Posted by Olga · Posted 05/07/2015 · Updated Aug 18, 2018
Our ancestors called this flower the key-keeper, who opened the door to a warm spring, and also called grass break for the ability to find treasures, spring primrose, because in nature this delicate and romantic flower blooms one of the first. This is about primulawhose name has a Greek root "primus, Meaning first.
The habitat of primroses
Most primroses are unpretentious and prefer moist meadow soils and coastal zones of mountain streams. They can be found on the highlands of Tibet, on the alpine meadows of Europe, the Himalayas, the Alps, the Kuriles, and Japan. Moreover, the most magnificent of them can be found only in the harsh conditions of the mountains at the base of the glaciers, but they do not take root in the garden culture.
These plants are very diverse. Rod Primula totals more than 550 speciesand about 200 varieties Feel great when decorating our parks, gardens, flower beds and window sills.
This culture is quite well described 200 years ago in the monograph of Lehman, who classified primrose on 7 subgenera:
But flower growers have their own classification of these plants, dividing primroses into 23 sections. For those who are engaged in breeding them in central Russia in the open field, only some of them are interesting.
Mealy Primrose Section
These Asian natives count about 90 species. Petals of a plant have either white or yellow powdery deposit. Flowers of mealy primroses can take white, yellow, reddish, purple, or lilac shade. The leaves of the cups on the flower are larger than the petals.
As a rule, this two-year crop prefers fertile, moist, well-drained soils. It can grow in both sunny and shaded areas. They should be transplanted in early spring and mulched for the winter. Mealy primroses serve as an excellent decor for coastal zones of reservoirs, mountain streams and darkened hills.
The most famous species
The most common primrose in the northern regions of Europe, the Far East and southwestern Siberia. Powdery primrose leaves are wrinkled, richly covered with white patina, light green color. Peduncle does not grow higher than 20 cm, it is also partially covered with white bloom. Usually lilac shades of small flowers have a white eye and are collected in inflorescences in the form of an umbrella.
The flowering period is long, from the 20th of April to mid-May, sometimes these primroses can bloom again in September. Used for landscape design, planting groups in peat soils. They need an annual update because they are short-lived in culture.
This section includes perennial early flowering small primroses with jagged petals at the edges and “yellow-eyed” flowers of pink color.
The most famous species is Primula Pink.. Despite the fact that this primula comes from the marshy places of the Himalayas, it feels great on drier soils, but, nevertheless, it should be a darkened wet area with nutrient soil. Used in landscape design.
Section Auricular (auricularum)
This stunted European by birth includes 20 species of gorgeous primroses. She has a juicy leathery leaflets rounded or lanceolate shape. The roots have a woody, leathery structure. Flowers are usually pink-lilac gamma with oval petals.
The way of reproduction of these primroses is seeds or grafting. Vyseivayut them in the winter.
The most famous species:
In the wild form can be found in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. Ear Primula They cultured them back in XVI. The leaves of this primrose are evergreen 7–20 cm in length, flowers 2-3 cm in diameter, can have up to 4 colors in the form of regular circles and a yellow peephole. In umbellate inflorescences can be up to 20 flowers. Peduncles elastic, grow up to 25 cm. On a single plant, covered with a completely powdery coating, there can be up to 10 pedicels.
This group includes primrose hybrids that differ large flowers. Hybrids were bred in England a very long time, from the end of the XVIII, but still have not lost their popularity.
Gardeners call this group auricles. Due to its winter hardiness, unpretentiousness and durability, these primroses are widely spread among gardeners of the North-West and central Russia. For the cultivation of them is quite suitable enriched garden land, require intensive moisture.
Section Cortus primroses
In this section, in addition to the Cortus primroses, there are 23 more species of primroses in Korea, China and Japan. These primroses do not have a characteristic mealy bloom, they have a pedicle-shaped leaves, but the flowers take the form of a funnel.
If you provide well-manured soils with Cortus primrose, you will not have any particular problems with them. In addition, these plants are characterized by self-seeding. Primroses of this section look spectacular against the background of evergreen trees and shrubs.
The most famous species:
In nature, this primrose is found in mountainous areas from Altai to the Urals, cultivated since 1794. This plant has a small horizontal rhizome, covered with hairs, oval-shaped toothed petals, peduncles dipped to 40 cm in length, and purple-red flowers to 2 cm.
