are cold, you should take care of the shelter of echinacea for the winter. This is especially critical for plants of the first year of life. Mature plants are cut before frosts, root collar is dusted with compost or sawdust, and the soil around roots is mulched with sawdust, fallen leaves, peat, etc.
Medicinal properties of Echinacea
What is especially valuable this plant - antiviral and antiseptic properties. The elements contained in Echinacea counteract the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and infections. It is used in the treatment and prevention of influenza, tonsillitis, colds and diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Used as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic drug. Echinacea successfully fights various fungal diseases, heals wounds and ulcers, strengthens the overall immunity. And this is not all the useful properties of echinacea.
What is great - for the preparation of medicinal tinctures, decoctions, etc., suitable almost all parts of the plant.
This simple tool well eliminates pain in the joints, swelling, improves eyesight, is used in the treatment of stomach ulcers. After taking such a decoction improves mood.
Based on one cup of boiling water, a teaspoon of crushed echinacea leaves is taken. And you can use both fresh and dried leaves. Leaves filled with boiling water should be held for half an hour in a water bath. After straining and cooling the broth is ready for use.
The normal course of his admission lasts 10 days. It consists of taking 30 milliliters of broth three times a day after meals. If you need to take several such courses, then a week break between them is obligatory.
It is recommended in the presence of excess weight, signs of the onset of obesity. It is used in the treatment of gynecological diseases, herpes. But the main and most common purpose is to strengthen the overall immunity of the body.
To prepare the infusion should be in a sealed, well-sealed container. Based on half a liter, take a tablespoon of echinacea (dried or fresh parts). A thermos bottle is best for making an echinacea infusion. If the infusion is prepared from the evening, then in the morning it will be ready.
Take the infusion for 10 days (if there are no individual recommendations), three times a day before meals (25-30 minutes), 100 milliliters at a time. After completing one course there should be a break of at least 5 days. After three courses in a row, a break of at least a month.