Many gardeners living in the middle lane, engaged in the cultivation of grapes. In such areas, only suitable varieties should be grown, which easily endure temperature drops and other climatic changes. Before you start planting fruit, you should be familiar with the features of growing grapes in the middle lane for beginners.
Over the past years, breeders involved in the creation of new varieties of plants, brought a lot of grape varieties. Many of them are distinguished not only by large fruits, but also by resistance to low temperatures. They are the best varieties for central Russia. It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of each of them in order to choose the best grade in the future.
Breeders received such a variety back in 1949 by crossing Muscat and Madeleine grapes. At a plant srednerosly bushes which height reaches two meters. In spring each planted bush is covered with large leaves, on the tips of which there are straight teeth of a triangular shape.
Berries of Samara Yantar large and grow to 20 mm. The weight of each of them reaches five grams. The ripened fruits are covered with a thin peel of golden color.
Such technical grape varieties as Delight are excellent for growing on the territory of the middle band. The advantages of the variety include its large and tasty grapes. Their surface is covered with crispy and dense skin, under which there is a sweetish flesh. Their diameter reaches 30 mm, and weight - 7-8 grams.
Experienced gardeners who have been engaged in the cultivation of Delight for many years, note its frost resistance. Even at temperatures below 25 degrees below zero, the bushes do not lose their ability to bear fruit and grow normally.
Gardeners who prefer to grow super early grape varieties should turn their attention to Crystal. Its fruits have time to ripen for 100 days, so that it is possible to harvest in early August.
Ripe oval grape berries are colored golden with a light shade. They are covered with a thin layer of waxy plaque that protects them from dangerous microorganisms. The advantages of Crystal include its taste. The grapes are sweet, and therefore, when making compote and jam, some housewives do not even add sugar.
In the middle lane, many grow Laura grapes, which copes well with the harsh winter frosts. The bushes of the plant are large and grow up to 2-3 meters. In spring, they are covered with five-lobed green leaves.
In the middle of summer fruit clusters are formed on the bushes, which grow to 35-40 cm in length. The weight of each bunch reaches one kilogram. When grown in a greenhouse, you can increase the weight of fruit brushes to three kilograms.
When to buy planting material?
It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of purchasing planting material in order to purchase the best seedlings. It is better to buy in the spring, a few days before planting grapes in the garden. However, before this you should familiarize yourself with the following recommendations:
- You can not buy grape saplings in a temper. When choosing a plant, it is not necessary to take the first seedling, as it may turn out to be damaged. It is better to carefully examine it and compare with other seedlings that are sold in the store.
- Purchases are made only in stores selling seeds and seedlings. In such places is always a good choice, which allows you to choose the best grape varieties for planting in the middle lane.
- For planting seedlings that are planted in the autumn are better suited. They are harder than spring, and therefore gardeners are advised to buy them. However, if they are engaged in grapes in July, and not in autumn, it is better to buy seedlings for spring planting.
- Purchased seedlings are not stored for a long time. It is necessary to plant them in the garden the day after the purchase.
Timing and site selection for planting
Before planting seedlings, you should determine the optimal timing and choose a place for grapes.
You can plant grape seedlings in spring and in autumn. Experienced gardeners advise planting them in the fall, as this will allow the grapes to get used to the new climatic conditions more quickly. In addition, in the bushes planted in autumn, immunity to pests and diseases is strengthened.
The best time for planting grapes in the middle lane in autumn is the end of September and the first half of October.
Choosing a place
When choosing a plot for the vineyard take into account the soil. It can not be planted on marshy soils and areas where groundwater lies close to the upper layers of the soil. The landing site should be reliably protected from gusts of wind and be illuminated by sunlight. Without enough light, the bushes will grow slowly and produce poor fruit.
How to plant grapes in the middle lane?
Inexperienced gardeners may have difficulty planting grapes in central Russia. To do everything right, you must learn in advance how to plant their own grape seedlings. When disembarking adhere to the following recommendations:
- Acquired seedlings are soaked in cool water beforehand and cut. When pruning pruned root system and shorten the shoot for three buds. Also, gardeners are advised to immediately get rid of the side shoots, which can at times slow down the growth of planted bushes.
- Cut the plant for half an hour is placed in a container with a clay solution, after which it is planted in open ground. For planting on the site is a shallow hole in which it will be possible to plant several bushes at once.
- Organic matter or mineral fertilizers that promote grape growth are added to the excavated hole for planting.
- When planting, seedlings are lowered into the soil to a depth of 7-10 cm so that the root system is in the ground.