The flowering period is up to 40 days in May-June, in favorable conditions re-flowering is possible. Best of all look in group landing on hills and rabatka.
Zubchatolnyatny primrose section
The most prominent representative of this section is Primula finely toothed. This native of western China and the Himalayas is different spectacular inflorescence in the shape of a ball, which stands out brightly against the background of pale green, large, oval leaves. Flowers can take on purple, white, purple, ruby, red hue. The whole plant covers a yellowish bloom.
The flowering period begins in April and lasts up to 1.5 months. Prefers fertile well-drained soil. Primula fine-toothed domesticated since the XIX century. This type is best suited for forcing and cutting bouquets.
This section includes one species of primrose and its hybrids. Origin - Eastern Transcaucasia. Primula Yulia undersized up to 10 cm, has a short oblique rhizome, rounded leaves on long petioles, relatively large (up to 3 cm) lilac-purple flowers. Flower petals intersects a deep groove.
Primrose was cultivated at the beginning of the last century by English gardeners. Hybrids of this plant can have the most diverse color. Primula Yulia looks good in a flowerbed in the company of violets, muskars, daffodils.
Another native of the Himalayas, China and Tibet is endowed with pointed pointed buds resembling a cylinder. Mostly in this section are biennial plants, so they need to be updated annually.
In spring and summer, they need abundant moisture, in other periods - in moderate watering. Best of all, these primroses feel themselves in dark areas with moisture-rich fertile soil. In the winter they should either be properly covered or transferred to an unheated greenhouse.
The most famous species is Primrose Orchid. (otherwise vial). In Europe, this extravagant native of the alpine evergreen forests and mountain meadows of China has been cultivated since the beginning of the last century.
Neither the shape nor the color of flowers, this primrose is not similar to its relatives. Its large lanceolate, slightly fleece and jagged leaves grow from a rosette, the peduncle is covered with a powdery patina, the inflorescence forms bright red buds in the form of bells. When the buds open, the flowers of the Primrose Orchid acquire lilac-lavender color, in addition, they have a wonderful aroma. And since the lower buds first open, the inflorescences of these letne-flowering primroses turn out to be two-colored.
The cultivated primula of Vial should be planted in nutrient grounds with good drainage to semi-shaded areas. This plant lives no more than two years, but propagates easily by seeds, needs to be mulched for the winter.
This section includes four kinds, the area of growth of which is Iran, the Caucasus, Europe, the Urals, Asia Minor. These plants are not covered with mealy bloom, they are unpretentious, they easily multiply, therefore they have been cultivated for a long time and have many varieties.
The most common types are:
Most often found in nature in the highlands of Turkey and the Caucasus. Often adjacent to rhododendrons. The rounded petiolate leaflets on the underside have a gray-felt edging and uneven teeth. Flowers up to 2.5 cm in 6-10 pieces are collected in inflorescences in the form of an umbrella. The color of Primrose Lovely varies from lavender, purple, pink and cornflower blue to white with a yellow eye.
This primrose poorly cultivated, but the purple-violet hybrids of this primrose settled well in partial shade on moist well manured soils as an excellent component of landscape design. The flowering period is April.
Primula Ordinary (or stemless)
The main area of growth Primroses Ordinary the south of the European part of Russia, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the south and central parts of Europe. In the wild, this plant can grow on the hillocks of deciduous forests, on the borders of glaciers and alpine meadows.
Lanceolate leaves partially overwinter, retaining their color. Single flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, of a soft yellow color (less often white with a purple eye), have wide petals with longitudinal cuts. These plants, despite their primitive name, with abundant flowering look unusually beautiful bouquets, consisting of many small delicate flowers.
The flowering period is March-April for 3 weeks. Under favorable conditions, it is possible re-awkward flowering in early autumn.
Candelabra Primrose Section
The habitat of natural growth of this section, consisting of 30 species, considered to be China, Japan, Java, Sumatra, India and Burma. These the largest representatives of primroses distinguished by their unusual inflorescences, consisting of bright rings-tiers on high stalks. These plants have large leaves, and, in some species, they are evergreen. These are mostly two-year old primroses, but in favorable conditions they can live for a longer time.
For the cultivation of this section are recommended wetted and enriched with humus loose soil with good water permeability in dark areas. Well propagated by seeds, so under favorable conditions, self-seeding is possible. This section feels great in central Russia provided quality mulching for the winter.
