doctor of agricultural sciences
MGAVMiB them. K.I. Scriabin
In most countries, poultry farming occupies a leading place among other agricultural sectors. If in the world the annual increase in the production of milk, meat and honey is about 1-2%, then eggs - 3-5%, and broiler meat - 4-6%.
Progress in the poultry industry largely depends on the breeding work aimed at creating and improving existing breeds, lines and crosses. Of great importance is also a full and balanced feeding, the introduction of new highly efficient and resource-saving technologies into the industry. Experts believe that success in the production of poultry meat is 40% dependent on breeding, 30% on technology and 30% on feeding. Thus, the share of environmental factors (system of keeping, feeding, microclimate parameters, etc.) accounts for about 60% and the share of hereditary data (species, breed, line, cross, gender) - 40%. Consider some selection and technological methods to improve the efficiency of poultry meat production. The most important breeding characteristic that determines the efficiency of broiler production is such an average inherited characteristic (h2 = 0.3-0.6), as the growth rate. The breeders were tasked to achieve in the coming years, live weight of broilers at 5 weeks of age 2.5 kg or more, average daily gain - at least 60 g, output of the pectoral muscles - 20-21.5%. Let's name three methods of achieving this goal. The first is mass selection to increase the early growth rate. Genetic progress per generation is 1-1.5%. It can be raised only by very tough selection. The effect of selection R is determined by the formula
where Sd is the selection differential, h2 is the coefficient of heritability.
Take this example: the average live weight of chickens and cockerels in a herd at 6 weeks is 1700 g, the heritability coefficient is 0.4. The first option: the average live weight of selected roosters and chickens for reproduction was 1755 g. Therefore, R = 55 o 0.4 = 22 g, or 1.3%. The second option: the average live weight of selected roosters and chickens for reproduction is 1900. So, R = 200 o 0.4 = 80 g, or 4.7%. The second method is selection by indices. Genetic progress per generation is 1.4-3.5% or more. Our studies in the ITO “Plant for Production Plant Planting” Competitive “of the Moscow Region on lines K6 and K7 of meat chickens of the“ Competitor-2 ”cross-country showed that by using indices (general selection, growth rate) when selecting poultry of the parent flock, it is possible to increase the live mass of offspring in - weekly age for the Cornish breed to 9.4% and for the White Plymouthrock breed - to 3.5% (Table 1).
Table 1. Index selection of lines of meat hens of cross-country "Competitor-2"
The third method is with the help of genetic engineering, that is, by transferring the growth hormone gene to a 9-day embryo. Genetic progress per generation is 10%. The second selection for meat production efficiency is feed conversion (a highly inherited attribute, h2 = 0.6-0.85).
Table 2. The frequency of occurrence of various types of iris in meat chickens at 20 weeks of age
The task has been set: in the coming years, to achieve a reduction in the cost of feed to 1.5-1.7 kg per 1 kg of increase in live weight of broilers up to 5-6 weeks old. The main methods of solution are: direct selection for improved feed conversion (the effectiveness of such a selection is a reduction in feed consumption per 1 kg gain per 50 g in each generation), indirect selection to increase the feed payment associated with directional selection to increase the early growth rate of chickens (between these indicators there is a high correlation dependence r = 0,8-0,5), the use of additional biological tests (physiological and biochemical and ethological data, the rhythm of growth, etc.). For example, for meat hens, the growth wavelength is set at 10.7 days. With a decline in the biological growth rate, the feeding rate can be reduced by 10%.
The third main breeding trait is the embryonic and postembryonic viability of the bird (a low-inherited characteristic, h2 = 0.03-0.2). Scientists and practitioners in the meat poultry industry need to bring hatchability to 85% or more, in order to increase the yield of chickens per one hen of the parent flock to 160 head, and the safety of broilers aged 5-6 weeks to bring up to 98-99%. The main methods of selection on the basis of viability include: family selection (efficiency per generation averages 0.2-0.25%), the use of additional biological tests (blood counts, the state of the iris, etc.). The selection of young at an early age for the level of leukocytes in the blood can improve the safety of the birds in the productive period by 1-3%. For these purposes, we recommend using the rapid method developed by us for determining in vivo the physiological state of a bird from the height of a column of leukocytes in a capillary (length 70–75 mm, diameter 0.8–1 mm) formed after centrifuging blood on the MTF-8 (or a similar centrifuge). ) within 3.5-4 minutes. The selection of chickens and cocks according to the type of iris of the eye before recruiting pedigree herds increases hatchability, bird preservation during the productive period and in F1 progeny by 2-5%.
