The plant is sage meadow or, as it is also called, field - a perennial shrub 30-70 cm tall. You can recognize it by purple-blue curly inflorescences and characteristic aroma. Sage has an intense aroma and a pleasant bitter-spicy taste. Meadow sage blooms usually in the first half of summer (from May to mid-July). The best time to gather it is the period before flowering, with flourishing the taste is lost. Today, sage meadow is used in many areas related to the treatment of various diseases.
Sage Meadow: Composition of Medicinal Plant
The most powerful and active components of sage are, as a rule, in its essential oil. Sage meadow leaves contain 1-2.8% of essential oil. From 0.5 to 1.0% of the oil is obtained from leaves and branches when they are fresh, and about three times more when sage is dry. Sage essential oil has a pungent odor and has a yellow or greenish yellow color. A total of 28 components were found in the well-known medicinal form of sage; the main elements are 1,8-cyneol, borneol, alpha and beta-thuion.
In addition, the essential oil includes the following chemical elements: flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, diterpenes. Sage leaves contain saponins, niacin, nicotinamide, estrogenic substances, tannic, fumaric, caffeic, and phenolic acids, as well as organic acids (chlorogenic, ursolic, oleanolic, and others). Sage also has a high concentration of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins C, B, vitamins P and PP. The grass also contains bitterness, phytoncides, aromatic gums, formic acid. Sage roots contain coumarin. The seeds contain 25-30% fatty oil.
Useful properties of field sageIn medicine, sage meadow is used less frequently than sage, but it is still known for some healing properties. In ancient times, sage was an important medicinal plant (in historical sources it is referred to as "noble herb"). In combination with thyme, rosemary and lavender, sage played a big role in the fight against the plague. Sage juice with vinegar used against the plague at all times. Other diseases for which this medicinal herb was used were skin ulcers, itching, problems with urination, drowsiness, pneumonia, colds and cramps. Many recommendations on the use of sage, already described in the Middle Ages, of course, are still relevant. The abundance of useful components contained in sage, makes it able to deal with various ailments from which modern man suffers.
Sage meadow is used today as a medicinal plant for the following diseases:
- cold, flu, viral infections,
- whooping cough,
- mild depression
- hyperhidrosis (pathological sweating),
- slight upset stomach.
In the treatment of excessive sweating, sage is especially popular. Regular use of tea with sage suppresses and regulates the body's sweating, especially reduces night sweats in women during menopause. Probably, this is promoted by monoterpenes and some tannins contained in sage leaves. Tea or infusion of field sage is a valuable remedy for nervous excitement, anxiety and depression, calms the nervous system, reduces anxiety, relieves headache. In such cases, sage is used in small, but often repeated doses.Sage extracts are still being investigated for their potential in improving memory and in fighting Alzheimer's disease. Sage has been found to be effective in treating mild and moderate forms of Alzheimer's disease. Sage meadow is used as a traditional medicine against diabetes in many countries: its essential oil reduces blood glucose. In addition, sage is used to reduce excessive lactation in nursing mothers and as an adjunct to female infertility. Phytoncides present in sage oil have a detrimental effect even on the tubercle bacillus, therefore this herb is so useful for any problems with the respiratory system. The plant also helps with mumps.
How sage is used in traditional medicine
Sage meadow has the same beneficial properties as medicinal, but inferior to him in the power of therapeutic effects. Field sage is widely used in traditional medicine (as herbal tea, infusion or decoction). Sage is often drunk as a substitute for traditional tea. In accordance with medical recommendations should be consumed no more than three cups of sage per day. Fresh herbs can be found in almost any pharmacy, supermarket or market. Quality varies in wide ranges. The best are plants that have large leaves and already slightly woody stem. These features suggest that sage was not treated with chemical fertilizers.
Recipes for the use of sage for viral infections and coldsDue to the numerous valuable substances contained in the essential oil of this aromatic herb, sage has healing antibacterial properties. The herb helps with colds, sore throat, flu, sore throat and measles. Sage has antiviral, antipyretic, diuretic effect. To this end, it is used in the form of a decoction or tincture of the leaves, as well as add sage essential oil to drinks. In regions where wild sage grows, the leaves are boiled in vinegar and used as a tonic.