The most common types are:
Until the end of the 19th century, this primula could be found in the shady ravines of the mountains of Japan and the island of Kunashir. But since 1871, primrose has taken root in the European garden culture.
The flowers of this plant are collected in multi-tiered whorls, which are located at a sufficiently high 30-50 cm legs. The leaves grow in length up to 25 cm, have an oblong spatulate shape and large notches. The flowering period begins with the lower tiers in the last decade of May and lasts until mid-summer.
The plant acquires maximum decorative qualities by the third year of life. Therefore, the flower bed of these primroses needs annual sowing. Given the height of the peduncle, these primroses can be cut for bouquets.
Like all primrose requires loose nutrient moist soil. Therefore, this plant is ideal for planting flower beds in the shade of fruit trees in the garden plots. The primrose does not need additional warming for the winter, but to protect it from rodents it should be covered with pine spruce branches.
This primrose comes from alpine China. In Europe, caught on as a garden culture since 1905.
Wrinkled on the underside, lacetoid or rounded with large notches, the leaves of this plant reach a length of 30 cm and have a winged petiole. The arrow of the flower, covered with a mealy bloom, is high (up to 90 cm), gives several verticils with bright red flowers. The flowers have a peephole pink or dark red.
Almost all of the representatives of this section are late flowering, therefore they bloom Primrose Powdered only from July. Soil requirements are similar to those of other primroses. For the winter should be covered with a layer of peat or straw. Well selectable, so the "blood" of this primrose flows in many new hybrids.
Almost all the primrose species described by us are well established in central Russia, rarely freeze, unpretentious, and do not require large labor costs in cultivation. Even with minimal care, these plants do not lose their decorative properties.
How to grow primroses on the plot in open ground you can read here.
But how to grow a primrose at home on the windowsill and how to time its flowering for the spring holidays, you will learn if you read our next article.
Primula: flower brief
Primula is an herbaceous perennial plant from the family of Primroses, rarely biennial or annual.
Growing conditions for primroses are determined by their type or origin - for some, open areas are better suited, while others are shaded. There are real primroses, blooming, straight from under the snow, and there are others that bloom in mid-summer or even again in the fall.
Usually, they have five-membered and widely open flowers, the correct form and small size, with double or simple haloes. as well as come in a variety of colors and shades. They can be both single and collected in racemes or umbellate inflorescences, at the ends of leafless stems.
Dense basal rosette of the flower, formed immediately above the ground from bright green, whole leaves: ovate, lanceolate or oval. Primrose rhizome is short, fibrous-branched, it is located in the upper layers of the soil. The fruit is a box, the seeds are small, black.
Propagated by seeds or division of the bush, seeds are sown in open ground in the year of harvest in the fall or early February. There are some varieties that are renewed by self seeding.
The requirements for growing primrose are largely dependent on their species. But most species grow well, bloom and develop in the open field, they are unpretentious in their care and enduring. There are also primrose varieties that feel good on the window sills, as indoor plants.
Types and varieties of primrose
The first classification of primroses was made at the beginning of the last century and was constantly updated and replenished. All known species, and today there are more than 550 of them, excluding hybrids, are placed in 30 sections, combining closely related varieties of primroses. Some sections contain a very large number of species, and there are those that include only a few plants.
The most common varieties of primroses, which can be cultivated in a temperate climate, without any particular problems, are especially appreciated by gardeners and there are only 200 of them, because the rest either have no interest in gardening, or are extremely capricious for growing and require special care. For example, some insanely beautiful mountain primroses, unfortunately, can not be grown in the garden.
The most common practical classification of primroses was proposed by German botanists, who identify them by the shape and location of the inflorescences:
- Tiered (candelabra)
Tiered (candelabra) primroses
In longline primrose flowers are collected in whorled inflorescences, consisting of several tiers, located on strong peduncles similar to the candelabra. Large plants with bright rings (tiers) of inflorescences on high peduncles.
This species in nature grows mainly in the mountains, even on limestone, because it is not demanding on the type of soil, but does not like bright sunshine, because these primroses are best grown in partial shade. Virtually all types of this section are biennials and multiply from seeds or by dividing a bush, often under the right growing conditions form self-seeding.
The most common varieties are Japanese primrose, Viale primrose, Bis primrose, Bullei primrose and powdered primrose.
