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Choosing the best varieties of Chinese plums

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Chinese plum, varieties of which can be found on sale in almost any region, quite confidently gaining its popularity among amateur gardeners. And this is not surprising - the fruits of this variety are sweet, and the trees are not so gigantic. For medium-sized plums easier to care for. And the zoning of varieties advanced from south to north rather confidently. Let's go over the varieties of this variety and determine their pollinators.

Chinese plum: varieties with a description and a list of pollinators (table)

Chinese plum, or willow plum, and also zyuylinka (Prunus salicina lindl) - dicotyledonous fruit plant, a variety of Prunus (Prunus). This is, in fact, the basic type of cultural assortment for Siberia and the Far East. In the European part of Russia, preference for a long time was given to domestic plums, and only from the middle of the last century did cultural forms of cherry plum begin to appear.

Chinese plum

Initially, this variety was grown only in warm regions with mild winters, now many varieties with excellent frost resistance, abundant harvest and early ripening have been bred. The trees are low, there are no thorns, the flowers of the Chinese plum appear before the leaves, and the fruits are sweeter than other species.

Golden ball

Chinese plum Golden ball is one of the earliest varieties. This fruit tree grows up to 4 meters compared to other varieties of Chinese plum, it is very high. Crown plants sprawling, pyramidal shape.

Plum fruits resemble a ball and have a bright yellow color. They weigh up to 60 g. The flesh is golden. The taste is reminiscent of pineapple - sweet and juicy, with sourness. They fit tightly escape, like a buckthorn. Productivity plum high. This is manifested in the third year after landing.

Beauty Orlovschiny

Chinese plum varieties Krasa Orlovschiny obtained by crossing varieties Chinese woman and Skoroplodnaya.

The tree grows to three meters in height and has a spherical crown of medium thickness. Plum has one peculiarity - the bark on the trunk and branches is smooth. The shoots are medium brown in color. The buds are small and closely pressed to the shoots.

The leaves have the shape of an elongated egg of a light green color. In the inflorescence of four flowers, and the rim grows with a diameter of 12 mm. Petals in close contact with each other, white color.

Fruits reach up to 30 grams, have a rounded shape. Diameter of a fruit - 30 mm. The color of the fruit is yellow. The flesh is creamy and dry. The fruits of this variety are resistant to cracking and are intended for transportation and sale.

The variety is an excellent pollinator of the Skoroplodnaya variety and gives the highest possible yield.

The disadvantage is the low winter hardiness of flower buds.

Red ball

Plum varieties Red Ball on the description resembles a variety of Golden Ball. The tree grows up to 2.5 m in height. The crown is drooping, spherically-sprawling. Fruit ovaries are formed on annual shoots. Krone green and matte. The leaves are medium in size, oval.

The fruits of the plum are large and round, and their weight is 35 g. The color is yellow-green. The skin is thick and dense. The flesh is juicy and fibrous, and the taste is sour-sweet and aromatic.

The variety is table and intended for fresh consumption. Ripens the crop for 2-3 years after planting in the garden.

Unfortunately, Red ball plum can not pollinateHowever, Russian and Chinese plum varieties are used as pollinators. The plant is frost-resistant and can withstand temperatures below 35 ° C.

Plum of this variety has large beautiful fruits and is suitable for transportation.

Manchu Beauty

The variety of Chinese plum Manchurian beauty is a dwarf fruit tree with a thickened rounded crown. Fruit formation - in the form of a bouquet twig. Among the varieties of Chinese plum, this variety has a lot of light lentils. The shoots have a brown-gray color. The leaves are small and reach up to 5 cm in width and 11 cm in length. The shape of the leaves is an ellipse of dark green color. In the inflorescence of three flowers, and they bloom before the leaves.

