Selection of eggs for incubation
Each egg intended for incubation, before laying, is evaluated by external signs. For incubation, eggs are selected in the correct oval shape, with a smooth, uniform shell without growths. When inspecting eggs, their size, shape, integrity, condition of the shell and weight are taken into account. Eggs of rare poultry and when growing young for meat, before laying, are subjected to less severe rejection. More stringent requirements are imposed on eggs of young animals going for breeding purposes. Since poultry has a high level of heritability of both productivity and hatchability, for reproduction, it is necessary to select eggs from highly productive layers with high hatchability.
A lot of eggs
The best hatchability in eggs of average weight. Therefore, to obtain uniform mass of young stock, before laying it is necessary to calibrate eggs of 2–3 caliber with a difference of 3–5 g. The first egg in ducks appears at the age of 140 - 160 days, in geese and turkeys - 180 - 200 days, in guinea fowls - 150 days.
The shape of the egg is determined by the ratio of its longitudinal and transverse diameters. In its ideal form, this ratio is 1: 0.74. The best hatchability belongs to eggs with just such a ratio. Therefore, for incubation, eggs should be selected with a typical oblong shape, especially since this trait is inherited.
The quality of the shell is determined by the presence of pores and their size. The shell of the hatching eggs should be flat, smooth, clean, without damage. Calcareous growths, roughness, refinement and marbling are not allowed.
After the eggs have been evaluated by external signs, they are scanned with an ovoscope. When scanning on the ovoskop pay attention to the location of the yolk and its mobility. In full eggs, the yolk occupies a central position, with a fuzzy visibility of its borders, immersed in protein from all sides. On the vertical axis of the egg, the yolk is somewhat closer to the blunt end. If, when the egg is swaying in front of the light beam of the ovoscope, the yolk slowly moves to the side and returns slowly to its original place, the hauls supporting the yolk on weight are intact. In case of breakage of one of them (or both), the yolk after turning the egg back does not return or is in a calm state located at one of the ends of the egg. Such eggs are not suitable for incubation. Not used for incubation and eggs, the yolk of which is located close to the shell or in contact with it. It is not suitable for incubating eggs that have a gap in the yolk membrane, and the contents of the yolk mixed with the protein part. They do not represent the incubation value of eggs that have blood inclusions in them - the result of rupture of the blood capillaries of the oviduct during the period of egg formation.
Selection of eggs for incubation
For incubation, eggs from healthy poultry farms are used. Hatching eggs should have a regular shape, a smooth uniform shell, weighing from 50 to 73 g. Small and large, round, elongated, conical, ellipsoid eggs are not used for incubation. The shell of the hatching eggs should be clean, without growths and thickenings, without incisions and cracks. Unsuitable for incubation and two yolk eggs, which can be determined by size and shape.
Hatching eggs are collected every one and a half to two hours, packed in egg boxes with lumpy pads and sent to the egg farm with a temperature of 8–12 ° C for short-term storage. The total shelf life of eggs should not exceed six days before they are laid. . Contaminated eggs can not be washed, because washing increases their ability to infect: due to the difference in temperature of water and egg content, the latter is reduced in volume and absorbs pathogens and fungi together with water. For small contaminated areas, the shell can be cleaned with a knife and in no case wipe with a flannel.
After the delivery of the hatching eggs to the incubation workshop, they are subjected to an additional internal inspection with an ovoscope. Transmission set the size and location of the air chamber. It should be at the blunt end of the egg, and its diameter should not exceed the size of a two-kopeck coin, and the height cannot be more than 2 mm. When the egg rotates around its axis, the air chamber must remain in place in front of the beam of the ovoscope.
Translucent eggs on the ovoskop should pay attention to the location of the yolk. It should be in the middle of the egg, not adjacent to either side. When the egg rotates around its longitudinal axis, the yolk, deviating in the direction of rotation, at the end of the rotation should return to its previous position. Otherwise, there will be a break in the gradients that keep the yolk of the egg in a central position, preventing it from sticking to the membrane back during the incubation period. When radiating eggs on the ovoskop pay attention to the structure of the shell. It should be uniform, without "marbling".