The homeland of Japanese primrose is shady mountain valleys in Japan and the Kuril Islands. It is a perennial plant with elongated spatulate and coarsely toothed leaves, up to 25 cm long, which form a symmetrical basal rosette. From it rose tall flower stalks - up to 50 cm, with whorls up to 5 rows, umbrella-shaped inflorescences with flowers up to 3 cm in diameter - in different shades of red, very rarely - white.
This primrose blooms from mid-June, about 30-40 days, it is often used for cutting. This variety is frost-resistant, but it is better to cover it in the snow-free frosty winters.
Родина примулы Виаля – горные области Китая: вечнозелёные леса и сухие каменистые луга, потому она не любит холодную зиму и очень жаркое лето. Этот сорт цветка лучше высаживать на затенённых участках, на которые не попадают яркие солнечные лучи, а на зиму хорошо укрывать.
Примула орхидная – это второе её название, очень необычная и даже немного экстравагантная. На цветочной стрелке, высотой до 20 см располагается соцветие пирамидальной формы (длиной до 8 см), покрытое мелкими цветками в диаметре до 1,3 см. Оригинальность этого растения заключается в том, что колокольчатые бутоны имеют ярко-красный цвет, а распустившиеся цветы – сиренево–лавандовый. Распускаются они постепенно, благодаря чему создаётся эффект двухцветности. Начинает цвести примула в конце мая и чем прохладнее воздух, тем дольше, в среднем 4-5 недель.
Родина примулы Биса – горные районы Китая: на влажные лугах, побережья горных рек. She loves fertile moist soil and shading, and for the winter she should be covered with leaves no less than 20 cm.
The plant has oval-lanceolate leaves rounded at the top. Flowers - pink-lilac or carmine-red, about 2 cm in diameter, with a yellow or orange peephole in the middle. They are collected in bright rings on the peduncle up to 60 cm high, bloom, and the beginning of June.
Bullei’s primrose’s homeland is northwestern China, where it grows at an altitude of 3000 m. From a lush rosette of bright green leaves that are unevenly jagged at the edges, a group of stems of peduncles rises, up to 50 cm high. flowers, alternately blooming from red buds.
Powdered primula has such a name, since it is completely “powdered”, as it were, covered with powdery coating that makes it special.
In its natural environment, it grows on the wet mountain meadows and the banks of mountain streams in China. Leaves - ovate-lanceolate, wrinkled below and with large teeth along the edges.
The flowers of the plant are dark red with a darker or even pink eye, they are collected in a multi-tiered inflorescence on a high peduncle - 80-90 cm. This species blooms for a long time - from June to August.
Spring primula or medicinal
Spring primrose grows in the forests of Europe, on forest edges and meadows. This is a real primrose that blooms in early spring and can bloom until June.
The flowers of this primrose are small (up to 2.5 cm) yellow, with an orange spot at the base of the petals. They are collected in an umbellate loose inflorescence on a peduncle up to 30 cm in height. The leaves are ovate-oblong, bright green and wrinkled with squeezed on the upper side and convex, making the socket very lush and beautiful.
Spring primrose has a very large number of varieties and hybrids with a large palette of colors; they can be either monochromatic or two-colored, simple or terry.
Primula rejected or Siebold
Homeland primrose rejected - the Far East, Siberia, the Japanese islands. The Japanese are especially fond of this species, it has a cult status among them and is called Sakurasou (“Sakura flower”).
The second name of this flower has an interesting history. In the wild, at the beginning of the last century, it was very common in the suburbs of Tokyo. For the first time, the botanist Philip Siebold brought her to Europe, after which they began to call her by his name. There are a huge number of varieties - more than 80 - from carmine-red, pink and white and to lavender-purple. There are also two-colored varieties, some have a border around the edges of the petals, there are hybrids with bright eyes - red or white. Flower petals can vary in length, width and shape - there are stellate, lobed, dissected, smooth and terry.
Siebold Primula is a perennial plant with oval petioles, with large teeth along the edges.
Flowers with a diameter of 2-6 cm, collected on 5-15 pieces in one umbrella-shaped inflorescence, they can be directed up, down or side.
The peduncle of the plant has a height of about 30 cm, its rhizomes are long branching and grows quickly on light, fertile moist soil.