Recipe for angina,with gingivitis, with ulcers in the corners of the mouth(tincture of sage leaves for gargling). Just pour a few fresh leaves of grass with a glass of hot water and let it brew for a couple of minutes. Before you start gargling, remove all leaves from the decoction. Leaves can be taken not only fresh, but also dried (crushed). In this case, they must infuse in boiling water (wrapped) for at least 2 hours, then the infusion must be filtered.
Recipe for hoarseness and cough. Drug essential oil of sage is added to warm water, then rinse the throat.
Recipe with sage for internal inflammation of the body (various viral infections). Pour the fresh sage leaves with boiling water or hot milk. The broth is allowed to infuse, drink hot before bedtime.
How to apply meadow sage to treat the organs of the gastrointestinal tractTannins and bitterness in meadow sage help to improve digestion. Sage is taken to treat various stomach disorders, with peptic ulcer, in the treatment of flatulence (painful bloating). The plant has antispasmodic activity and acts as a carminative (used against spasms of the gastrointestinal tract), provides protection against diarrhea. Sage is considered a useful medicine for typhoid fever, has a therapeutic effect on colitis, gastritis, cholecystitis, diseases of the gallbladder and kidneys. The herb also supports the liver and is used to increase its functionality.
Recipe with sage for inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract: 2 teaspoons of crushed leaves brew in two cups of boiling water, insist 30 minutes, strain, drink 1 tablespoon every 2 hours.
The use of meadow sage for the treatment of skin diseases
Infusion of meadow sage is an excellent lotion for complex treatment of various skin diseases:
- purulent wounds.
Due to the healing (anti-inflammatory and antibacterial) properties of sage, this herb helps in healing wounds and regeneration of the skin, relieves skin inflammation and itching. Sage is also used for insect bites and various skin infections. The plant is added to natural cosmetics. Sage is used to care for the skin of the face, it is useful for oily and acne prone skin. It cleanses our skin, fights bacteria and acne, relieves inflammation, helps regulate excessive sebum.
Recipe tonic for oily skin (from leaves and flowers of sage). Prepare the infusion from one spoonful of dry grass and 1/2 cup of boiled water. After cooling, strain the infusion, add 1: 1 natural apple cider vinegar and wipe your face twice a day.
The cosmetic area where sage is still used is hair care. As with facial skin care, sage is used in oily hair shampoos. Gargling with sage will quickly eliminate the problem of oily scalp and oily hair.
How to use sage meadow dentists
It is known the use of meadow sage in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, as well as various dental problems. For this purpose, special preparations are made from leaves or sage extracts. As noted above, field sage has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and soothing properties. For this reason, many toothpastes contain sage as one of the ingredients. In the USA, this herb is still valued and used in official medicine.Recipe with sage for rinsing the mouth. Fill the fresh leaves with hot boiled water. Allow the infusion to cool slightly, then proceed with rinsing. Regular rinsing with sage helps in the treatment of lesions of the oral cavity. Rinsing is also good for bleeding gums and for preventing excessive saliva flow.
Infusion for rinsing, made from a mixture of sage, rosemary, plantain, and cooked in wine or water with honey, can save you from almost any inflammation of the oral cavity. Fresh sage leaves often rub their teeth, clearing them and strengthening the gums. Thus, this magic herb with its bactericidal action will be a natural remedy in the treatment of infections and diseases affecting the mouth and teeth.
Sage meadow: Contraindications
Sage, in addition to useful properties, there are some contraindications. Care should be given to pregnant women and women during lactation. Sage contains estrogen-like compounds that can adversely affect pregnancy and can block the flow of milk from nursing mothers. It is also not recommended to use sage in large quantities to children. As far as is known, with moderate use of sage, there have been no reports of negative adverse reactions.
Thus, the consideration of sage meadow, as well as a description of the beneficial properties of this herb, explains the popularity of sage as a natural remedy. Although the question of the effectiveness of field sage is open to discussion, there is some experimental evidence of its influence as an antibiotic, as well as antifungal, antispasmodic and tonic. This herb is recommended in one form or another from virtually any ailment and is used as a general tonic. Both doctors and cooks note the healing effect that sage has on our bodies.