- When planting of grapes in the fall with saplings will be over, a low mound is made around the grapes for protection from frost.
Care and Growing Tips
Not everyone knows how to properly grow grapes in the middle lane. To deal with this, you should familiarize yourself with the features of the care of grape seedlings.
During the care of grapes in the middle lane is carried out watering. Soil moistening is practiced in the summer or spring season. At the same time for each planted bush spend at least 10-15 liters of fluid.
If rainy weather prevails in summer, the grapes are watered 1-2 times per season. In dry weather, the amount of watering is increased up to 4-5 times. It is not possible to water the plant more often, since at high humidity pests are activated, and the probability of infection with mildew or late blight increases.
Reproduction of grapes in central Russia
Gardeners want not only to grow grapes, but also to reproduce it. The most common method of propagation of such a plant is to sprinkle a vine with soil. This method is best used only in the middle lane and in the southern regions. Experienced gardeners are advised to carry out the procedure in the middle of summer or at the end of spring, if the bushes are already lignified.
During the powder vines ensure that its upper part remains on the surface of the soil. After a few months, a part of the plant that is covered with soil will begin to germinate. In October, all the sprouts formed are carefully separated and transferred to the room. In spring, when the air temperature warms up to 15-20 degrees, the seedlings can be planted in the garden.
What grape varieties to grow for beginners in the middle lane
Of course, grapes grow in almost every summer cottage. If you do not live in the south, it is often grapes "Isabella". The unpretentious grade, gives a plentiful harvest, shadows sites from the sun and decorates arbors. But his berry is rather small, sour and with a tart taste.Over the past couple of decades, thanks to the selection work of amateurs and professionals, winegrowers have developed many varieties with high frost resistance and large sweet berries. A huge selection of varieties with a variety of flavors and colors of berries, brush shapes. Among this varietal sea, we will select the best grape for the middle band.
Having bought a good varietal sapling, we can expect a good harvest. If you want to grow grapes with a hint of berries from white to pink, choose these winter-hardy varieties:
- Yantar Samarsky
- Muscat Tsikhmistrenko
- Dessert Muscat
If you prefer grape varieties with a color of berries from blue to dark purple, then pay attention to these varieties:
- Brother Delight
- Agat Donskoy
- Purple early
- Kishmish unique
These varieties have large sweet berries with a wonderful delicate aroma.
Selection of seedlings
When buying grapes, follow these rules
- Get saplings in the spring (March - April)
- It is best to buy grapes saplings from a seller who knows everything about grapes and growing them and will be happy to share with you the knowledge and tips on how to care, show photos from your garden. Give the address and phone number.
- The two-year sapling will have a powerful root system with light roots.
- Purchased seedlings need to be treated with preparations "BI-58" or "Kinmiks" (in a double dose) from the grape pest - phylloxera. Dilute the drug in water at the rate of 2 ml. 10 liters of water. Soak in this solution seedlings for half an hour and wash.
- Purchased seedlings are planted on the street only in the second decade of June. Before disembarking, they are stored in paper bags with perforations.
At the beginning of May, you can plant in five-liter buckets and grow to the south until June.
The photo shows a two-year-old grape sapling with a strong root system.
Ways of planting grapes
1. If the soil for planting grapes is sandy, then seedlings should be planted in trenches.
2. If the soil is loam or clay (these soils do not heat well) or a plot with shallow subterranean waters, then the growers recommend planting on high ridges. Such ridges in ancient times were called "created."
Rules for the care of grapes in the middle lane, tips for beginners
1. Do not rush to plant new grapes in a permanent place.
Let the young seedlings grow quietly in shkolke until the first berry brushes. It is more convenient to care for seedlings in shkolka. Easier cover from frost.
Growers from the northern regions in most cases try not to plant young seedlings in a permanent place, instead, in the first summer they plant each seedling in a large container and these containers drop half of them into the ground of the schoolhouse.With the onset of cold weather, containers are transferred to the basement and overwinter there. In the last days of May, they are transferred from container to ground.
This technology of growing grape seedlings allows them to grow faster and start fruiting earlier.
2. Plan your vineyard
Varieties of table and wine grapes need to be planted separately. The landing scheme is different.
Table Grapes It lands at least one and a half meters with the distance between the bushes, and wine varieties - thicker, the intervals between the bushes are 0.8 m. The inter-row spans are 2-2.5 meters.Divided into groups of grapes, given the cold resistance and the ripening of berries, it is easier to ensure the cultivation and care in the middle lane.
Only varieties that require it will be processed and sheltered.