Table 3. Reproductive qualities of poultry depending on the type of selection of chickens and roosters according to the state of the iris
Table 4. Comprehensive ranking assessment of parents and their offspring by viability
Note. 1 - radial type of iris, 2 - radially homogeneous, 3 - radially lacunary.
Types of iris in beef hens
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They are very different from each other in appearance (posters, crowns, halves, etc.) by type of color (Cambodia, butterflies, masks, dragons, etc.), and I’m generally silent about colors, although the International Congress Betta Splenden officially recognizes 24 colors - the rest are considered out of competition.
So let's start with the type of colors.
Solid (Solid Type)
This is not the most common, but one of the most expensive types of fish coloring, and if it also belongs to a rare type (Half Sun), it makes this fish extremely attractive for breeders and people to buy. Mainly found in red, green, blue, silver, white and black. Less common violet, green, orange, blue.
Cambodian or Bi-Colored (Cambodian or Bicoloured)
Two, colored or Cambodian cockerels - this color is distributed, as a rule, in two ways:
a) a pale colored body and brightly contrasted colored fins and tail,
b) pale colored fins and tail and brightly colored body, mainly with one dominant color.
This type of color is characterized by a rather intense body color of the fish, which passes to the base of the fins and tail and ends abruptly at them, the remaining surface of the fins and tail remains unpainted (transparent) or painted white. Colors should be clearly demarcated and not mixed.
This color is characterized by the presence of a gene in fish, which gives them the appearance of cheese with green mold and resembles patches of light or dark color over the main dominant color. At the same time, if the males of a stable solid color and marble are crossed, the offspring will most likely carry the “marble” gene. Traditional marble is considered “black on white”. Dark areas should have a clear outline, and the color should be bright.
The piebald color is characterized by a pale colored head and, on the contrary, an intensely colored body, fins and tail, with deviations in the color close to the butterfly or marble being allowed.
Color mask is characterized by a deep and more intense color of the head of the fish compared to the rest of the body. Mostly this color is found in cockerels, painted in copper, turquoise, but also in some others.
A relatively new type of color, but quickly won his fans. He is characterized by a fairly intense base color, often full of red color or its shade. There are silver and copper dragons. Examples are shown in the photo below.
Multicolor is the color of cockerels, consisting of three or more colors and not fitting into other, previously listed types of colors.
Chickens: breeding, maintenance, care - choose the breed, build a chicken coop - Selection in domestic poultry farming
- Chickens: breeding, maintenance, care - choose the breed, build a chicken coop
- Selection in domestic poultry
- Breeds of chickens
- Australorp black and motley
- Andalusian Blue, Amrox
- Welsumer and Dwarf Welsumer
- Wyandot and Dwarf Wyandot
- Zagorskaya salmon
- Italian partridge
- Coolangs, Cornish
- Kuchinsky anniversary
- California Gray, Cochinchins
- Red-tailed, Curly
- Leningradskaya white, Moscow white
- Moscow black
- Malay Fighting
- Megrul, Minorca
- New Hampshire, Orlovskaya
- Pantsirevskaya white and black
- May Day
- Poltava clay, Russian white
- Russian crested
- Rhode Island
- Ukrainian Ushanka, chubaty
- Bohemian golden, Yurlovskaya vocal
- Features of the content of chickens
- Outdoor equipment
- Cellular content
- Cultivation of free-range chickens
- How to build a chicken coop
- The design of the chicken coop
- Coop lighting
- Microclimate in the house
- How to eliminate stressors
- Variants of buildings for birds
- Portable summer houses for chickens and young
- Tagging birds
- All pages
Page 2 of 46
Selection in domestic poultry
Breeding in home poultry is an exciting experience.