The fruits of this variety are round, their average weight is 15 g. The color is yellow-orange with a dark maroon blush. The flesh is yellow-green and juicy. The taste is sweet and sour with a slight aroma. One plum contains solids (20%), sugar (15%), titratable acids (1.5%), tannins (0.4%), ascorbic acid (9 mg / 100 g) and P-active substances ( 340 mg / 100 g).

The grade is used both for sale, and for the fresh use. Winter hardiness fruit tree is inferior to most varieties. It is resistant to rubella and susceptible to moniliasis.

The Chinese plum tree of the Nezhenka variety grows up to 2.5 meters. Crown in the form of a ball. Shoots straight, brown-brown color. Lentils are located at the level of the surface of the shoots, and the kidneys are shaped like an egg. The leaf has the shape of an elongated egg of a light green color. The inflorescence has five flowers, and the rim reaches up to 14 mm in diameter. Petals are white.

Fruits of grade Nezhenka weigh up to 30 g, they are round. Color red. The flesh is yellow and tender. The taste is very juicy and melting. The grade has table appointment and resistance to cracking. Fruits contain solids (13%), sugar (8%) and acids (2%).

From the advantages of this variety I want to note high yield and winter hardiness. However, there is a drawback: the fruits are showered when ripe.

Oryol dream

Chinese plum varieties Orlovskaya dream obtained from the free pollination varieties Alenushka. The tree grows up to 2.5 meters and has a pyramidal crown. The shoots of the tree are medium, straight with a brown-brown color. Chechevichek on the shoots a lot. They are small and white. The buds are shaped like an oval, and they are slightly deflected from the shoot. The leaves are egg-shaped in light green. In the inflorescence of three flowers, and the halo grows to 13 mm in diameter. Petals are white.

Fruits reach 40 g. The color of the plum is red, and the pulp is yellow and fibrous. The fruits have one drawback: the bone is poorly separated from the pulp. To taste plum juicy and sweet. The grade has table appointment. It contains solids (13%), sugar (10%) and acid (1%).

The plant has a high winter hardiness and yield.. There is a drawback: with a high yield, the fruits become smaller.

Oryol souvenir

The Orlovsky souvenir tree grows up to three meters in height and has a spreading crown of medium thickness. Bark on the branches scaly and brown. The shoots are medium brown-brown. Chechevichki medium and narrow. The buds are medium and deviate from the shoot. Dark green leaves are egg-shaped. In the inflorescence are three flowers, and the rim reaches 13 mm in diameter.

Fruits up to 35 g, round shape. The color of the fruit is brown. The flesh is yellow-brown, dryish. Stone from the pulp is easily separated. Plums contain solids (14%), sugar (8%) and acids (2%). The taste of the fruit is sweet.

The fruit tree is winter hardy and has a high yield level.. The only drawback: dry fruit pulp.

Skoroplodnaya

Plum Chinese varieties Skoroplodnaya is considered srednerosly plant. Crohn resembles a fan and has an average thickness. Shoots are red-brown and bare. The buds are rejected and very small. The leaves resemble an elongated egg of light green color. Average thickness with downward pubescence. Flower petals slightly closed.

The fruit is round and weighs up to 20 g. The color is yellow, the coverslip is red. The flesh is yellow, fragrant and dense. Taste plum juicy and sweet. One fruit contains dry substances (14%), free acids (2%), sugar (9%), vitamin C (10 mg / 100 g). It is better not to transport fruits. The farm has a dessert destination. Productivity - 9 kg from one tree. For intensive gardening variety does not fit.

The advantages of this class are as follows: winter hardiness, good quality of fruits, precociousness and relative resistance to diseases.

Disadvantages: poor bone behind the pulp, burns on trees and samobesplodie.

Superior grade plum appeared as a result of Japanese selection. The tree grows up to 2.5 meters in height. The variety is self-fertile and the best pollinators will be plum or Chinese plum of different varieties. Growth is moderate.