The genus Sage belongs to the family Luminous, or Spongy. Its other name, Salvia, is derived from the Latin word salvus, which means unharmed, in good health. In ancient times, the medicinal plant was considered a female herb. It was used to heal infertility and support women in childbirth. In the Middle Ages, they were massively cultivated in the territories of monasteries. It was used to treat many ailments — from colds to severe poisonings — they were added to the food as a seasoning.
The genus Sage has 900 species. Its representatives grow in the wild in most parts of both hemispheres of the Earth. The exception is Australia. The largest species diversity is found on the American continents. But for therapeutic purposes, only a few species of the numerous genus are used.
The homeland of the plant is the territory of Southern Europe (Greece, Spain, Italy). It is often found there in the wild on a high plateau. For many centuries in the traditional cuisine of Mediterranean peoples, its shaggy gray-green foliage has been used. It has a fragrant aroma and a tart spicy taste. Thanks to the vigorous activity of the merchants, the healing plant spread from the Mediterranean all over the world. Unlike traditional healers, official medicine uses only this type of sage.The genus Salvia belongs to the family Luminous, or Sponge
This herb prefers well-lit areas with light, fertile soil of normal acidity. It endures cold and often dies during frosty and snowless winters. Drought is not dangerous. The plant practically does not suffer with a long absence of moisture.
Sage is a good honey plant. In addition to the sweet aromatic nectar, it produces glue, which is also collected by bees. Honey from this grass has a dark golden hue and a gentle, pleasant smell. It has pronounced healing properties.
Grown culturally on special plantations in the southern regions of Russia and the Caucasus. Meadow sage is found in central Russia in the wild. Its characteristic resembles the description of the medicinal species. However, the meadow subspecies does not have pronounced healing properties as its relative.
Gallery: Salvia officinalis (25 photos)
Botanical description of the species
Salvia is a small shrub. It can grow up to 20-75 cm in height. In perennial straight leafy stems. In the root zone they are round and woody. The tops of the stems are grassy. They have a tetrahedral surface and gray-green color. In winter, the grassy part of the plant dies. It has a branched woody root. In the lower part there is a magnificent lobe of thin roots.
Perennial leaves are blunt or pointed. They have the shape of an elongated ellipse. Their length varies within 8 cm, and the width is 0.8-4 cm. The white-felt wrinkled surface of the green mass gives it a silvery shade. Upper leaves sessile, and lower and middle - on the cuttings. The size of the bracts leaves several times smaller than normal.
Buds are collected in simple or branched spike inflorescences with 6-7 spaced 10-flowered false whorls. Inflorescences are formed on the tops of the stems. The length of the calyx does not exceed 1 cm. It is divided into 2 lips to almost half of its height. The bluish-purple corolla is about 2 times longer than the calyx. From it stands a column. The stigma of flowers has 2 unequal blades. Buds bloom from late May to July in the second year of the growing season. Belongs to cross-pollinated plants.
From August to September perennial fruits ripen. They are rounded dark brown nuts. Their diameter does not exceed 3 mm. Dry fruits have 4 shares. Seeds are able to remain viable for 3 years.
For medicinal purposes, use inflorescences and leaves. The first collection of raw materials carried out in the year of sowing, not earlier than September. The following year, you can collect foliage and tops several times. They are harvested during budding, as well as throughout the entire period of flowering and seed ripening (until the end of October). From the dwarf shrub inflorescences and leaves, located above 10 cm from the ground. When young leaves appear on the bare stems, they are broken again. In one season, it is possible to collect raw materials 3 times. Sometimes the grass is harvested by mowing.
To get a higher yield with good quality, perennial rejuvenate in early spring. Before the start of sap flow, last year's stems are cut at ground level. Powerful, densely leafy vegetative shoots will grow from dormant buds.
It is necessary to dry the raw materials in well ventilated areas or on the street under a canopy. Direct rays of the sun should not fall on it. Leaves and tops with inflorescences are laid out in a thin layer (3-5 cm) on flat surfaces covered with a cloth or paper. You can harvest grass using a dryer. The recommended drying temperature is +40 ... + 60 ° С. Higher rates will cause a loss of essential oil.It is necessary to dry raw materials in well ventilated areas or outdoors under a canopy.