Homeland primrose high - the south of Europe, where it is most often found on swampy pastures, forest edges. The flowers of this species are bell-shaped bright yellow with a red dot inside, the diameter of a single flower is 2 cm. They are collected in inflorescences of 5-15 pieces, on a slightly lowered peduncle with a height of 10-35 cm. This primrose begins to bloom in April. for two months.
The leaves of a primrose high are wrinkled, oval and with small teeth along the edges, their length is 5-20 cm, and width is 2-7 cm.
Primula pink is also called the Himalayan meadow, because its homeland is Himalayan highland meadows, because it loves the rich and moist soil. At the beginning of its flowering, at the beginning of May, the flower stalks are almost invisible, but over time they become longer and reach a height of 12-15 cm by the end of flowering. Pink primrose flowers are very small, about 1 cm in diameter, and have a bright pink saturated color. At the beginning of flowering leaves are greenish-bronze, and at the end - pale green.
Primula polyantovaya or multicolor
Multi-flower primula is a highly decorative, very fragrant hybrid with the participation of several species. It has large flowers in diameter up to 6 cm, which amaze with various combinations of the color of the middle and petals.
Polyanthus primrose flowers are collected in lush inflorescences, on peduncles with a height of 10-30 cm, depending on the variety. It begins to bloom in May, and if properly care for it, flowering can last up to 2 months.
Ear Primula or Primula Auricular
Ear primula - unpretentious in the care and winter-hardy plant that grows well in open areas, and shaded. Her homeland - the mountain slopes of the Alps, where it grows on limestone rocks. The leaves of this type of primrose - very dense, smooth and shiny, but with a grayish coating. They are assembled in a lush rosette, from the middle of which comes a strong stalk up to 25 cm high, on which a dense spike inflorescence of 5-7 flowers flaunts, blooming in late April.
Primula Kortuzovidnaya - perennial plant, which during the flowering period reaches a height of 40 cm. Its leaves are ovate, serrated on the edge and covered with a fleecy coating. Flowers having a diameter of up to 2 cm, are collected in a few-flowered umbellate inflorescence. Up to 25 flower stalks can develop simultaneously on one bush. This species blooms from May to June, about 40 days.
Julia's primula is an evergreen creeping perennial plant, with a height of not more than 10 cm. Its flower has a funnel-shaped or flat shape and is up to 3 cm in diameter, the color is lilac-pink with a yellow spot in the middle. This is one of the most unpretentious and easy-to-care varieties that blooms in April, even before the leaves bloom, even re-flowering is sometimes observed in the fall.
The primula is small - one of the smallest and not capricious flowers, with very small, almost imperceptible leaves, especially during the flowering period - up to 3 cm. Its homeland is the Eastern Alps, Carpathians and the Balkans. It blooms from May, pink-red flowers with a diameter of about 3 cm, which are placed each on its dense peduncle, creating a bush 30 cm wide and more.
Voronova Primula is an evergreen perennial brush perennial with a bush height of 25-30 cm. It begins to bloom in late April with light purple flowers with yellow centers with a diameter of about 2.5-3 cm. They are placed on thin, dense hairy pedicels with a height of 60 cm and they are framed by large, petiolate leaves, notched-toothed along the edges.
This plant loves soft penumbra and well-drained soil.
Primula ordinary or stemless
The common primula is a typical representative of European primroses and one of the most popular among gardeners with a height of 5 to 30 cm. It has a thick short rhizome with nurovid roots, from which the socket comes out, from oval, bright green leaves. Each funnel-shaped flower, with a diameter of 2-4 cm, is located on a separate pedicel and during flowering, from April to June, looks like a luxurious bouquet, because they are often planted in pots.
Primula Florinda has very fragrant small flowers of lemon-yellow color, which are collected in lush rosettes and elegantly hang from very tall peduncles (70-100 cm). It blooms from June to August.
Especially beautiful in this variety leaves - rich green and broadly egg-shaped with a rounded tip, which are collected in the rosette.
Alpine primula has a racemose, on which a lot of flowers and buds are gathered, which ensures long flowering - up to 2 months. They are located on the peduncles 25-50 cm in height. The color range of colors begins with white and ends with purple, on the verge of red. The leaves of this variety, oval with finely toothed edges, are collected in a thick basal rosette. The stems and flower buds of the plant are covered with shimmering hairs that look like diamond dust.
This type of primrose grows well in the shade, on moist soil - if you stick to this condition, it gives abundant self-seeding.