Fruit tree yield is high and annual. By weight, the fruits reach 75 g. The flesh is dense and juicy. Fruits have a bright orange color. Stone from the pulp poorly separated. The fruits ripen in early August.

Plum Superior Chinese has a high winter hardiness. The variety is moderately resistant to diseases, and the fruits are not affected by the shark. Of the parasites, the variety is sometimes affected by the plum moth. Pesticides can be used, but if necessary.

The advantages of the variety are as follows: the fruits are large and long stored in the refrigerator. Superior variety has dessert destination.

Distinctive features of Chinese plum

Prunus salicina is the Latin name for Chinese plum. This is a small tree with charming spring flowers and fragrant fruits in the autumn, originally from Manchuria and the northern highlands of China. According to the botanical classification, the plant has the name willow or three-flowered plum. The inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom have grown a variety of varieties for several millennia. In the XVI-XVII centuries. they began to cultivate it in Japan, where plum became very popular not only because of the pleasant taste of the fruit, but also because of its magnificent flowering.

Chinese plum was brought to Europe only in the 19th century, and the plant appeared thanks to businessmen from the United States, who at that time were actively developing business relations with Japan. Because of this, in European states, Chinese plum is often called Japanese.

Another name for the fruit is jyuylinka. And in Europe it is called the "princess" or "Snow White" because of the magnificent flowers that covered the tree in the spring.

The tree is low, on average its height is 2–2.5 m (some varieties of 3-4 m). A distinctive feature of the Chinese plum is that, even without formative pruning, its crown has the shape of an almost regular ball. Leaf blades are somewhat larger and more elongated than the leaves of other types of plum.

Fruits are slightly elongated flattened, spherical, and may also have a heart-shaped form. The color of varieties varies from bright yellow to dark red and burgundy hue. The skin is firm.

The flesh of the fruit is quite juicy, the taste and smell are pleasant (it resembles the aroma of both apricot and melon). The bone is almost impossible to separate from the pulp.

Chinese plum is very much appreciated for flowering. This period does not last long, only 3-5 days, but this is a magnificent sight. The tree is completely in flowers, because 3-4 buds are formed in each flower bud.

Planting seedlings: site selection and soil preparation

    The area chosen for the cultivation of plums should be well lit by the sun and protected from the winds.

Selecting a plot for planting, it should be noted that all varieties are self-productive or partially self-fertile. For good fruiting it is necessary to plant several varieties on the site (at least three). Varieties of pollinators are recommended to choose the timing of flowering. It is possible to plant not only different plum specimens, but also a Russian plum (cherry plum hybrid), as well as cherry plum. Between seedlings must be left a distance of three meters.

The size of the landing pit should be 70 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth. At the bottom it is recommended to arrange a drainage of expanded clay, broken brick or rubble.

It is necessary to bring humus or peat into the pit. Fertilizers that have been added to the soil when planting a sapling will last about three years. Subsequently, the Chinese plum will need to be fertilized with humus with the addition of superfostat and potassium sulphate.

Wintering nuances

Most varieties of Chinese plum are cold-resistant, while some tolerate cold up to -50 o C. But it is still better to prepare the trees for wintering so that there are no unpleasant surprises in the spring.

With the establishment of negative temperatures in November, wrap the plum barrel with a special covering material.

The root neck of the Chinese plum is prone to sub-heating, so with the onset of a thaw, rake the snow from the trunk.

Chinese plums do not tolerate stagnant water. In the spring, arrange the grooves near the wheel circle to ensure the outflow of excess moisture.

Gardeners reviews about varieties

Plum Skoroplodnaya much tastier of all that I have tried. I liked it very much, the taste is fresher than that of domestic plums.

Obyvatel

http://forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=1266&start=1050

Two Chinese plums are growing here (extreme conditions for the Moscow region, last year frost -42 ºС, flower buds have frozen). These plums have become the favorites not only of ours, but of all our neighbors for beauty and yield. Skoroplodnaya in July, everything is taken for a peach, and in early August - for Chinese apples. Plums are large, tasty, sweet, with a little sourness. The only, in my opinion, the disadvantage is self-barrenness. There are also ordinary plums in the garden, tasty, but inferior to Chinese women.