Hatching Egg Storage
The development of the embryo of the bird occurs even during the stay of the egg in the oviduct, however, it stops after the demolition and relative cooling of the egg. Such a break is natural and harmless: it can also be observed in wild birds. If the interval between the carrying and the start of incubation is long, and the external conditions are unfavorable, then the egg ages, irreversible qualitative changes occur in it, hatchability decreases. How does the shelf life on hatchability.
The storage of eggs intended for incubation requires certain conditions.
During the day of storage, the egg on average loses 0.2% of its weight, its specific weight decreases, protein layering is lost, it gets a more liquid consistency, lysozyme contained in the protein disintegrates, which makes it lose its bactericidal properties. Deep changes occur in the yolk and blastodisc: the structure of germ cells changes, fats decompose, nitrogenous compounds and vitamins break down.
Without prejudice to their quality, hatching eggs can be stored for 5-6 days under appropriate conditions.
When old eggs are incubated, not only their hatchability falls, but the quality of the hatchlings is greatly reduced.
The aging of eggs accelerates at unfavorable humidity and air temperature: the lower the humidity, the more the egg evaporates moisture. Thus, at a humidity of 80%, chicken eggs lose only 0.7% of their weight in 10 days of storage, and at 60% - 2.4%. At the same humidity and temperature of 0.1 ° C over a decade, eggs lose 0.3% of their weight, at + 8 ° C - 1.2%, at 20 ° C - 2.1%.
When the temperature is below zero, the egg freezes, sometimes cracks, and the embryo dies. At temperatures above 20 ° C, the development of the embryo does not stop, but it goes wrong, and after a while it dies.
It has been established that the best temperature for egg storage is + 8 ... 12С, and relative humidity 75-80%. Such conditions are created in the egg warehouse - in a special room for storing eggs.
It is very important that the room where the eggs are stored is well ventilated. We can not allow drafts, high air speeds, as this eggs evaporate moisture faster.
The air in the egg store should be clean, without foreign smells. Poor ventilation contributes to the development of mold. It is forbidden to store incubation waste or any other materials together with hatching eggs.
Not indifferent, in what position are stored eggs. For chicken eggs, the best is a vertical, blunt end up.
Selected eggs for incubation are placed in incubation trays. Placed in several tiers in mobile carts and delivered to the egg warehouse. When storing breeding eggs, when it is important to gather eggs from one layer, special racks with pull-out trays are made at the egg warehouse, where there are round holes for laying eggs. You can store eggs in standard gaskets egg packaging. In this case, it is better if they are plastic, because the cardboard is hygroscopic, it becomes damp, and mold can develop on it.
At the egg store there must be a thermometer and a psychrometer to monitor temperature and humidity.
As already mentioned, hatching eggs should be stored no more than 5-6 days. However, in some cases, production requires longer shelf life. For example, to grow broilers, large batches of day-old young stock are needed. If only 5-day eggs are allowed for incubation, a significant part of the parent flock's eggs will fall into the category of food, the livestock should be increased, and it is economically unprofitable. It is necessary to keep breeding eggs for a long time, when it is important to get a large number of even-aged young from the hen.
Laying eggs in an incubator
• The egg in the incubator is laid heated.
• Incubation of chicken eggs begins in the evening, and duck eggs in the morning.
• At the same time lay eggs of the same size.
It is impossible to lay a cold egg in the incubator, as this increases the total warm-up time and may even lead to precipitation of moisture on the shell. Eggs in advance to the room with a temperature of 25 ° C for 8-10 hours. But in no case warmer than 27 "C - at this temperature, the embryo develops abnormally. The start of the incubation should be fast, the first warm-up time should be no more than 4 hours.
For the same reason, to moisten the water in the pan poured heated to 40-42 degrees.
The most convenient time to lay chicken eggs and start incubating in the evening about 18 hours. With this start, the first chicks will hatch early in the morning, and the main brood will pass during the day. An additional advantage is that you will spend the evening scanning the eggs on an ovoskop in 6 and 17 days, which means you don’t have to specifically darken the room. From the same calculation duck eggs should be laid in the morning.