By selecting all the best and best youngsters in each generation, one can achieve remarkable results: strengthen the desired traits, weaken those that one wants to get rid of, and eventually get a beautiful bird.
First of all, it is necessary to clearly outline the type of bird that is desirable for a given breed, of course, taking into account the biological characteristics of the population and the feeding and housing conditions. Now collectible farms, as well as individual poultry farmers, have rare breeds of birds. The history of many of them goes back centuries. They were formed in the conditions of peasant farms by crossing local outbred birds with cultural breeds.
Manufacturers were usually selected for egg-laying, live weight, in some cases - for sporting characteristics (long drawn low voice from Jurlovian cocks, fighting type of Tula geese, etc.). Separating, for example, to the tribe of roosters according to the strength and duration of singing, contributed to the development of their chest, and this entailed the weighting of the body, the improvement of meat qualities.
In the household, the most accessible method of mass bird breeding. It is based on the selection of males and females for external signs.
A good laying hen can be distinguished according to the following data: the head is wide and moderately long, the eyes are lively, shiny, bulging, the back is wide, flat, the tail is straight, the chest is convex, the plumage is smooth, shiny, the wings are tightly pressed to the body, the belly is soft and large, leg muscles well developed, fingers straight, well apart. Roosters have a more developed chest, while chickens have a pelvic body. The body of the female expands to the tail, and the male - to the chest. A good rooster has developed bones and muscles, a rounded chest, a straight keel, and a brilliant plumage. It has a bright red erect comb and a lush tail.
In poultry meat species, special attention is paid to the development of those parts of the body where the muscles are most developed. It is important to take into account the width and length of the back, the width and bulge of the chest, the live weight, vigor, and mobility of the bird.
How long can you use the breeding bird? In individual farms, chickens, geese, ducks, guinea fowls often contain 5 years or longer.
The best breeds of chickens for breeding at home. The main nuances of growing and care
But the meat obtained by slaughtering at this age is less tasty and tender than from younger birds.
However, the bird of the most valuable breeds, if it retains its productivity, can be kept even longer - for breeding youngsters. The quality of the manufacturer significantly affects the viability and productivity of offspring, because he is one in several females.
To improve the livestock of the poultry yard, it is necessary to have breed males so that they come from high-productive parents. Manufacturers should not have defects in development. It is necessary to select the most typical for the breed that you intend to breed in your farm. One male can be left on 10–12 chickens of an egg breed, 9–10 chickens of meat breeds, 5–6 ducks, 10–12 turkeys, 3–4 goose, 4–5 guinea fowls.
If the livestock in your yard is small, with long-term breeding, bird degeneration will occur: viability will decrease, various deformities will appear. The reason for this - inbred depression (close breeding). That is why it is necessary to exchange males with other bird lovers.
Recently, hen breeds of brahma and kokhinhin have appeared in homestead bird-yard. The roots of this herd come from a limited number of farms, so bird degeneration is difficult to avoid. Some have resorted to this, in their opinion, an effective technique. Wanting to freshen up, for example, the blood of white Kokhinhins, they let the Kokhinh cock with black plumage come to the hens. In the next generation of white Cochin again connected with the white rooster. But when crossing white chickens with blacks, a new type is obtained, the heredity of the livestock is shaken, and the useful signs may not appear in new generations.
How to be? If the male breeding you breed from some new farms fails, exchange roosters among themselves. Let them come from the same nest, yet “domicile” in different climatic zones as if alienates them from each other, the harmful influence of the relative breeding smoothes out.
As in other breeds of poultry (chickens), the color and pattern of the plumage is based on the color distribution gene of the ʻe` series.
E Continued black.
The rooster is black or with a colored neck and shoulders.
Chicken is black or so.
Rooster Black copper, black feather with a raven tint.
Black chicken with a color collar and a colored feather on the chest.
Rooster- Standard black and red,
Chicken is a salmon-breasted, or salmon-brown.