Naka

http://www.websad.ru/archdis.php?code=278564

I have been growing up Alenushka for many years. The grade is very pleased. Very aromatic with a spicy plum flavor. Good for food, beautiful compotes. The plum tree is also very aromatic! The size varies from year to year, when large enough - grams under 50–60, when smaller - 30–40. Productivity is good and regular. Disease and pest resistant enough. Her only scourge is aphid. Nowhere else, but on Alyonushka is already full! In general, the variety is quite winter-hardy, but in 2014 it noted a decent freezing of one-year growth. But nothing oklemalas. I don’t really like the fact that she has a non-separable bone, but this is not so terrible. Tender, tasty and very fragrant flesh Alyonushka decides everything!

Apple

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=11218

Plum Alyonushka is a beautiful fruit, constant generous yield and ... And guaranteed mass piles of aphids, twisted shoots, poor sour taste. Disappointed long ago. Although I met a sample that was not affected by the aphorism, but still the taste is poor.

Nuitoha

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=11218

Plum Golden Ball is an interesting variety, and has been known for quite some time. Ripening earlier, large fruit 40-50 g (in productive years shallow), yellow with a slight tan, juicy, sweet (sour at the stone and skin). The taste of the fruit creates an almost complete illusion that you eat a late apricot. Apparently, they try to write him into apricots for this.

Chamomile13

http://forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=430&start=180

Chinese plum is an excellent option for growing in adverse conditions of the Far East and Siberia. It grows remarkably and gives a good harvest in the Moscow region and other regions of the European part of Russia. Although it is not as juicy and large as a home plum, it still has its advantages. Fruits tolerate transportation and are kept in cool conditions for several months. In addition, Chinese plum pleases gardeners not only with the harvest, but also with magnificent flowering.

Chinese plum features

Depending on the varieties, it is possible to grow Chinese plum in almost all climatic zones of Russia. It can be planted together with the existing plum and other fruit trees. Chinese plum, as a rule, does not grow over two meters. The crown is spherical and sprawling, and the leaves are oval in shape.

Plum blossoms can capture the imagination of its amazing beauty. Even before the appearance of the first leaves on all branches of the tree, flowers bloom. However, this process does not last long, Chinese plum quickly fade.

Abundant flowering does not portend a good harvest - plum begins to bloom in early spring and the likelihood of pollination during this period is low due to windy and cool weather, and sometimes frost.

The beauty of plum blossom fascinates

Successful pollination is a guarantee of high yield. Virtually all varieties of Chinese plum are incapable of self-pollination, therefore, cherry plum, which is the ideal pollinator for them, should always be planted next to these trees. Sometimes other varieties of plum are suitable as a pollinator, this is indicated in the description of each variety.

Plum begins to bear fruit early enough, as early as 2-3 years after planting from a tree, you can begin to harvest. The fruits of Chinese plum are most often rounded (with the exception of some varieties that may have elongated fruits), large and medium sizes, yellow or red shades.

Chinese plum varieties capable of bearing fruit in various climatic zones of Russia - table

  • Belgorod,
  • Voronezh,
  • Kursk,
  • Lipetsk,
  • Oryol,
  • Tambov.
  • Bryansk,
  • Vladimirskaya,
  • Ivanovskaya,
  • Kaluga,
  • Moscow,
  • Ryazan,
  • Smolenskaya,
  • Tula.
  • Amur,
  • Kamchatka,
  • Magadan,
  • Sakhalin region,
  • Seaside,
  • Khabarovsk region.

Description of Chinese plum varieties

This plant is characterized by an abundance of varieties. The most famous are:

  • Alyonushka,
  • Manchu Beauty,
  • Oryol dream,
  • Red ball
  • Orlovsky Souvenir,
  • Nezhenka,
  • Golden ball
  • Skoroplodnaya
  • Superior.