3. Graft saplings brought from Europe or from warm areas are planted almost lying horizontally..
Lying down, they eventually increase their own roots and adapt to new weather and temperature conditions.Not everyone knows that vertical polarity is characteristic of grapes. Fruiting grapes shoots tied up strictly horizontally. This gives the same development of all green young shoots.
Formation of grape bushes
- All methods of forming grape bushes are divided into concealed and non-sheltered groups.
- Fan and some cordon formirovki require shelter bush for the winter and therefore are called sheltered.
- The bushes with the stem and bowline arbor do not hide in the winter.
- Standard and bowing shaping are used in areas of the middle band in the case when frost-resistant grape varieties are grown.
- The future harvest of grapes is laid on a well-ripe vine this year. From her eyes in the spring come out fruit lash.
Stand Forming Method
The first year the seedling is allowed to settle down and form a bush only from the second year of life, its formation continues for five years. When the foundation of the skeleton of the bush is created, the need for constant shaping disappears.In the future, the form is maintained by trimming in the fall. In the fall, 90% of one-year lashes are removed on adult grapes, and lashes of this summer are cut out, on which clusters have already ripened. All thin non-fruiting whips are also removed.
Form the grapes according to the method of Guyot.
In the north, the standard grape formation is one of the most successful. This is a classic form-building system. It was introduced by the Frenchman Guyot in the 19th century. An experienced winegrower, Guyot, proposed a simple shaping, in which the grape clusters were not shaded by excess green mass and matured perfectly.
1 year - a powerful whip grows, it is shortened in autumn, leaving two eyes above the ground or above the grafting site. In some cases, left three eyes (just in case).
2 year - two single-year lashes grow from non-excised buds (they usually grow on the strongest of one-year ones), cut them into a short one (or replacement knot), leaving 2-3 buds and a long one.A long - this is the fruitful vine of the next year. In the fall, a new knot and a new fruit vine will again be formed from the replacement knots. The length of the fruit vine is regulated by pruning; four buds are left on the young bush.
And an adult grapevine requires 6 to 12 buds.. At the time of ripening of the crop, shortening the arrows, you can reduce the load on the fruit-bearing grapes, thereby accelerating the ripening of the grapes.
3 year - make horizontal garter lashes. In such a garter from the buds of the vines stretch one-year fruit lash. They are strengthened exactly up, together with the knots from the knot of substitution, so that they develop faster.
When it finally gets warmer, the fruiting vine is tied parallel to the ground with a trellis wire, taking into account the polar verticality of the crop. Garter parallel to the ground will give a powerful growth of one-year fruit lashes from the bud-eyes of the fruiting vine.Both lashes from the knot of the replacement knot are tied vertically to the trellis wire, and they develop well. Scourge that were with the harvest this summer, delete. Everything is cut to the bitch.
There is only a knot, on which there are two vines grown in the summer. They will go to the formation of a new bitch and a new vine. The entire pruning process is repeated every year.
We form a grape bush in the way "Fan".
What is the difference between the fan formation of grapes from the formation of the Frenchman Guyot.
The formation of a "fan" provides for the grapes are not two fruit-bearing sleeves, but five or more. These sleeves are tied up with a fan with the direction of the shoots vertically. The length of the sleeves dictates which shape to use.
Grape sleeves are large and small, standard and non-standard, single and multi-storey, when fruit strings are tied over one another.
In the northern regions, they are more willing to use such a non-standard formation, otherwise “Fan” or “Half Tower”. It is convenient to cover shrubs with such a formation, it is easier to form the sleeves and rejuvenate the bush with pruning. It contributes to high yields.
1. The first couple of years we take care of the grapes, as with the use of the Guyot technique.
2. Spring of the third year begins with the formation of a sleeve. We grow two vines on one sleeve.
3. Three-year-old vines have already given birth, and the plant grows four meter lash. These lashes are cut in the fall, given the length of the desired sleeves. The minimum length of the cropped whip is not less than half a meter. They are tied to the bottom bar of the trellis by a fan. Garter height up to 50 cm from the ground.Over the summer, absolutely all one-year lashes are cut out on all sleeves, leaving only 2-3 upper ones. They will go on the subsequent creation of the fruit link and the continuation of the grape sleeves. They are tied up strictly on the trellis.
Even before the shelter of the vineyard for the winter, the whole unduvine vine and antennae are cut. If the vine on the bush is well matured, then we bite the upper whip on the fruiting vine with the shears, and shorten the whip that is below with the shears to the replacement knot.