Tail with a slight shading of black, Black color is limited to the tail and wings.
e + Duck wing.
Rooster- Standard black and red,
Chicken- Korichekva, Dark-stripe body, with salmon breast.
Rooster- Standard black and red
Chicken - Brown body, no salmon on the chest,
On the body there is no unidirectional pen pattern.
Color of fluff hatched chickens.
E Continued black.
Black down on the dorsal and anterior parts of the body, and whitish on the stomach and cream or white ends of the wings.
Homozygous chickens often have a white dot on the face, the fluff is shorter than that of the ER chickens.
Pooh is the same as E chickens, but in some cases there is no white on the stomach,
The head may be slightly brown.
Wheat fluff is essentially pure cream, usually there are brown spots on the back, and sometimes usually in chickens, fading traces of belts on the wing.
e + Dipers. (Wild type)
The wild type of fluff coloring consists of dark brown stripes on the back and spots on the head,
On the sides, along a dark-brown narrow strip separated from the dorsal strip by a white-yellow strip. The base color of the fluff brightens towards the belly.
Brown chicks are dark brown in color, with an increase in color to the back and head. The remnants of white stripes are visible on the wing. There is no clear separation of color on the head, like in wild-colored chickens, but the lower part of the head is brighter towards the beak.
Ptilopodia in Maranov, the result of the dominant gene Pti1.
A small degree of feathering is present from the outside and on the outer finger.
Experimental crossings showed that only one gene is responsible for the paw paw paw, and the paw paw pitch gene is also present, which explains the appearance of birds with non-penned paws.
The standard indicates that the color of the eye iris should be red-orange.
The color of the iris in the eyes of roosters is slightly richer than in chickens.
Wax-colored eyes should be avoided, and birds with black or svelopalevymi eyes are rejected.
Colors based on E alleles.
This Variation of Maranov was inscribed in the French Standard in 1949, as a single group,
The standard for black marans in England was approved in 1930, but unfortunately did not contain requirements for feathering the paws. There are no documents confirming the origin of the breed in France.
And therefore there was a purely subjective description of the breed. It was required to have a feather of black color for roosters and chickens, without any visible white or colored feathers.
There were no requirements for the green tide of a feather, as is the case with langshans and australorps,
Black marans, unlike black-red ones, have more melanin pigment in the skin, beak and paws. Langshans introduced a lot in the formation of marans in 1890.
Orange eyes are more difficult to select, in black, silver-black and brown-black variations.
The black variation of the color is at the very top of the dominance hierarchy based on the E allele, but an additional amplifier of the melanin pigment is required
для полного формирования окраса. Обычно это Ген- Меланотик Ml, но также и другие гены могут присутствовать.
Мы должны также рассмотреть, какой из вторичных окрасов наиболее подходящий, серебряный или золотой. Для определения этого посмотрим в стандарты, которые говорят нам о том, что зеленоватый блеск пера не требуется. Присутствие красно –золотого усиливает зеленоватый блеск, а серебро приглушает его. Еще раз о серебре. If you go beyond the (standard), we will see a silver cuckoo as a variation of color on the base of E allele, and it will be silver. A rooster with the genotype E E S S Ml Ml and if we want to have a bird with yellow paws and fair skin tones need the W gene. Melanotic directs and black pigment to the bobbin and beak, as well as to the plumage. A lot for our standard, but we can remove it using the sex-linked light-colored Id skin for an acceptable shin color, which is still a bit darker in chickens. The gene of operative shin Pti-1 completes the genotype giving
for chickens E/ES/-Ml/MlId/-W/WPti-1/Pti-1
and for roosters E / E S / S Ml / Ml Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1
And only if the bird carries this genotype, we will see 100% black bird.
The use of red-brown birds for the regeneration of the black tribe is not recommended for 2m reasons. The first is the copper (s + s +) gene will produce various golden red tones which is unacceptable. And the recessive Birchen alleles will become visible especially on chickens.