The variety of plum tree Alyonushka turned out due to cross-pollination of a Chinese plant and a Red ball. The tree grows a little over 2 meters tall. Fruits have a traditional plum purple-burgundy color and sweet-sour taste. The stone is small and easily separated from the pulp - this gives the variety a special attraction in the eyes of gardeners doing home-made preparations for the winter. When separated from the stem, the fruit is also not injured. About 20 kg of crop can be harvested from a tree.

The fruits of Alyonushka ripen in the middle of the last month of summer.

В качестве опылителя, помимо алычи, может выступать Скороплодная. А также подойдёт и любая другая обычная или китайская слива, которая имеет одинаковый период цветения. Сорт сливы Алёнушка выдерживает морозы до -30ºС. Дерево страдает от тли, которая выделяет почему-то именно этот вид.

  • very susceptible to smoldering
  • alone is not pollinated.

  • frost resistance
  • average yield
  • large fruits (weighing up to 35 g),
  • on a five-point scale, the taste of the fruit is estimated at 4.2 points.

Alyonushki fruits have a pleasant taste with a light sourness.

The nuances that you need to know when planting Chinese plum

It is better to plant Chinese plum trees in the fall, since its root system is better adapted in winter. Before planting the soil must be prepared. Two days before planting the seedling, dig up the ground and treat the soil with dolomite flour (700 g per square meter should be added). Due to dolomite flour soil acidity will decrease. The hole for the future plum must be formed at least 18 days before planting a tree. Make a square hole about 70 cm by 70 cm, about 60 cm deep.

Chinese plum seedlings should be at least one year old.

When planting plum saplings, it is advisable to follow the following procedure:

The first watering of the plum after planting is carried out not earlier than in two weeks.

Chinese plum care

The Chinese plum easily tolerates a short-lived drought, however, in case of long-term heat, the plum must be periodically watered with the calculation of one bucket per square meter of the crown projection of the tree. After irrigation, it is advisable to break through the watered land area and cover it with sawdust or soil 5–7 cm high.

Top dressing tree

In the spring, during the period of active ripening of the Chinese plum, nitrogen fertilizing of the soil is carried out in order to make it easier for the tree to produce new shoots and ensure their vital activity. For the manufacture of fertilizers in a bucket dilute 2 kg of mullein, 25 g of urea and 25 g of ammonium nitrate. This is per square meter of land. Solution must be watered plum. In the summer, it is fertilized with ash - 200 g per square meter.

Chinese plum must be cut, while pursuing several goals. The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting the seedling, which is shortened almost twice so that the plum adapts better to the new conditions and releases new shoots. After this, plum branches are pruned in winter and early spring.

Video: Spring pruning plum

Important! It is not recommended to prune Chinese plums if the air temperature is less than 15 ° C.

In the spring it is desirable to produce pruning, which will form a compact tree crown. To do this, remove the shoots growing up, as well as cut off last year’s branches. In addition, the crown should be thinned if it is too thick.

Cropped places cover with garden pitch.

Before the onset of the first frost, collect and burn the fallen plum leaves, dig the ground near the trunk. An adult Chinese plum tree tolerates cold quite easily, but the young tree, which is 2–3 years old, needs to be wrapped with sacking. At the same time use only natural materials, otherwise the tree may rot or rot.

Chinese plum is resistant to diseases that affect a variety of fruit trees, but it can be susceptible to moniliosis or nodules. As a treatment for these diseases, wood is treated with a 3% Bordeaux mixture. For prevention plum can also be sprayed with this solution, but 1% m, and it is best to do this in the spring, before the tree blooms.

Chinese plum is a guest in our area. It is resistant to frost and can produce a large crop, but for this, before landing, do not ignore the advice of professionals.

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