Sikkim Primula is one of the first Asian primroses, which was brought to Europe and cultivated there. Its homeland is the province of China and Nepal, where it grows in the lowlands, as well as on the banks of rivers and streams.
From the fountain of shaped, high rosettes, flower stalks emerge (up to 30 cm), on the tops of which there are several tiers of lemon-yellow bells of shaped flowers that open in early June.
Primula finely toothed
Small-toothed primula is one of the most sought-after varieties due to its extraordinary beauty, compactness and richness of colors and shades. And also it is often used as a cut for bouquet compositions. It grows well in both sunny and shaded areas, the main condition is loose and fertile land.
The homeland of this flower is the mountain meadows of the Himalayas and China, because it often blooms even in leafless condition. Its spherical inflorescences, about 10 cm in diameter, rise above the rosette of large light green leaves - at the beginning of flowering only 15 cm, and at the end - up to 50 cm.
Homeland primrose capitate - the mountains of eastern Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan, because the ideal conditions for its maintenance in the garden - well-drained soil, which never dries and the absence of bright sunlight. It is also good for container gardening in pots, which can be arranged both indoors and outdoors.
This flower begins to bloom in June. Lush rosette consists of large light green leaves. And on a low peduncle (about 30 cm), a large inflorescence is placed, consisting of a large number of small purple-violet flowers, which begin to bloom gradually from the bottom up, thereby creating a flattening effect.
Primula terry - a special kind
Terry primroses are extremely popular, although the terry for primroses is an acquired characteristic, such flowers are extremely rare in nature.
Terry hybrid varieties are derived from the stemless primrose, auricular and polyantha. They usually have large sizes, deep colors and unusual shades, their flowering period is 2-3 months, many varieties with intensive care, re-bloom in September-October.
There are a huge number of species and varieties of primrose, and each has its own distinctive external features - the size and shape of the leaves, the feature of the inflorescences and the time of flowering. This ornamental plant lends itself well to interbreeding, because every year more and more new hybrids appear that amaze with their beauty.
The section combines 21 species of primroses, whose homeland is considered to be Europe. Plants are stunted with pink, lilac, purple flowers with white or yellow center. The leaves are succulent, and the stems and flowers are covered with a mealy bloom. Plants propagate with seeds that are sown in the fall, and germinate in the spring or segments of rhizomes. After sowing, it is recommended to sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of sand. Consider the main representatives of this section:
- Ear primula or auricular(R. auriculaL.) - a plant unpretentious and winter-hardy. Prefers a garden moist, fertile soil rich in calcium, and a sunny or semi-shaded place. The most widespread plant acquired in England. The leaves are evergreen, dense, with cloves along the edge. The natural appearance has yellow flowers, and hybrids have a varied color.
- Primula pubescent (R. x pubescensJacq.) - is a hybrid of primrose ear. A large number of primroses of various colors were derived from this species. This species is divided into Belgian primroses (without powdery plaque, one- or two-colored with a yellow eye), English (with a mealy patina, flowers with a white eye and stripes emanating from the center), terry.
- Delecluse Primula (R. clusiana),
- Primula stiff-haired (Рrimula hirsutaAll, P. rubraF. Gmel.),
- Karnioli Primula (R. carniolica),
- Small primula (R.minima),
- Primula fringed (P. Marginata).
Cortus Primrose Section
Section combines 24 types of primroses. Plant without powdery plaque. The leaves have petioles, and the flowers are funnel-shaped. These species are easy to grow in fertile soils both in the sun and in partial shade. Propagated by seeds, and Siebold primula - by dividing rhizomes. The main representatives of this section include:
- Primula Cortus (R. cortusoides) - is the most common representative of this section and is found from Europe to Siberia. It has a short horizontal rhizome. The leaves are oval-shaped with a serrated edge, placed on long petioles. On thin pubescent peduncles (10-40 cm) umbellate inflorescences of red-violet color are placed. The flowers have a deep recess in the middle and do not exceed 2 cm in diameter. The flowering period is May-June for 35-40 days.
- Rock primrose (R. saxatilis) is a perennial plant up to 30 cm high. Flowers of lilac color. The leaves have dissected edges and a wrinkled structure. The flowering period is April-June. Refers to frost resistant. He loves loamy, loose, moist ground and sunny place. Often used for decorating stony hills. Ingestion may cause poisoning.