On the other hand, the silver cuckoo is a black bird with an additional dominant striatum gene B, and this is immediately evident in the bird, Even in the case of the genotype B b +. Therefore, if B becomes visible, then we move away from the Black E E genotype and this needs to be redone. But the use of cuckoos, called the British cuckoo or the dark cuckoo, can be interesting. The British variation has a darker color than silver, since they are descendants of the rooster, the color of silver cuckoo and black chicken. As a result, dark cuckoos do not divorce straight, and therefore they cannot be found in the French standard. While crossing a dark cuckoo's rooster with a silver cuckoo's chicken, about 50% of the chickens will be black.
If such a crossing is not possible, then you can cross a silver birch rooster with a silver cuckoo chicken, and this will give the roosters of the dark cuckoo and black pullets. But this can lead to splitting of Beachen by breeding dilution.
All this must be taken into account if you have only one black bird for breeding.
Blue colors. Blue and splash.
It is caused by the presence of the heterozygous blue gene. Bl bl +
Adding homozygous blue gives Splash color, which is also not recognized.
Blue variants of colors are known in the rams from the moment of their occurrence, te blue was introduced into the breed from the moment of crossing with English fighting ancestors.
Nowadays there are no countries where blue and splash exist separately.
The gene is blue-dominant, which dilutes the black pigment in varying degrees, if present in a homo or heterozygous state. In the heterozygous state, the blue gene dilutes black to blue-gray, and this blue has different shades from light blue to dark blue. Often interspersed with black droplets. But without effect on the gold / red plumage. Homozygous blue Bl Bl gives a greater dilution effect giving a spattered white color. White plumage with alternating blue feathers. In Europe, it is called dirty white. But it is different from the dominant and recessive white, both of which also convert black to white.
It is important to understand that blue is not divorced directly, but gives the following results:
blue with blue give 25% splash, 50% blue and 25% black
Splash with black give 100% blue
Blue with black give 50% black and 50% blue
Do not confuse blue with recessive lavender. Which dilutes both black and red-gold pigment,
and does not split when diluted. Lavender dilutes the color to a grayish pearl giving a very distinctive color. Gray pearl color is not found in the rams.
Genome of the heterozygous blue cock of the E / ES / S Ml / Ml Bl / bl + Id / Id w / W Pti-1 / Pti-1 chicken E / ES / - M / M / Bl / bl + Id / - W / W Pti- 1 / Pti-1.
The genome of the homozygous rooster Splash E / ES / S Ml / Ml Bl / Bl Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1, and the chicken E / ES / - Ml / Ml Bl / Bl Id / -d W / W Pti -1 / Pti-1.
Having birds of black color, we will consider other modifier genes that can be added. The second member of the E family is a silver cuckoo.
Presentation “Animal breeding. Chickens. Breed. Description"
A similar color was found not only in marines, but also in other breeds, such as the Peking cuckoos and the Wiandot cuckoos.
Cuckoo color occurs when the banding gene B is added, which is dominant and sex-linked. Silver cuckoo birds do not have clear stripes like striped Plymouth rock. These are usually directed irregular zigzags on the whole re. And as a result, the standard of maranov has no special requirements regarding the color of the cuckoo. The color of roosters is lighter than chickens, due to genetic logic.
Why is the color of cocks lighter than in chickens?
Cuckoo birds (genetically) black E / E (or sometimes ER / ER). The genotype is formed by adding a sex-linked dominant gene B. This changes the black color to an irregular cuckoo pattern.
Another dominant and sex-linked silver S gene enhances a silver-white contrast in coloration of the neck and shoulders.
Thus, cuckoo B color factor penetrates into each of the 2 chromosomes present in the rooster and enhances the effect by doubling the effect of the gene, giving a lighter tone to the feather of the roosters.
On the other hand, in the chickens, the cuckoo is in a hemizygous state and is present in only one allele, (the second is absent)
and this color is darker.
The genotype of the homozygous cuckoo E / E S / S Ml / Ml B / B Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1
hemizygous cuckoo E / E S / - Ml / Ml B / - Id / -d W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1
In addition, it must be said that the overall lightening effect of the cuckoo is present on the shin and beak, and lighter in the roosters.
Description of the color of the silver cuckoo.