In order for the withdrawal to occur more amicably, before laying the eggs in the incubator, you can sort them by size. There is a direct link between the mass of eggs and the duration of embryo development: chickens hatch from small eggs earlier, and later hatch from large eggs. First, lay large eggs, after 4 hours - medium, and after 4 hours - small ones.
In nature, all eggs during hatching are in a horizontal position, that is, they lie on their side. In this position, the embryo floats upwards and approaches the source of heat. For incubation in domestic incubators, this is the best egg position. However, it is possible to lay chicken, turkey, and small duck eggs upright in incubators with an automatic flip down and with a blunt end up. Goose and large duck eggs are laid only sideways.
The mode of incubation of chicken eggs Kura. Bird
After assembly, a long break in work or overhaul, the incubator should be tested at idle (without loading eggs) for three days of continuous operation. During this time, all assembly defects should be identified and eliminated, and the equipment, mechanisms, and instruments of the incubator should be adjusted and adjusted.
A few hours before laying, trays of chicken eggs from an egg store are transferred to the room where the incubator is located. This is done so that the eggs get a little warmer (the temperature in the egg store is 6-12 ° C, and in the room where the incubator is located - 18-20 ° C). If the eggs do not warm up, but lay directly from the egg store into the incubator, the temperature in the incubator will drop sharply. When laying cold eggs, water vapor is concentrated on the shell surface. In addition, it will take much more time to bring the temperature and humidity to normal.
Chicken eggs are placed in hatch trays with a blunt end up. The best time to lay eggs in the incubators is from 16 to 22 hours. With this tab on the 22nd day, the conclusion is completely over. After removing the chicks during the day, the incubator and equipment can be thoroughly cleaned of the shell and fluff, washed and disinfected.
In the first 3.5 days, the air temperature in the incubator is maintained at 38.3 ° C, the relative humidity of the air is 60%, from the 4th day to the 10th - 37.8-37.6 ° C, the relative humidity is 55-50% , and from the 11th day before the transfer to the conclusion - 37.0-37.2 ° С, humidity - 45-49%.
Chicken eggs turn 12 or 24 times a day (after 1-2 hours).
Eggs on hatch are transferred after 19.5 days (on the 20th day in the morning).
On the output trays they are laid horizontally. To avoid the death of chickens, it is impossible to repack the eggs on the hatcher.
The temperature of the air at the conclusion of the chickens should be 37.0-37.5 ° C, and the humidity of 65 - 70% (or 32 - 33 ° C on a humidified thermometer). If it is impossible to keep the humidity high during the withdrawal, it is recommended to put 2 water trays in the cabinet.
During the incubation of chicken eggs it is necessary to ensure a regular flow of fresh air. At the beginning of the incubation air exchange is minimal. As the embryo develops, it is gradually increased. The intensive exchange of air is especially needed in the last days of incubating chicken eggs, when the beak of the embryo penetrates into the pug and the embryo goes to pulmonary respiration. Failure to do so may result in a large number of asphyxia.
To avoid embryo overheating, it is necessary to periodically (after 2-3 hours) control the surface temperature of chicken eggs. In the normal incubation mode, it will be in the range of 37.5-38 ° C until the 11th day, after the 11th day - 38.5-39 ° C. When measuring the temperature, the mercury bulb of the thermometer should touch the shell below the nougat of a chicken egg with a developing embryo. If the temperature of the surface of chicken eggs exceeds the above level, it is necessary to reduce the temperature of the air in the incubator and apply cooling. Eggs are cooled to 32 - 34 ° C for 15-30 minutes. Slow cooling with warm air has no effect. The temperature recovery in the incubator after cooling should occur in 30 - 50 minutes (the faster, the better).
In the summertime, when the air temperature exceeds 30 ° C, there is a danger of overheating of eggs from the second half of incubation. In such cases, the eggs are cooled twice a day - in the morning and in the evening (without removing them from the incubator) by blowing air. During cooling, the trays are set to a horizontal position. The duration of cooling is from 10 to 40 minutes, depending on the air temperature of the room and the age of the embryo. At the end of cooling, the temperature of the surface of chicken eggs decreases to 31-32 ° C.
How to pick up eggs for incubation?