- Primula mnogoervnand I (R. polyneura),
- Primula rejectedI (R. patens Turcz),
- Primula Sieboldbut (R. sieboldii).
Tooth Primrose Section
This section combines the species of primroses, the flowers of which are collected in a large capitate inflorescence. The main representatives of this section include:
- Primula finely toothed (R. denticulata Smith) - China is considered the birthplace of the plant. The plant is covered with a mealy yellow bloom. Leaf sockets are large, light green in color, during flowering have a length of up to 20 cm, and after flowering - up to 40 cm. The peduncles reach a length of 20-25 cm during flowering. The flowers are white, purple or lilac. The flowering period is April for 30-40 days. Seed multiplication prevails. Refers to winter hardiness. Loves both a sunny place and partial shade.
- Primula capitate(R. Capitata).
The section combines 17 species, which differ in the form of inflorescences in the form of pointed cylinders. Asia is considered the birthplace of these species. Plants belong to the biennials, so for annual flowering it is necessary to plant new plants annually. Care involves abundant watering during the growing season and shelter for the winter.
- Primula Viala (R. vialii) - refers to perennial plants. Its height reaches 50 cm. Inflorescences are spiciform, lilac-pink color. The leaves are large, wrinkled. The flowering period is June-July for 30-40 days. It prefers fertile, friable, well-moistened soils and a sunny or semi-impermeable place. In winter needs shelter.
- Primula muskarevidnaya (R. muscarioides).
The section combines easy-to-grow types of primroses without powdery spraying. Reproduced these types of seeds and the separation of the bushes.
The section includes the following types:
- Primula lovely (R. amoena) - refers to perennial plants. It grows in the Caucasus and Turkey. Reaches a height of up to 20 cm. The leaves are oval-shaped, up to 7 cm, with short petioles and fine teeth on the edge. Top - bare, bottom - velvety. The length of the peduncle reaches 18 cm. The flowers of purple are gathered in one-sided umbellate inflorescence. On one peduncle up to 10 flowers with a diameter of 2-2.5 cm.
- Stemless primrose (R. vulgaris) - grows in Western and Central Europe, in the Middle East, in Asia Minor and Central Asia, in northern Africa. The leaves of the plant are lanceolate, some of them are preserved in winter. Peduncles about 20 cm long, on which are single flowers of light yellow or white with a purple throat color up to 4 cm in diameter. It blooms in April for 25 days. May re-bloom in September.
- Primula high (R. elatior),
- Abkhazian primula (R. abchasica),
- Primula Voronova (R. woronowii),
- Pallas primula (R. pallasii),
- Primula Komarova (R. komarovii) et al.
This group includes species of primroses with single individual peduncles, which slightly rise above the leaves of the plant.
- Primula Voronova (R. Woronovvii),
- Prigula Pruhonitskaya (R. x pruhoniciana),
- Primula ordinary or stemless (P. vulgaris = R. Acaulis),
- Primula Yulia (R. Juliae),
- Small primula (R. Minima).
There are combined species of primroses, the flowers of which are collected in a one-sided umbrella. The height of the peduncle, which rises above the rosette of leaves, is up to 20 cm.
- Spring primula (R. Veris),
- Siebold Primula or rejected (R. sieboldii = R. Patens),
- Primula high (R. Elatior),
- The primrose is polyanthic or the primrose is a multi-flowered (R. Poliantha),
- Primula pink (R. Rosea),
- Ear primula or auricular (R. Auricula).
Capitolate or globose
This group combines the species of primroses, whose flowers are collected in dense capitate inflorescences. Цветонос является плотным, и в период цветения его длина достигает до 20 см, а в период плодоношения до 45 см.
- Примула головчатая (Р. Capitata),
- Примула мелкозубчатая (Р. Denticulata).
К данной группе относятся примулы с повисшими цветками, размещенные над розеткой листьев на цветоносах различной высоты.
Самые известные из них:
- Примула Флоринды (Р.florindae),
- Примула сиккимская (P. Sikldmensis).