In the future, such shaping is done already on all sleeves, cutting the upper vine by 5-6 eyes for a fruit whip, and cutting the vine from below by 2-3 buds for a replacement knot. Gradually, the sleeves become more, their number increases to 7-8.
If the vineyards are sheltered with dry material for the winter, then such fruit branches will bear fruit for many years.
The land under the vineyard is well fertilized. In the autumn, fertilizers must be filled up under the digging into the vineyard land.
Up to 10 kg of manure + 50 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt + 100 g of superphosphate per one bush. Before flowering and as soon as the berries begin to sing, liquid fertilizer is applied along with irrigation.20 g of superphosphate + 10 g of ammonium nitrate is taken on a bush. Fertilizers are dissolved in a bucket of water. With this solution, the plant is watered under the root or through the drainage grooves.
The vineyard requires constant loosening of the soil in the rows and between the rows. During the summer, winegrowers loosen more than 6-7 times.
Watering and feeding grapes
Watering for young grape saplings is necessary. In order to feed and water the grapes in time, you can stick plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom at each seedling. It is better to take 2- or 5-liter bottles and dig them down with your neck (no cork). Such a simple device will simplify the care of grapes for beginners.
If the grape variety is table, then after a couple of years, the irrigation bottles are replaced with meter-long asbestos pipes.
In technical grape varieties, the irrigation containers are removed after three years. Technical varieties are called wine grapes. He himself extracts water from the soil thanks to deep roots.A completely different irrigation technology for adult grapes. It is necessary to limit watering. Only irrigation of young grapes (up to 2 years) and autumn abundant irrigation for all varieties, providing water recharge for the winter, is needed and useful.
A week before the start of flowering, watering stops - excess moisture can cause grape-colored shedding and yield loss.
How to prepare a vine for winter
The grapes are thermophilic and can winter well only in shelter. In the deep autumn, before the onset of severe frosts, you need to put all the shoots on the ground. Under them, pre-pour a layer of straw. Pin the grapevines to the ground with pieces of wire and sprinkle with earth or lay insulating materials on top of them.
It can be spruce branches, cardboard or wooden boxes, lutrasil or agrofibre, folded in several layers.
How to determine when to open the grapes after hibernation and if it does not freeze from the return frost?
In the spring, as soon as the snow melts and the air temperature is established above 5-7 degrees Celsius, the shelters are removed, we unravel the plant from the winter coat.But the materials for the shelter are not carried away from the trellis trellis, they remain lying nearby, in case of frost return. In the case of a steady decrease in temperature, it is easy to throw a shelter on the vine. And only at the end of April, the vine can be raised with a garter on the trellis.
Perhaps our recommendations will help you in creating a vineyard. We hope that the spiritual and physical work invested in the creation of the grape plantation, will return to you in wonderful sweet clusters.
Rules for growing grapes in the middle lane for beginnersRelated articles
You want to purchase, and these articles will help you with this:"Purchase of planting material"
When do you need to buy planting material?For a long time, the cultivation of grapes was considered the privilege of only the traditionally grape southern regions. But the selection works of grape institutes and amateur breeders allowed the grapes, with the advent of early and extremely cold-resistant varieties, to make truly enormous strides to the north. Now, even the gardeners of Belarus, the Baltic countries, central Russia and other non-traditional countries for viticulture have a real opportunity to grow table and technical grapes in their area, which are not inferior in taste and beauty to the fruits of their more southern neighbors.
- If planting is carried out along a fence or wall, then the distance from it to the seedling should be at least 40 cm, and the distance between plants should be kept 1.2 m. In case of planting in an open area, the distance in the row is 1.5 m, between grape rows - 2 m.
- Select the desired grade.
- Drag the rope.
- Capacity for planting cuttings can be made of 1.5-liter plastic bottles. A glass with a height of 20 cm is cut from below, a hole is made in the bottom. The top of the bottle is not thrown away. It is useful later to close the glass and provide a microclimate to the handle.
- There are several ways to do this:
Grapes are not demanding enough to land. The only condition for its good growth and development is drainage. Therefore, in some special literature there are recommendations on how to prepare a planting hole for grapes, making it large and filling almost half the height with broken brick and rubble for good soil drainage. But according to the testimony of many amateur gardeners who grow grapes in the garden plots, if the soil itself does not retain moisture in excess, then the grapes will grow well on it without special reclamation measures.
Where better to plant?After the beginning of the growth of young specimens, as well as one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings require the implementation of a number of mandatory procedures. Care for grapes in spring is as follows:
- Autumn material is usually tougher than spring. If he suffers a winter cold, then in the spring quickly goes to growth.