Compared to body color, the neck and mane of cuckoo cocks are similar in color to silver-white, the color of cocks is more contrasted in the shadows. Coloring chickens more monotonous and darker in comparison.
Shades of plumage of chickens can vary and be lighter in the area of the neck and shoulders. But the chicken should not be very dark or very bright. Take care that your birds do not have a tendency to be very light or very dark which distinguishes them from the standard. The sex can be determined at birth, the roosters have a light silver color, with a large spot on the head, and the hens are darker with a small spot.
the absence of light braids in the mane, or the presence of gold.
Chickens: golden or yellowish-brown feathers on the body.
Note: Heterozygous B b + dark cuckoos
The chicken chicks are the same as the chickens. The chickens of the silver and dark cuckoos are identical. T to hemizygote.
The genome of the rooster E / ES / S Ml / Ml B / b + Id / Id W / W pti-1 / pti-1 and the hen E / ES / - Ml / Ml B / - Id / -d W / W pti-1 / pti-1.
Blue silver cuckoo. And splash cuckoo.
The last of the possible colors based on the allele E.
This color is the result of adding a banding gene to a blue bird. ( or vice versa).
To breed simply, the silver cuckoo rooster is crossed with the blue hen, and 50% of the usual silver cuckoos and 50% of the blue silver cuckoos are obtained.
The maran genotype with the color of the blue silver cuckoo E / ES / S Ml / Ml Bl / bl + B / B Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1, and the hens E / ES / - Ml / Ml Bl / bl + B / - Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1
The silver cuckoo splash has an almost white color with a striped pattern, visible only on the colored areas of the pen.
E / ES / S Ml / Ml Bl / Bl B / B Id / Id W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1, and a he E / ES / - Ml / Ml Bl / Bl B / - Id / - W / W Pti-1 / Pti-1.
Variations of colors based on the continued black hide all other variants of the color alleles of this series.
Translation Savin Dmitry, source: frenchmaransclubaustralia.com
Breeding chickens: breeding characteristics
Left answer a guest
When monohybrid crossing is studied
- one sign
- one gene,
- one pair of alternative genes,
- one pair of alternative traits (all the same). Monohybrid splittings 1) No splitting (all children are the same) - two AA h-aa homozygotes were crossed (Mendel’s first law). 2) 3: 1 splitting (75% / 25%) - two Ao x Aa heterozygotes were crossed (Mendel’s second law) .3) Splitting 1: 2: 1 (25% / 50% / 25%) - two Aa x Aa heterozygotes were crossed with incomplete dominance (intermediate character of inheritance) .4) Cleavage 1: 1 (50% / 50%) - crossed the heterozygote and the recessive homozygous Aa x aa (analyzing crossing).
The first law of Mendel
(the law of uniformity, the law of domination) When crossing clean lines (homozygotes) all offspring are the same (the uniformity of the first generation, no splitting) .P AA x aa
G (A) (a)
F1 AaU of all descendants of the first generation (F1) manifests a dominant trait (yellow peas), and the recessive trait (green peas) is in a latent state. The second Mendel law (splitting law) 3: 1 splitting (75% dominant, 25% recessive) .F1 Aa x Aa
G (A) (A)
F2 AA, 2Aa, aaUncomplete dominance If two heterozygotes intersect with incomplete dominance (intermediate character of inheritance), Aa heterozygote has a sign intermediate between dominant and recessive (for example, AA beauty has red petals, AA pink, and white aa). A 1: 2: 1 phenotype splitting (25% / 50% / 25%) is obtained. Analyzing crosses-When crossing the Aa heterozygote with the recessive homozygous aa, a 1: 1 splitting is obtained (50% / 50%). P Aa x aa
G (A) (a)
F1 Aa, aa
Signs for the selection of chickens
In each line of cross-country or breed, in accordance with their purpose, they determine the complex of quantitative and qualitative characteristics, according to which the selection work is carried out. Depending on the specialization of the line in the cross (paternal or maternal) and the goals of selection, there are basic and additional features.