Competent selection of eggs - the main component of the chicken business. For example, from substandard specimens, chicks will not be able to hatch, so always fresh versions should be used. If they lay without proper storage for more than 10 days, the ability to get healthy chicks is significantly reduced.
Keep them at room temperature: keep in the refrigerator is contraindicated.
You should put them pointed end up and periodically during the day to turn from side to side. Such manipulations will help prevent the yolk from sticking to the edges of the shell.
Are all eggs suitable for incubation?
The selection of candidates for future chickens is carried out according to the shape and weight. Exemplary individuals are those that a healthy domestic chicken has just laid. If at the time of inspection, too elongated specimens or a perfect round shape were found, if the shell is rough or contains cracks, they are not suitable for incubation. Two yolks, bleeding, other defects that are visible to the naked eye, all these flaws make the egg unsuitable for incubation.
Step 1. The first thing that should be done by the poultry farmer is to inspect the eggs, because the productivity of incubation depends on it. 100% reducibility can be obtained if several factors coincide:
- perfect shape,
- smooth shell,
- no thickening.
Step 2. If during the initial inspection no obvious damage was found, an egg should be examined with the aid of an ovoscope, an apparatus for determining its freshness. It allows you to see the location of the air chamber and the yolk.
Inspection of eggs with the help of ovoskop
Criteria for the selection of eggs
What goes around comes around. Tight control at the selection stage is a necessary condition for obtaining 100% of the result. Eggs must be checked at the same time according to the specifications listed below.
- Form and weight. Oblong, too long or too heavy samples will not work. The reference weight is in the range of 55-75 grams. Unfortunately, with an increase in egg weight, the probability of finding 2 yolks in it increases. Such deviations make it unsuitable for incubation.
Two yolk eggs are not suitable for incubation.
- Shell. Smooth and smooth - this is what the perfect specimen shell should be like. There should not be dents, concavities or, conversely, protruding formations. Cracks are also unacceptable defects. Если она покрыто пятнышками зеленого, серого или розового цветов, это говорит о том, что начался процесс разложения. Даже если яйцо идеальной формы, но грязное, его нельзя использовать, поскольку любая чистка запрещена: как влажная, так и сухая. Это связано с тем, что любые манипуляции с ним приводят к повреждению защитного слоя.
- Желток. Он обязательно должен быть гомогенным. Only homogeneous is suitable, without the presence of any stains or foreign particles. Must be located in the center and in no case be adjacent to the shell. It is easy to check the correct location of the yolk: if the egg is rotated slightly and the yolk deviates slightly, following the direction of movement, and then returns to its original position, then the sample was selected correctly.
- Air chamber. During rotation, on the contrary, it must maintain its position and remain in place in the rounded side of the egg. The dimensions of the correct chamber are 15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.
Elements of hatching eggs
Only when all the listed criteria coincide is it necessary to select samples for subsequent incubation.
Only timely collected specimens can be used for incubation. Too cold or overheated specimens for artificial dilution cannot be used. Eggs taken at the proper time will lead to an increase in the productivity of the hen: the more eggs in the nest, the less she lays them, focusing mainly on sowing and vice versa. It is best to select even heated, uncooled specimens, therefore, they must be collected at least 2 times a day. In extreme heat and cold weather - every 3 hours. Samples taken for artificial removal, placed in boxes with convenient pads made of rubber or foam, protecting from the appearance of cracks and other damage.
Proper egg storage
A well-ventilated room with a temperature of 10-12ºС should be used as storage. In stock it is necessary to prevent sudden temperature jumps. They can lead to the formation of condensate on the shell, which will promote the reproduction of harmful germs and bacteria.
Eggs that have been subject to prolonged transportation should be allowed to rest. 10 hours after they were at rest, they must be laid out in trays in a horizontal position. During the day at least 2 times they need to turn.
Before laying in the incubator, bring them to room temperature. If this is not possible, they can be placed under a quartz mercury lamp for half an hour at a distance of at least 50 cm from the source of exposure.
Sample Homemade Incubator
Egg storage technology before incubation
In order to achieve a better hatchability percentage, it is not advisable to just stir an egg into the incubator.
Higher scores give specimens aged under suitable conditions for 1 week.