- Having bought varietal copies of modern breeding, one can hope for a good harvest, resistance to diseases and frosts. By the way, the rich taste of a large beautiful bunch will not yield to overseas products. Growing grapes in the middle zone for beginners is recommended to start with the early varieties. Their maturation occurs in mid-August.
Yes, we will have to try, we will have to fight the climate of our region, which is unusual for a grape plant, but believe me, it's worth it! Is it really so difficult for you to set aside an hour of time a year to cover your pets for the winter? The grape plant will thank you a hundredfold for this delicious fruit in the summer and unique taste of wines and juices in the winter. Growing grapes in the northern regions a long time ago is not an adventurous undertaking, but a fait accompli. Take a step towards this wonderful culture, and our site will help you with this.
How to plant?
- If the plants are grafted, the place of inoculation during planting should be above the ground level. After the grapes have been planted, it must be tied up to a prepared support, it must be watered abundantly and mulched with humus or manure, so the moisture will last longer in the soil.
- To decide on the place of landing.
- The resulting structure to lay on the boards, stones or bricks.
- The ground in the cups should be watered, a hole should be made in the center almost to the bottom with a diameter of 2 cm. Then you need to make a sand pillow and fill the hole completely after installing the cutting.
- Cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a ventilated basement at a temperature of 0 to +6 degrees.
- For planting grapes is best to choose the sunniest place on the site. In order for a vine to be strong, it must be one - from one bud in a seedling. All other kidneys will need to pinch.
How to care for a vineyard in spring?Weed removal under the vine and around the bush,
- Beginners are not recommended to immediately take up the complex and expensive hybrid specimens. Often they require increased attention, a certain knowledge base and experience.
- From white to pink
- “The choice of grapes. How to choose a suitable grade?
- To get acquainted with the main stages of growing and caring for grapes, I offer you a small video:
How to water?Another method for planting grapes is planting grapes on the beds, which are about 25 cm high. The edges of the beds are reinforced with plastic bottles, dug in with a neck into the ground. This method of planting allows heat to flow more to the roots and thereby accelerate the period of ripening of the crop.
Prepare the ground for planting.
What is pruning and when to do it?In such a shelter does not get moisture during the thaw, and the vine does not get wet. A frost is not terrible for a dry plant.
In order to grow the grapes from cuttings according to all the rules, that is, first the formation of roots, then the awakening of the kidneys, some conditions must be met. The temperature for the bottom of the cup should be up to +30 degrees, and for the kidneys - no higher than +15. This is quite difficult to achieve, but possible. For example, if you grow grapes from cuttings at home, then such conditions can be created on the window. The glasses are mounted on a metal pallet, which is fixed on the battery. The inner window frame is opened and the seedlings are isolated from the room with a polyethylene screen. The temperature can additionally be adjusted pane. Growing grapes from cuttings at home, watering can be provided from the bottom, feeding warm water into the pan. Through the drainage holes in the cups it will flow into the soil.
Beams are placed horizontally into a pit 50 cm deep and poured with moist sand until it covers them completely. A wooden control cap is placed on top. Then all fall asleep sand to the top.
In winter, the grapes must be well covered. Many do this — pin the vine to the ground and pile it up. So, covered with snow, grapes can survive the cold to minus 25 degrees.
Growing grapes and caring for them in central Russia
From saturated lilac to purple
Variety selected, planting material purchased, it's time to start planting. And the most experienced wine-growers of Ukraine, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus will help you with this in a material containing a series of video lessons.
Video on the topic of growing grapes and caring for them.
The task of pruning grapes is to form a powerful fruiting shrub. Pruned annual shoots. The thinner the vine, the less it leaves the kidneys. For example, on the shoot with a diameter of 10 mm with autumn pruning, 10-11 buds can be left as much as possible, and on the shoot with a diameter of 5 mm only 5 buds are left.
To build supports for seedlings.
The design is disassembled in reverse order at the beginning of May. But you do not need to tie up the vine to the trellis as long as there is a possibility of return frost. While she is lying on the ground, you can always cover with the same spun or non-woven covering material. In addition, it is always warmer near the surface of the earth, and in case of a cold snap, the vine will not freeze.
If the cuttings are not very much, then it is convenient to use one and a half liter plastic bottles with cut-off bottoms for their storage. The prepared material is put into one, two longitudinal cuts are made on the other and put on the first one. This method does not require binding, and the ventilation is carried out by opening the plugs 2-3 times for the entire storage period.