As a rule, in the maternal branches, the main feature is egg production. Raising or maintaining the level achieved is a difficult task. Therefore, in the breeding program, in addition to the absolute values of egg production, include its individual elements:
- rate of growth and decline,
- egg-laying peak level and duration,
- cycle length
- egg-laying stability over a period.
The selection of hens to increase egg production is based mainly on family performance. Since the variability of this indicator largely depends on environmental conditions.
Special attention is paid to families and families with higher egg production at the initial layer.
In this case, two signs are taken into account simultaneously:
- egg laying intensity
- the viability of the bird.
The second major symptom is puberty. The earlier it comes, the higher the egg production.
Although the weight of eggs in maternal lineage breeding programs is not the main feature, it should be given considerable attention, especially during the first time of egg-laying, since being overweight means a greater yield of hatching eggs.
For breeders who work with egg chickens, live weight is a controlling sign: the higher the live weight, the greater the cost of feed per unit of production.
Selection by live weight is carried out to reduce it to the optimal level, that is, the level at which maximum performance will be achieved, and the correlation coefficients between these signs will be low positive (within 0.05–0.15).
Family breeding methods increase the viability of birds in terms of the safety of young and adult birds. The advantage is given to those families in which there is no or minimal bird waste.
The ratio of groups of chickens in breeding plants:
- Nesting mating: 5-8%
- Tester: 25-42%
- Multiplier (including the forefathers flock): 50-70%
In breeding programs of parental lines of crosses in the first place put the weight of eggs. This feature is characterized by relatively high inheritance ratios and is transmitted to descendants on the paternal branch.
The remaining indicators should be no lower than the average values along the line.
Selection signs for the selection of livestock chickens
- egg production - each layer is assessed according to the results of the initial periods of egg-laying. On the basis of the data for each layer, data are calculated for families, families, microlines and the line as a whole,
- puberty, in days, is determined for each layer with calculations of averages for families, families, micro lines and lines,
- weekly dynamics of egg-laying intensity during the productive period, the age of the bird when it reaches 30%, 50% and the egg-laying peak, the peak value in percent, its duration in days or weeks, the rate of decline in egg production, etc. - is determined by the average of the herd,
- the nature of the egg-laying curve for the estimated period (40 or 65-68 weeks of life) is determined by subtracting the probability of the difference between the actual weekly or monthly values from the standard curve as a t-test,
- egg weight and its components. In the 26-week-old and at the probitational age (30 and 52 weeks of life), 8-10 consecutively laid eggs are individually weighed by each egg, the average weight of eggs is calculated for each layer, family, family, microline, line, in grams. The variability of the indicator of egg weight in percent is calculated for each layer based on data from individual egg weighting. The weekly dynamics of egg mass over the laying period by families is also determined.
- feed conversion - individual assessment of chickens selected in the nest, within one week with feed costs (g / head / day) and per unit of production (10 eggs, 1 kg of egg mass),
- live weight of chickens and roosters - is determined individually. At the age of 17 weeks across the bird, at 52 weeks - only the hens selected in the nests,
- genetic abnormalities of embryonic development - take into account individually after the opening of all frozen embryos during the incubation period, each anomaly is encoded with the selected code,
- the safety of the young for 17 weeks of life and adult birds for the productive period is recorded daily by wing and foot numbers. They fix the case and forced rejection of the bird, the cause of the case, on the basis of which they calculate safety without case, the total, as well as the case of individual diseases in percent,
- the presence of genes markers of sex. Stripes - B, solid color - b. Silverness - S, gold - s - is determined by the color and pattern of down daily young and adult birds in the lines of color sex crosses. Later plumage - K, early plumage - k - is determined by the growth rate of the wing feathers of the diurnal young in the lines of Federsex crosses.
Good luck and success!
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Egg laying intensity
This is the foundation of the maternal branch. It includes not only the mass and quality of the eggs produced, but also the rate of egg production, cyclicality and stability. The selection of chicken livestock is based on the main indicators of the family, which largely depends on environmental factors and conditions of poultry. The process of the formation of eggs in the body of the hens is very complicated. It begins with the development of eggs and the formation of yolk masses. The period of their maturation does not coincide in time: some are already perfect, and others are at the bud stage. On average, in the ovary of each physiologically healthy chicken can form about 3 thousand eggs.