Preliminary storage is connected with the fact that it is more rational to place a large number of eggs in the apparatus. In this case, after the ripening period has expired, many chicks will hatch at the same time. Accordingly, you should wait until the required amount has accumulated and load them into the incubator in one batch.
The content of the incubation egg has several specific features associated with the biological component of the process of maturation of chicks. Developed 5 basic rules that will help in the breeding of healthy young.
5 rules for breeding healthy young
The diagram below shows a graph illustrating the interdependence of shelf life and percent of hatchability.
Interdependence of storage periods and hatchability rates
Based on its content, it is clear that under all conditions, it is possible to achieve better performance. This technology helps to significantly reduce losses during storage of eggs.
The room in which the eggs will be stored must be equipped with special instruments for measuring humidity and temperature, and it is desirable that there are several such devices in order to obtain more reliable information.
Good ventilation of the place where future chickens will be stored is very important. The shell is so thin and delicate that it absorbs any odors. However, you should avoid drafts: the speed of air movement directly affects the evaporation of moisture, so necessary for eggs.
Eggs in a homemade incubator
Maintaining the required level of humidity is a very important task: when the level is low, the eggs start to dry out, if it is extremely high, the condensate that appears as a result starts to destroy them. In rooms with dry air, it is recommended to place tanks with warm water around the perimeter.
A bucket of water to keep the room humidity
Of all the necessary components - the temperature is on the 1st place.
This is due to the fact that a decay process is constantly taking place inside the egg, which increases with increasing temperature: the fats break up in the yolk, and the protein becomes too liquid. Often, such transformations lead to a change in the structure of tissues at the cellular level.
Guaranteed shelf life
If the required temperature is observed: 10–15 ° С and humidity of 60–70%, eggs of various species of birds have a guaranteed shelf life.
The duration of storage is affected by the following circumstances:
- air temperature and humidity
- the frequency of sanitary methods,
- the geographical location of the room in which the eggs will be stored,
- genetic specificity of the hen,
- bird age
As mentioned earlier, the number of days of egg storage is entirely due to the ambient temperature.
Proper observance of all conditions for storage of hatching eggs and their competent selection, taking into account all the necessary criteria, will help the poultry farmer to achieve 100% hatchability and get strong, healthy offspring. And do not forget: no machine can replace the warmth and care coming from human hands.
Laying eggs in an incubator
Despite the fact that in all “textbooks” on domestic poultry farming, it is recommended to take only fresh, freshly laid eggs, yet it is not worth laying them into the incubator immediately after the demolition. When eggs are incubated with a high index of protein, characteristic of young layers immediately after the demolition, there is an increased waste due to early embryonic death, popularly referred to as false infertility.
Laying eggs in the incubator immediately after the demolition - an error
The best time to fill the device for artificial hatching of chicks: 18.00. This period is thought out taking into account the fact that the time of hatching future chicks will be at dawn. In the morning it is much easier to control this process than at night.
Large eggs should be laid in the first place, followed by medium-sized specimens, and the smallest are placed last. This sequence is thought to all chicks hatched at the same time.
The temperature of the hatching eggs is also important: it is necessary to warm them to room temperature before laying, in no case should they be put cold.
To achieve the desired temperature, it is enough to leave them in a warm room for 8 hours.
An example of a modern incubator with automatic thermoregulation
When an egg is placed in an incubator, it is necessary to continue to control the temperature, since it is the main factor that allows you to get healthy offspring. In no case should not overheat or cool the eggs, even if short-lived. Automatic modern incubators help to facilitate the process of "temperature inspection" by taking over this function. They will help maintain an acceptable microclimate and will ensure that the babies are strong and active.
Secrets of the poultry farmers
In each case there are invaluable nuances, knowing that you can achieve brilliant results. Experienced poultry farmers by trial and error came to certain conclusions and willingly share with novice farmers.
Practice shows that if the eggs were not immediately selected, then the time of maturation will be as follows:
- one week - 486 hours
- two weeks - 492 hours.