The raw material of the first summer collection gives 25% of the dry mass. Autumn harvest yields up to 35% dry weight. Seeds can be harvested when they begin to darken in the lower cups.
Properly harvested raw materials retain the natural smell and shade. Dried grass breaks when bent. If parts of the plant are yellowed, darkened, stuck together or crumbled, they are dried incorrectly. Заготовленные листья и верхушки пересыпают в полотняные мешки и хранят их в хорошо проветриваемом сухом помещении. Применение сырья возможно на протяжении 1,5 лет.
Что содержит шалфей лекарственный
В нем имеется эфирное масло. Самая высокая его концентрация в листве (до 2,5%). The essential oil contains: cineol (up to 15%), D-alpha-pinene, D-camphor, D-borneol, salven, linalool, zedren, alpha and beta-thujon. Alkaloids, phytohormones, bitterness, flavonoids, aromatic gums, resins, paradiphenol, tannins, vitamins P, B1, B9, C and PP, minerals (calcium, magnesium), phytoncides, as well as organic acids (oleanolic , salt-containing, chlorogenic).
Seeds contain protein (20%) and fatty oil (25-30%). It is represented mainly by glycerimidinol acid. Coumarin is found in the juice of salvia roots.
The highest concentration of essential oil is found in the raw materials collected during seed ripening (August-September). Tannins accumulate in the fall (October, November).
The essential oil contained in the plant has an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. It has antifungal activity and stimulates the glands of the digestive tract. Volatile volatile production kills bacteria, fungi and protozoa, quickly suppressing the growth of their colonies. Even tubercle bacillus is not resistant to phytoncides of this herb. According to its effectiveness, salvia essential oil is equal to Vishnevsky ointment.
Uralic acid has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antimicrobial action. Anti-inflammatory properties are also due to the presence of tannins, flavonoid compounds and vitamin P in its composition. These substances increase the density of epithelial tissues, in addition, reduce the permeability of cell membranes, walls of lymphatic and blood vessels.
Tannins have astringent, analgesic and vasoconstrictor effects. They help reduce the production of mucus in the body.
The bitterness contained in the perennial allows you to digest food. They stimulate the appetite, stimulate the activity of the digestive glands and act fortifying.
Chlorogenic acid is a powerful antioxidant with antimutagenic, antimicrobial and antiviral activity.
Aromatic resins give a pleasant aroma. They have wound healing and antimicrobial properties.
Folic acid (vitamin B9) supports blood formation and prevents the development of atherosclerosis.
Salvin has a special value. This substance gives the herb antiseptic properties and acts as a powerful natural antibiotic. It is able to inhibit the reproduction of Staphylococcus aureus, which is resistant to many antibacterial drugs. Sage not only inhibits the growth of colonies of microorganisms, but also neutralizes their toxin (alpha-toxin). It does not allow bacteria to have a hemolytic (destroy red blood cells) and dermatonecrotic (cause the death of skin cells) action.
Limits the use of perennial contained in thyon. This substance has a hallucinogenic effect. With long-term use of plant-based products, addiction develops (absenteeism syndrome).
It is widely used in folk and official medicine. It is used as an external agent for treating the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. Perennial is a component of many cough fees. It has proven to be effective in the treatment of such serious diseases as pneumonia and tuberculosis.
Due to its antibacterial and diuretic properties, the herb has been successfully used in the treatment of urinary tract ailments. The high content of phytohormones causes the use of plants in the treatment of female pathologies. Funds based on it are assigned to reduce the manifestations of menopause and treatment of infertility. Hemostatic properties are used to reduce blood loss during prolonged and heavy periods. The presence of phytohormones allows the use of sage with rejuvenating purpose. Women over 35 are advised to take the perennial decoctions three times a year to slow the aging process.
In diseases of the digestive system, drugs with sage help to get rid of abdominal distention, intestinal colic and constipation. They improve the motility of all parts of the intestine, increase appetite and have a choleretic effect.
As an external agent, it is prescribed for fungal skin lesions. It helps to achieve tightening of difficult healing and festering wounds. Salvia is successfully used for psoriasis, eczema and hemorrhoids. It is used to treat skin areas with burns and frostbite, in addition, to treat boils. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of herbs are widely used in dentistry. It is effective in stomatitis, gingivitis and periodontitis.