When the hen reaches its sexual maturity, an active period of maturation of these cells begins. Owing to the rupture of the membranes of the ovary, they enter the oviducts, where protein substance is formed. The shell covers the formed egg at the final stage in the uterus. Normally, the formation of one egg can take from 23 to 26 hours. In adequate housing conditions, chickens already carry fertilized eggs. This process is carried out in the upper funnel of the oviduct.
Note that in the initial phases of the egg-laying, the laid eggs are small in size, which is explained by the physiological characteristics of the layers. To determine the mass of eggs of breeding chickens, you need to weigh 3 pieces in a row at the age of 30-52 weeks.
Consider that these indicators are affected by:
- chicken weight,
- terms of her puberty
- egg production level (as determined by the specificity of the breed).
Ideally, the following parameters are suitable for further fertilization for all breeding characteristics:
- egg weight - 55-65 g,
- egg production ―280-300 pieces.
This sign of selection of breeding stock of chickens is determined by the general hereditary qualities of resistance. Every organism is more or less vulnerable to adverse environmental factors, viruses and bacteria. Depending on the indicators of the bird's immune system, a certain set of genetic qualities, an indicator of the preservation of the flock for a specific period is formed.
Viability data of breeding chickens are calculated as a percentage of the surviving livestock to the initial number of chicks. Usually breeding work is based on an analysis of a 17-week bird, as well as the results of studies of the full life cycle.
This is the most important characteristic of each layer, depending on the period of its sexual maturity. The earlier a hen enters this phase of its development, the better is its egg-laying. Based on the data obtained, an analysis is formed for the breeding herd, family and line as a whole.
Character curve egg production
In order to obtain reliable data, it is necessary to take into account the indicators obtained at the 40th or 65-68th weeks of the bird's life. To do this, subtract the possibility of identity of objective values obtained during the week or month. To assess the nature of the curve, it is important to consider the information obtained in the form of graphs.
Для оценивания этого селекционного признака отобранных племенных образцов нужно взвешивать яйца птицы, которая достигла 26-недельного возраста. Иные селекционеры более достоверными считают данные, полученные при анализе жизнедеятельности несушек в период с 30-й по 52-ю неделю от дня её рождения.
Сбор информации заключается в индивидуальном поштучном взвешивании каждого 8, 9 и 10-го последовательно снесённого яйца. Thus, when processing the analysis done, the average egg mass of each laying hen is displayed, as well as the average values within the family and breeding line.
This is a subjective assessment of breeding samples of chickens selected during the week. The amount of feed spent per one head of a bird per day, as well as the number and weight of eggs received during this period are taken into account.
Presence of marker genes
This is a very scrupulous work that newcomers will not be able to do. In the process of breeding experiments to obtain purebred chicks, it is important to pay attention to the presence of genes that mark a certain gender:
- solid color
- silver and gold in the plumage
- shades and ebb feathers,
- color and pattern of fluff on day-old chickens, as well as on adult birds,
- specificity, differences in late and early plumage,
- feather growth rate.
This is an important indicator to assess embryonic embryonic development. At the stage of collecting and processing information, it is necessary to open the eggs that are frozen during the incubation period and individually analyze the causes, identifying genetic abnormal phenomena from them. Each of them is subject to separate labeling and coding.
Safety of the young generation
This feature of breeding livestock provides an analysis of the case, as well as the reasons for the forced rejection of the flock. The safety of young stock is estimated from 17 weeks of age. In addition, the vital viability data of a mature bird is important.
In private farms, as in industrial production, it is important to carry out a rigorous selection of females and males of the breed of hens you like, not only on the basis of the characteristics of the exterior. Roosters, as the basis of half of the genetic stock of the herd produced, have the same meaning for posterity as the hens. Therefore, special requirements are imposed on the selection of the paternal and maternal lines. We hope our article will help you in the implementation of the planned breeding experiments.