These data suggest that the fresher the egg, the faster the chick will hatch. Zoologists have noticed that in natural conditions the hen protects its clutch for quite a long time: from the moment the first egg was laid down to the final one, after which it proceeds directly to the incubation of chickens. The wise poultry houses saw through this strategy and tried to transfer it to the method of artificial breeding. Fortunately, this method turned out to be efficient and effective: if we offer the eggs storage conditions similar to those in which they are in their natural environment, the hatchability percentage will increase significantly. They will not age and will perfectly preserve their vitality.
Preservation of natural temperature conditions during incubation - the key to success
The essence of this technique is as follows: samples taken for incubation should be heated daily for 2 hours at a temperature of 38 ° C. If such procedures are carried out regularly, this will increase the shelf life to 20 days, and without any loss in quality. This is especially useful for goose eggs, because the geese do not give a large number of eggs and have to wait for the right amount for a long time before filling the incubator.
A similar result can be achieved if they are heated at the same temperature for 5 hours. This promotion is a one-time, but very effective. This manipulation is also borrowed from nature: a hen after it blows a new egg, necessarily warms up the previously demolished ones. Such maternal care allows you to save the positive characteristics of the future chick.
Like this article? Save to not lose!
How many days and how can I store?
Chicken eggs are stored no more than 5 days. But quite often the necessary quantity cannot be collected, and it is unprofitable to send a small batch to the incubator economically. But storing them longer than the allotted time is also wrong, since hatchability decreases sharply.
Fertilized chicken eggs quickly lose their value. There is a decrease in fluid in the protein and yolk. This loss cannot be restored. Eggs lose their original beneficial properties. This leads to a deterioration in the development of the embryo. Therefore, the storage time is important.
The time between the demolition and the laying in the incubator should be short. So more chances for breeding a full-fledged chicken.
What samples are suitable for incubation?
To achieve a positive result requires precise control in the selection process. Eggs must meet certain criteria.
- Mass and shape. Heavy samples are not suitable. The ideal weight is approximately 50-75 grams. With an excessive mass, the probability of the development of two yolks is high. With such a deviation samples are not suitable.
- Shell. The shell should be perfectly smooth, no cracks and dents. The presence of colored specks on the shell indicates the appearance of decomposition. It is forbidden to use dirty eggs, and cleaning is undesirable. This is due to the risk of damage to the protection layer.
- Yolk. It should be free of any particles and stains. Must be in the center of the egg.
- Air chamber. Even at the moment of rotation, it must remain in the widest part, not adhering to the walls. Its diameter should not exceed 15 mm, and the thickness of about 2 mm.
Only the coincidence of these criteria allows the use of samples for incubation.
Collection and preparation of the tab at home
- Collected eggs are taken for incubation.. Overheated or very cold samples are not used. Eggs that are taken at the right time will increase the productivity of the hen. If there are a lot of eggs in the nest, then it will be less than their laying. Thus, it will focus on hatching.
- It is advisable to select even warm, and uncooled copies.. That is, they gather at least twice a day. In case of heat or severe frost - after 3 hours. Selected samples are laid out in trays with foam pads. They protect against cracks and other damage.
- If there was a long transportation, the eggs need to rest.. And only after 10 hours of rest, they are laid out in trays (horizontally). It should be noted that the eggs turn over twice a day.
- Before placing in the incubator, the eggs are brought to 22 degrees.. To achieve this, they can be placed under a quartz lamp. The source of exposure should be within half a meter of eggs, and the duration of exposure should be about an hour.
How to create the necessary environment?
- In a room that is intended for storage, there must be good ventilation, and the temperature should not exceed 12 degrees. Temperature spikes must be avoided, otherwise condensate forms on the shell. It leads to the spread of harmful microorganisms.
- It is necessary to eliminate the sharp odors in the warehouse, as the eggs absorb them well, despite the shell.
- Draft is also undesirable. The rapid movement of air accelerates the evaporation of moisture.
Only eggs from healthy chicken are laid in the incubator so that there is not even a hint of an infectious disease.
- Of great importance is the appearance of the egg. Round or long are not suitable for bookmarks, as such forms speak of genetic abnormalities. Sick chicks hatch from them. Samples with a rough shell or with cracks are laid aside. The standard is a clean egg, which has a shell with a uniform texture and color.
