What is the cow's personal pregnancy calendar, and why is it needed at all? Knowing the date of mating, you can calculate the time of appearance of the calf. But not everything is so simple. For the calving, the cow must also be prepared, otherwise problems during childbirth or in the postpartum period cannot be avoided. In addition, without training, you should not count on large yields. That's just about the proper preparation for calving, we will continue to talk.
How does the fetus develop
The cow's personal pregnancy calendar is based on the stages of fetal development. Therefore, before talking about the diet and the intricacies of running cows, you need to have an idea of how calves develop inside the mother's womb. The stages of fetal development are usually broken down by months.
In the first month as such, the calf yet. The embryo is just beginning to form the eyes and, in part, the mouth is visible. It is still clearly visible gills, instead of the skin vascular mesh. The embryo weighs up to 1 gram.
The second month is devoted to the laying of organs of vital activity. In the same period, the placenta is formed. The embryo is actively growing and with a size of up to 8 cm should dial 20-30 g.
From 3 to 5 months, the testes are already formed and the cotyledons are clearly visible. By the 4th month horns are formed. By the 5th month, the size of cotiledons reaches 4 cm. During this period, the fetus can already be called a calf. It grows up to 45 cm and gains weight up to 4 kg.
At 6 months, there are signs of hair on the legs, and for 7 and 8 months, the calf is completely covered with short and smooth hair. Also, from the 7th month to the birth, the internal organs and incisors are actively formed.
On average, a pregnancy or a cow’s pregnancy lasts 285 days.
The diet of pregnant cows
Starting from insemination, and the entire period of cow's pregnancy, the diet is selected with an eye on the stages of the formation of the fetus. The first 6 months the animal needs to be given everything. So the daily ration of the cows weighing up to 500 kg is not less than 10-14 kg of hay from herbs. The amount of succulent fodder reaches 20 kg.
In the winter period are given in assortment: silage, fodder potatoes, beets, carrots. In summer, green grass on pastures makes up the lion's share of succulent fodder. Concentrates are given separately, but not more than 2 kg. Plus, there should always be table salt near the feeders, and chalk should be added to the feed.
Cattle can not be milked continuously, in the last 3 months before the birth the body of a pregnant cow needs to be given rest. And about 70 days before calving, the animal is transferred to dead wood and is stopped to milk at all. This is called launch. By the date of birth, the weight of the cow should be about 50 kg more than usual.
Complications at the hotel
Such a process weakens the cow. Sometimes the animal is unable to stand up and begins to crawl. Problems may arise due to lack of vitamins, damage to the sciatic nerves and inflammation.
In order to avoid complications before birth, the condition of pregnant animals is monitored.
- Farmers must conduct fortification.
- At the stage of deadwood in the female's body, it is necessary to create reserves of useful substances. At this time, the energy metabolism of pregnant KRS increases.
Feeding affects the development of the udder and the future baby.
Cows fully provide some of the important vitamins (A, D, E) and minerals. Malnutrition leads to lethargy and exhaustion, affects productivity and reduces immunity.
In particular, cattle from calcium deficiency begins paresis. The illness can develop before calving, and signs are visible after. Especially disease prone heifers.
Symptoms of birthing paresis:
- no appetite,
- tired look, slowness or too much activity,
- lowering the temperature
- shaky steps.
After childbirth, the disease can take two forms: light and severe.
In the first, the neck is strained, and the head leans towards the back of the body. The cow will rise to its feet.
In the second - loss of language, diffuse vision, drying of the cornea. The animal begins to have problems with the digestive tract, there is paralysis of the limbs.
A calving complication is considered if the afterbirth does not come out within about 24 hours. The remaining shell will lead to diseases of the uterus. Also, some animals eat the afterbirth, which is fraught with problems with the stomach. An experienced owner always monitors the situation.
Signs of detention afterbirth:
- part of the shell hangs down, becomes dirty and decomposes,
- a stench appears, inflammation begins in the uterus, blood infection occurs,
- the temperature rises, no appetite, the amount of milk decreases,
- disheveled wool, cow humped.
Also, females can fall uterus. The main features are:
- The animal feels like colic and begins to worry.
- Of the genital organs, there is a mass of a circular shape, sometimes crawling out together with the bladder or rectum.
The uterus can be set to both specialists and experienced farmers, but it’s better not to do it yourself.
Consequences of prolapse: metritis, sepsis with peri-and parametritis, purulent endometritis. Thanks to the assistance provided on time, the diseases remain on the sidelines and the cow will not become barren.
Walking, good care, compliance with the norms of content, vitamins, minerals - such preventive measures must be taken by every farmer. Then the cow will give birth without any problems, and she will respond with good performance.
Recovery after childbirth
After calving begins cattle stripping. Food is selected in accordance with the weight of the female and the amount of milk received from her. In the diet of an animal weighing 400 kg and a milk yield of 8 kg there are 8 feed units. Meals are changed every 2-3 days to increase milk production.
On day 1, one female is fed from 3 to 5 kg of hay or from 8 to 10 kg of fresh grass. The next day, bran is added. Each subsequent day, increase from 2 to 3 kg of food. Netel goes on a full diet after 20-30 days.
Also, vitamins B and E and PP are added actively to nutrition.
The fruit should be taken on a clean, dense cloth. The bulky mass of the calf's mouth and nostrils is removed with a clean cloth. Next, the herders are wiping the newborn eyes and face. If necessary, cut the umbilical cord. Mom licks babe than he cleans his pores.
When the baby dries, it is transferred to another bright and uninhabited room.
Every day, herders keep their litter dry and clean, and their wool is combed.
On the first day, a calf is given up to five times about 0.7 l of warm colostrum. Further in consumption of such a product is not limited.
In addition, from 10 to 15 days a newborn is watered with milk 4-5 times a day. Then reduce the amount of watering to 3.
Experts insist that the baby needs to be given warm boiled water. She is watered a couple of hours after the milk. Especially fluid is needed if the calf has an upset stomach.
On the 16th day the animal is taught to hay. A rich juice feed (100-200 g) appear in the diet for 30 days. After reducing the dose of milk, the calf is given edible salt, mixtures and chalk (5 to 10 g). In the summer, children are released to the exercise already from 3-5 days of age, and in winter - from 15-20.
Calving a cow and receiving a calf is a crucial step for every farmer. A healthy burenka, with good care, rarely gets sick and gives a good offspring. However, in any case, heredity can make its own adjustments.