Naturally, all the knowledge about growing and caring for grapes will come with experience. Good luck!
Annual cutting of weak roots at a depth of 20 cm under the ground (soil is raked and pruned),
Do not take the varieties of "elite" grapes on the market from obsessive sellers. Otherwise you risk to buy a “cat in a bag”.
- "Preparation and planting of grapes saplings + VIDEO"
- For good growth and abundant fruiting, the grapes in the area should be allocated the warmest and lighted place. The grapes are very thermophilic and responsive to the sun's rays. If you give him both of these components in abundance, he will thank you with good yields for many years. Read more about choosing a place in the article.
- In the spring of them will develop fruiting shoots of the current year. To grow grapes in the middle lane was successful, pruning it is better to carry out in two steps. The first pruning is carried out in the autumn after fruiting, it consists in removing the unduvine vine and too thin and damaged shoots. The second stage of grape pruning is carried out in early spring, after the winter covering material is removed. It also removes damaged and frozen shoots and makes a decision about the load, in accordance with this pruning is carried out.
Plant the seedlings.
In early June, it can be safely placed on the trellis, but there is another problem. By this time, the shoots have already reached a decent size, so you need to take maximum care not to break them.
In the spring you can use stepchildren and trimmed shoots. Green cuttings with two buds immediately put in the water. Then planted in glasses or boxes, create partial shade, until they are touched in growth. The summer months the cuttings will develop, and in the fall they are cleaned in the cellar. In the spring, seedlings are placed in buckets with fertile soil, and in September - in a permanent place in the vineyard. Cutting grapes in spring is a rather risky business, since during the winter you can lose most of the already grown plants.
- When sprout grape cuttings? This can be done in the winter (February) and in the spring.
- Cuttings of grapes should be purchased only in nurseries, which guarantee the varietal conformity of the material, as well as the absence of diseases. In the regions infected with phylloxera, buying seedlings is extremely dangerous! Any planting material should be disinfected and in places of blanks, and before planting!
- Spring preventive spraying of plants Bordeaux liquid before the growing season.
Verification of planting material before rooting
If you plan to plant one bush, then try to find a sunny place for it. It should be removed from trees and shrubs. For the future of a large grape farm, a place is selected with such characteristics:
Video material on the preparation of planting pits and planting grapes.
"Choosing a landing site for a grape sapling"
In late autumn, before the first frost, the vine is removed from the trellis, pruned, leaves are removed, carefully tied and laid on the ground. The base of the bush must be high spud. If there is a vaccination, the earthing up must be done in such a way that it is completely hidden by the ground.
Sprouting in cups
In the hot summer watering is necessary.
Garter grapes and shoots (dry or green) increases the yield and its quality. It gives the possibility of airing the bushes and more lighting, and also frees the approaches to the plants for mechanical work.
- If you want to learn how to grow grapes by cuttings quickly, you need to apply one agronomic technique. It allows you to create a circular callus from them, from which roots will appear in a short time. So that the grafting of the cuttings of the grapes was successful, they remove the earth from the greenhouse. Then they dig a trench deeper than the length of seedlings by 20 cm, put a grate on the bottom and put tufts upside down tightly to each other, filling them with river sand. The lower ends (they turned out closer to the surface) should be at the same level. Then they are covered with a layer of sawdust or moss 2 cm and a layer of humus 12 cm, watered and covered with frames, with the help of which the temperature will be regulated (+22. +24 ° C). Periodically need to moisten the soil and loosen. In the southern regions, ice is laid on the bottom of the trench or cold water is spilled. Kilchevanie ends in two or three weeks.
- The stored material is carefully removed, cleaned from sand, washed with potassium permanganate, then its appearance is checked. The condition of the wood is determined by the updated slice, which has a bright green color. And when it is compressed, there is little moisture. In the longitudinal section, the kidneys should also be evenly green. Cuttings with any abnormalities (black or brown bark, various spots or points and other damages) are subject to rejection.
- Grapes for the year passes a year cycle. It consists of two periods - rest and vegetation. The first lasts from leaf to spring climatic warming. In the rest period, all processes are very weak. Even with a favorable temperature, the buds do not germinate. This period lasts until mid-January and is called physiological rest.
- To ensure adequate nutrition for adult plants, you need to carry out abundant watering several times in the spring-summer season. At a time - at least 15 liters of water under 1 bush. Water in the roots should not stagnate. Otherwise, the occurrence of fungal diseases and root decay can occur. This can be avoided by properly organized drainage. To understand how often to water grapes in the summer, you need to know the temperature regime of the region in the summer. In cold and rainy summer, you can pour bushes 2 times. If the temperature readings are normal, then you can spend 4 watering season.