- Then, an examination with an ovoscope is performed.. It resembles a hammer with a light bulb. This device is determined by the location of the air cylinder, which provides the oxygen supply to the embryo. This chamber is located in the blunt part of the egg, and the diameter should be no more than 1.5 cm. If the size is larger, then the egg was demolished a long time ago, which will adversely affect hatchability.
The yolk must be in the center, and also have washed outlines. Its small mobility is allowed. If the center is offset or two yolks, then the eggs are rejected. After a week in the incubator, the eggs are checked again with an ovoscope.. During this time, the fetus should have a circulatory system and a heartbeat. If it is missing, the egg is removed from the incubator.
When infected with mold, it will show up with repeated scanning. By the way, on the 11th day a third check is also carried out. By this point, everything should be formed.
Proper compliance with the conditions of selection and storage of hatching eggs allows for 100% hatchability. The offspring will be necessarily healthy. But we should not forget that the most perfect machine will not replace human care.
In early development, the shell is thin and permeable to odors and bacteria. Therefore, in the room for the storage of eggs before incubation, high-quality ventilation, air humidity and its cleanliness are necessary.
- To maintain performance in the normal, you need to take care of the lack of drafts.
- To maintain the room in the desired state will help temperature and humidity sensors. Proper placement of devices gives more accurate results.
- At the end of storage, before being placed in the incubator, the air temperature is raised to room level.
- If there are difficulties with heating the room, the eggs are placed under a mercury-quartz lamp and left for 30 minutes. The heat source is placed at a distance of 50 cm.
With compliance with all rules for the selection and storage of eggs for incubation, it is possible to achieve high rates of survival of the young. This is important when breeding chickens of rare breeds.
Proper selection of eggs for laying in the incubator does not guarantee 100% hatchability. But this is one of the important stages of breeding poultry.
Compliance with the selection rules will minimize the risks of stopping the development of chickens inside the eggs.
The task is performed in two stages:
How and when to take eggs from the nest
Before examining chicken eggs, it is important to determine their suitability for laying in the incubator.
To obtain healthy offspring you need to meet several conditions:
- Take the product obtained naturally from the hen, which was fed with natural food without additives that stimulate egg production.
- Light provocation adversely affects the state of the embryo: a forced increase in the duration of the daylight hours. When breeding purebred chickens, it is important that natural conditions be created for the hens.
- Before the start of the planned selection of eggs, chickens are given B vitamins, which, while in the protein and yolk, increase the hatchability rate.
- Eggs are taken from their nests at least twice a day. This is especially important to observe in the summer, which will eliminate the loss of incubation qualities of products.
- It is optimal to collect the eggs from the layer immediately after laying, while it is warm.
Not all eggs that a farmer picks up from the nest are suitable for laying in the incubator.
It is important to pay attention to the following parameters:
- The correctness of the geometric shape (cone-shaped, oblate, elongated, small, excessively large) are subject to rejection,
- The purity of the shell, its homogeneous structure,
- The absence of cracks, growths, thickenings on the shell,
- The optimal weight of 50-70 g.
If the product is suitable for all parameters, but has a dirty shell, it is not recommended to wash it. This procedure will greatly increase the risk of infection of the embryo. It is permissible to clean small, easily removable dirt with a knife. Но после этой процедуры нельзя протирать тканью.
Если в процессе длительного хранения на скорлупе обнаружены зеленоватые, голубоватые или сероватые пятна и прожилины, это сообщает о начавшемся процессе разложения эмбриона.
Важно обращать внимание на вес яйца. The harder it is, the higher the likelihood that it has two yolks. Such eggs are subject to culling.
Ovoscopy is an essential process for selecting eggs for incubation. For this purpose, use the device ovoskop.
This is a technically simple construction that can be made independently of available tools and materials. The essence of the process of ovoskopirovaniya consists in scanning the shell with a directional beam of light flux. This simple procedure requires not only specialized knowledge, but also skills.
When carrying out the first inspection of an ovoskop, it is necessary to get acquainted with rules. In this case, determining the presence of the embryo and the stages of its development will be unmistakable.
The first ovoscopy is carried out before laying in the incubator, 5-7 days after egg laying by a layer. To understand whether there is an embryo, you can already on the 4th day. Starting from the 5th, the diagnosis will be more accurate.