Salvia has strong antioxidant and immunostimulating properties. As a result of its use, memory and reaction are improved. Allows you to increase attention and performance.
Sage extracts are part of many acne treatments. They are used to reduce sweating and oily skin. With the help of Salvia you can get rid of dark circles under the eyes.
Salvia officinalis helps to alleviate the condition of the patient with radiculitis, polyarthritis and neuritis. It is used in the initial stages of diabetes and for the relief of asthmatic attacks.
Methods of using harvested raw materials
Application depends on the disease. Inside use infusion. To cook it, 1 tbsp. l crushed raw material is poured into dishes and poured into it 1 cup of boiling water. The liquid is infused for 1 hour and then filtered through cheesecloth. It is recommended to drink the infusion three times a day in 100 ml 20 minutes before meals.
In the treatment of hemorrhoids are used enemas with concentrated infusion of salvia. 3 tbsp. l dry crushed raw materials pour 100 ml of boiling water and infuse the liquid for 1 hour, wrapping the container with a blanket. Ready infusion diluted with 1 liter of warm water.
In the treatment of diseases using decoctions of perennial concentrations of different. For oral medication is prepared from 1 tbsp. l dry raw materials and 1 cup boiling water. The plant is ground in a mortar, poured into the pan and add water to it. Put the container on the fire, bring to a boil and boil the grass for 10 minutes. Broth insist half an hour, then use for ½-⅓ cup three times a day before meals. You can cook a decoction in a water bath. The liquid must be braced for 15 minutes.
For the treatment of wounds and rinses use a more concentrated tool. 3 tbsp. l crushed leaves of the plant is poured a glass of boiling water. The product is boiled on low heat for 10 minutes, or stewed in a water bath for 15 minutes.
In cases of kidney disease, salvia infusion helps with wine. 80 g of fresh leaves are placed in a vessel made of dark glass and poured into it 1 liter of grape wine. It is necessary to insist the medication for 10-14 days in a room protected from direct sunlight. Sage wine drink 20-30 ml immediately after each meal.
For the treatment of diseases the doctor may prescribe alcohol tincture. 3 tbsp. l crushed leaves of salvia poured into a vessel and poured into it with 500 ml of vodka or diluted alcohol. The latter must be cleaned. The medicine is infused for 1 month in direct sunlight. The drug should be drunk on an empty stomach and 1 tbsp. l 2-3 times a day with water. Tincture helps with atherosclerosis and diseases of the nervous system.
When the pathologies of the respiratory system are effective inhalation. 3-4 Art. l dry leaves are poured into a saucepan, poured 500 ml of water into it, bring the liquid to a boil and remove it from the heat. After that, you need to lean over the tank with the decoction and cover your head with a blanket. Hot vapors inhale for 5-10 minutes.
When sage herb is used, medicinal properties and contraindications must be considered. You can not take funds on the basis of perennial for more than 3 months. In addition to addiction, the plant can cause poisoning and irritation of the mucous membranes. It is not recommended to repeat the courses of treatment more often 3 times a year.
It is prohibited to use perennial based products while carrying a child. The plant is able to increase the tone of the uterus. In early pregnancy, treatment with salvia can lead to its interruption. In the second and third trimesters, it can cause detachment of the placenta and fetal death. Biologically active substances contained in medicinal sage reduce the level of progesterone necessary for safe childbearing.
Since salvia reduces milk production, it cannot be used by lactating women. Preparations based on plant extracts are prescribed when it is necessary to reduce lactation during weaning of the baby from the breast.
It is forbidden to use infusions and decoctions of sage in conditions accompanied by increased levels of estrogen (endometriosis, breast tumors, endometrial hyperplasia), in addition, after surgery to remove malignant tumors of the mammary glands or uterus.
Since drugs based on salvia can increase blood pressure, they cannot be taken by people suffering from hypertension. Do not get involved in such treatment and hypotensive. Salvia can cause a deterioration in their well-being.
Perennial can not be used with reduced thyroid function, acute inflammation of the kidneys, as well as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis and nephritis.
Do not prescribe salvia with a strong, strained, dry cough. The plant can lead to increased cough reflex.
Contraindications to the use of epilepsy and age up to 2 years. If there are sleep disorders, the grass can aggravate the condition.