Slope from the south, southwest or east side,
Muscat Tsikhmistrenko, nutmeg dessert
Video grape pruning.
So, the place chosen. Now you need to carefully prepare it. Site preparation is the correct and timely preparation of planting pits for seedlings. Not the holes in the bayonet of the shovel, but exactly the pit containing nutrients for the first 3-4 years of our seedling's life. On how to properly prepare the landing hole, our detailed article with video
Growing grapes in central Russia
It is made during sap flow, but before the kidneys swell. When they begin to bloom, they are very easy to break off. Last year's shoots are tied up in a vertical position to form a trunk. В случае если он будет высоким, то закрепить его нужно в двух-трех местах. Длинную лозу, предназначенную для отдачи урожая, подвязывают горизонтально, добиваясь максимального освещения.
Принято считать, что культивирование этого растения возможно только в южных регионах. Но сегодня разработана технология выращивания винограда и для средней полосы России.
Soil preparation, planting and care
During storage some moisture may be lost. It must be restored by soaking the cuttings in soft (rain, melt) water for a period of days to three. Before rooting, all cuttings must be labeled with the name of the variety. The lower cut is updated to the site with a full diaphragm - a storehouse of nutrients. For the formation of additional roots of the bark can be scratched. Do this from the lower end of the cutting with a sharp knife.
Then the plant begins the next phase. It is called forced rest. In this state, the grapes are able to quickly wake up when the temperature rises to +10 degrees. This time is used for winter vaccinations, as well as for the accelerated cultivation of seedlings from cuttings of matured annual vine. They are taken from the mother bushes of high yield with pronounced varietal characteristics.
If the weather is too wet, then grapes should be given special attention. Special processing of grapes after the rain is required. High humidity provokes the immediate spread of malicious spores. It is necessary to spray bushes with multi-purpose solutions that can protect against blight, mildew and oidium.
Grape Formation and Winter Shelter
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- As you may have noticed, it is not possible in one article to fully reveal the topic of growing grapes. Each element of care requires a detailed study in the individual materials of this site. In this article, I just tried together with you to take the first steps on the thematic pages of this fascinating path, whose name is viticulture. Next yourself. In the right information sidebar at the very top you can see the section “all site headings”, in it you will see the names of all the headings of this site and a number showing the amount of materials in this heading. You just need to choose the topic that interests you and, by clicking on the name of the rubric, you will get acquainted with the materials of the site on this topic.
- "Planting pit for grapes saplings + VIDEO
- Another method widely practiced by gardeners is the use of nonwoven covering materials, for example, sugril. They are wrapped with vine bushes tied and laid on the ground, and covered with roofing material on top.
- Shelter for the winter.
For this method, use a special rope consisting of steel wire and paper winding. When garter need to leave a margin for thickening of the shoots.
How to remove the shelter
First you need to choose a place for landing. It should be sunny and windless. During the growing season, the plants should be placed ribbons in the direction of north-south.
The upper cut is not renewed; they are lowered into melted paraffin or wax for a second in order to avoid the formation of fungus and putrefactive bacteria. It is better to remove the lower kidney - so once again you can check the condition of the planting material.
Grapes cutting is the selection of parts of a matured vine of any size, even with one eye. The most rational is the choice of a vine with two or three buds.
Winegrowers of the middle band spend global pruning twice a year. Pruning grapes in the fall is necessary before shelter for the winter. Long shoots are shortened, after which they are convenient to lay in the recess and cover. Spring procedure occurs after the disclosure. Removed frozen and dry shoots. In addition, during the growth of the bush do pinching shoots and pruning them for the correct formation of the vine.
Space away from groundwater and marshy surfaces.
What is important to know about planting grapes?
Choosing a landing site
The highest yields of grapes can be obtained only if you choose for him a place that is protected from the northern winds, with good illumination. We should not forget about the soil, which should have good drainage. Grapes feel better if planted. rows south to north. If there are even minor slopes on the site, it is recommended to plant grapes on the southern or south-western slopes.
If there is not a single irregularity in your plot, and the southern wall cannot be used as a site for planting a vineyard, since there is no free space there, then you need to build a fence up to 2 m, positioning it from east to west.
Ways of planting grapes
In areas where sandy soils predominate, it is recommended to plant seedlings in the spring in trenches. If you got a plot with a predominance of loam or clay, or it has a close location of groundwater, then it is best to plant grapes in high beds.