Signs of fertilization:
- In the upper (blunt) part there is a slight darkening,
- From the seal stretch thin "threads" (blood vessels) to the opposite part of the egg,
- The size of the air chamber is about 15 mm.
The embryo density at this stage of the test is small, the size is small, so a dark speck can either appear or disappear. In order to ensure the correctness of ovoscopy, the egg is slowly turned around its axis.
- The second procedure is carried out in 6-7 days. At this stage, it is determined whether the embryo develops. If all indicators remained at the same level as at the first ovoscopy, the embryo froze.
In eggs with developing embryos, the network of blood vessels becomes more pronounced. The contents of the seal becomes reddish.
- With repeated ovoscopy, the main indicator of the correct development of the embryo is a clearly expressed network of vessels. In chick embryos, by the 11th day it extends to almost the entire inner region of the egg.
With a small house, many eggs will fail at once. They will have to be stored for some time before laying on incubation. And the hatchability of chickens is better from eggs that have lain from five to seven days, and were not taken immediately from under the chicken.
Requirements for the container and the room where the eggs will be stored
Eggs intended for incubation are laid out in cassette boxes with plastic partitions. Plastic is preferable, as it does not dampen and does not moldy, unlike paper and cardboard. And for eggs, odors are destructive
The porous structure of the shell makes it easy to soak them inside the eggs and infect the embryo with diseases. Therefore, it is desirable that the storage room is equipped with ventilation.
As for the temperature, it should be stable. We can not allow its sudden drops. Since the precipitated condensate facilitates the penetration of any nastiness (bacteria, germs) inside the egg.
The optimal temperature in the warehouse is from 8 to 12 degrees. At a lower temperature, the embryo may die, and at a higher temperature, the embryo will begin to develop rapidly and also die.
Watch for humidity in the room. Its limits are not lower than 75 and not higher than 80 percent.
To measure humidity and control temperature, hang up a psychrometer and a thermometer in the store.
There should be no drafts and winds in the storage warehouse that contribute to the drying of eggs. The egg is a living organism, so it must breathe. Some, in order to provide easier access of air, make a hole in the bottom of the egg at the bottom.
Hatching eggs are stored so that the blunt end looks up. In this case, the air chamber will be on top.
When storing eggs, it is necessary to turn over from time to time. This is done to ensure that the yolk does not stick to the walls. Some poultry farmers store eggs in a free incubator, which has a coup regime.
How long can you keep your hatching eggs?
During the day, egg weight decreases on average by 0.2% by weight. During the storage period, profound changes occur in the protein and yolk. Therefore, the shelf life of eggs is not more than 7 days.
If old eggs are laid on incubation, then not only the percentage of hatchability drastically decreases, but also the quality of the young.
Time increasing methods
Sometimes it is not possible to quickly collect enough eggs for incubation. Then apply methods that slow down their aging and extend shelf life. The following methods exist:
- Periodic heating. In natural conditions, the bird does just that. She, having demolished the new, heats in the nest and the old. If the eggs have to be stored for more than a week, then on the third day they are laid in an incubator, the temperature is set at 37 degrees and the relative humidity is 75%. There they are within 5 hours. Then returns to the storage location. Warming up is necessary once every 5 days. Then the storage time will increase significantly and will be approximately two weeks.
- Daily heating. In this case, the eggs in an incubator set up in the same way are only two hours. In this way, the incubation life of the egg is extended to nearly three weeks.
- Special chambers that change the gas environment (air composition). The essence of the method is that the amount of oxygen in the air surrounding the egg decreases. And, accordingly, the processes of natural oxidation, and, hence, the aging of protein and yolk, are slowed down. But this method is expensive and in small farms it is not profitable to use it.
Thus, to organize the proper storage of eggs is necessary:
- to store high-quality material, ensuring its purity. To do this in the hen house and nests constantly maintain cleanliness,
- hands when working with an egg must be clean
- do not wash eggs
- store at a temperature of 8 to 12 degrees and a humidity of at least 70,
- The optimal time for incubation is one week. Next, apply methods that extend the shelf life.