Stamp Molding Method
During the first year, the seedling is carefully looked after so that it can form a sufficiently strong root system. The formation of the bush is carried out only in the second year of life, starting in spring. In the future, they continue to do this regularly for 5 years. After creating the basis of the skeleton of the bush, further formation is not required. Since then, the grapes are grown in the usual way.
The only thing that needs to be done is to carry out maintenance pruning in the fall. To do this, adult bushes need to remove 90% of one-year lashes, as well as cut out the rods of the current season, on which there are ripe clusters. Additionally, you need to cut and all thin non-fruiting whips.
The formation of grapes according to the method of Guyot
In the northern regions brings good results non-standard grape forming. This is a classic version of the formation of such a culture. The merit in its creation belongs to the Frenchman Guyot, who invented it in the XIX century. At that time, a grower with experience came up with the idea of creating a simple shaping, which made it possible to avoid shading grape clusters with excess green mass and it was perfect for them to mature.
- During the first year in the bushes of grapes, a powerful whip grows, which is cut in the fall, with the exception of two eyes, located above the ground or above the grafting site. Sometimes with this method of molding is allowed to leave three eyes.
- In the second year from uncut kidneys two one-year lashes are formed. They are cut into a short (replacement knot) and a long one. And in the first case, be sure to leave 2-3 buds.
- For the third year hold a horizontal lash of the lashes. As a result of this operation, one-year fruit lashes should form from the kidneys. Further they should be fixed so that they grow exactly upwards simultaneously with the lashes from the knot of substitution. All this should help speed up their development.
After the warm weather has been established, the offerings are tied along the ground with a trellis wire. Moreover, it is necessary to do this in view of the polar verticality of the culture. Such an operation will help stimulate the growth of one-year fruit lashes from the buds of the eyes of the fruiting vine.
Each whip from the kidney knot replacement must be secured to the trellis wire vertically. This will provide them with good growth. Scourge that fruited this summer, you need to prune. And you need to remove everything up to the bitch.
The formation of the bush method "Fan"
A feature of this method of formation is that grapes are grown not in two fruitful sleeves, but in five or more. To support the sleeves you need to tie up the fan vertically. Depending on the length of the producing sleeves, a suitable forming option is determined.
In the vines, the sleeves may differ. They can be large and small, standard and non-standard, single and multi-storey, requiring the garter of fruit lashes on top of each other.
For the northern territories, the most appropriate way is a special non-standard-shaped formation, a kind of “Fan” or “Half Tower”. Through the use of such a forming method, it is easier to hide the grapes, as well as the formation of sleeves and rejuvenation of the bush. With proper implementation, you can significantly increase the yield of culture.
For the first 2-3 years, the care of grapes is carried out in the same way as in the case of using the Guyot technique.
From the third year they begin to form the sleeves. As a result of such an event, two vines should form on one sleeve.
In the future, three-year bushes form a four-meter lash, which must be removed in the autumn as much as it is necessary to leave the sleeves. At the same time, it is necessary to cut the lash in length by at least 0.5 m. They must be tied to the lower crossbar of the trellis in the form of a fan. Attach them to the supports at a height not higher than 50 cm from the ground.
Many gardeners and gardeners recommend mulch planting, this also applies to the vine. Mulch retains moisture in the ground and prevents the growth of weeds. But do not pour it too much, because a moist and warm environment is ideal for the development of fungi and rot.
Do not forget to take care of the support for the vine. Soon after planting the grapes will actively grow, and it needs a reliable support for this. It consists of supports and wire stretched on them in 2-3 rows. The framework can serve as logs, iron corners, etc. The wire is better to choose thicker.
You should not plant grapes next to gooseberries, currants and raspberries, as these plants will compete for moisture, which will adversely affect the growth of both neighbors.
Tips for growing grapes in central Russia
Based on the specific climatic conditions in central Russia, I would like to point out a few tips for growing grapes in this region:
- Quite often, planting annual seedlings is practiced not in open ground, but in small but spacious containers (buckets, pots, canisters, canvas bags). In warm time, young plants are on the street, but with the onset of cold weather and the appearance of the threat of the first frost, they are carried away to the basements, where they spend the winter. In the second year, the matured and grown up vines are transplanted into the ground at a permanent place. This method of planting and such care qualitatively reduce the likelihood of plant death in the first winter.
- If you are planting varieties with different characteristics, it is recommended to place them in groups: this way you will not miss a less frost-resistant bush among other vines.
- Choose seedlings grown in local nurseries. Southern grape varieties will be bad in the middle lane, and during frosts they may even die.