- Примула кортузовидная (Р. Cortusoides),
- Примула Комарова (Р. Komarowii),
- Примула сибирская (Р. Sibirica),
- Примула мучнистая (Р. Farinosa),
- Примула Рупрехта (P. ruprechtii),
- Примула орхидная или виаля (Р. Vialii),
- Примула крупночашечковая (P. Macrocalyx),
- Примула норвежская (P. Finmarchica),
- Примула Палласа (Р. Pallasii),
- Примула окаймленная (Р. Marginata),
- Примула снежная (Р. Nivalis),
- Примула чионанта (Р.chionantha),
- Примула холодная (Р. Algida),
- Scottish primrose (R. Scotica).
Important!Scientists claim that primroses predict volcanic eruptions. It is noticed that on the island of Java Royal primrose blooms only on the eve of the eruption. It is believed that the cause of this ability is ultrasonic vibrations that accelerate the movement of fluid in the plant, which leads to unexpected flowering.
Primrose combines many positive factors: they are not demanding when grown, have early and prolonged flowering, are resistant to cold, and their varieties satisfy even the most sophisticated grower.
Primula or Primrose (Primula) family Primrose - are rhizomatous herbaceous low perennial plants, flowering mainly in the spring, although there are some summer flowering species. Solid wrinkled leaves have a light edge, they form a rosette. Flowering stems of leaves do not have. The flowers are surprisingly varied colors, there are two and even tricolor. They settle down on peduncles singly or form various inflorescences. After flowering, the fruit is a box with small dark brown seeds. All species reproduce well by seed, and many by dividing the bush. Learn more about primrose care here.
This flower is spread all over the world, therefore, it has many species, more than four hundred, respectively. In almost every country he is covered with legends and myths, considered medicinal and mystical. For early flowering, primroses are called spring primroses, for wavy pubescent leaves - “rams”, and also - “keys”, since the inflorescence resembles a bunch of small keys.
It will be useful to read:
Although primroses are well studied and described by botanists, their enormous diversity makes the classification rather complicated.
A single universal classification has not yet been created. Officially, the genus of primrose is divided into 7 subgenera: Sphondylia, Auriculastrum, Primula, Auganthus, Carolinella, Aleuritia, Craibia.
These plants differ in the form, size, color of flowers and leaves, the type of inflorescences, the timing of flowering, that is, morphological features. On this basis, 23 (sometimes 30 or 38) sections or groups were allocated.
The British Royal Society of Gardeners has made its own, easier to use classification, which divides the primroses into 3 large groups.
Flower for practical use made the division into groups according to the shape of inflorescences and their location.
Consider briefly these options for classifications.
1. Mealy primroses
Mealy primroses (Primula Fariaosa, Aleuritia). A characteristic feature of this group is the presence on plants of white or yellow bloom. Small flowers form umbrella inflorescences. This moisture-loving plants, requiring little shelter for the winter, are short-lived. This section includes more than 80 species.
We name only a few of them. This is a native of the Balkans leafy primrose (Рrimula frondosa), originally from the Alpine and Carpathian Mountains Haller's primrose (Рrimula halleri), mealy primula (Primula fariaosa) grows in the Far East, the north of the European part of Russia, the north of Mongolia and in the mountains of Western Europe.
2. Primrose OREOPHLOMIS
Primrose OREOPHLOMIS (Primula Oreophlomis) - this section includes low early flowering species. Distinctive features of this group are smooth leaves with a jagged edge and bright pink flowers with a small yellow eye.
Most clearly represents the group pink primrose (Primula rosea). A lover of wet soil from the Himalayas. Young leaves with teeth on the edge have a bronze tint, but gradually become light green. Peduncles are short and at first it seems that the flowers lie on the leaves, but gradually grow to 15 cm. Small (about 1 cm) pink flowers bloom in May.
On sale you can find the variety Rosea Grandiflora with large flowers.
3. Primula Auricular
Primula Auricular, or Auriculastrum (Primula Auricula, Auriculastrum) - this section includes 21 species originally from Europe. These are low-growing plants with dense leaves, stems and flowers covered with a white powdery coating. The color of the buds can be lilac, yellow, pink or purple, sometimes with a white eye.
Imagine several species.
Primula auricular or ear (Рrimula auricula) - grows in mountain meadows of southern Europe. The leaves are dense, dark green, with barely noticeable teeth on the edge, can reach 20 cm. Traditionally, the flowers are yellow (up to 3 cm), but hybrids strike with a variety of colors and their combination, there are many-flowered varieties, as well as with contrasting eyes. All this flower magnificence is collected in an umbrella at the top of the stem (10-25 cm). Flowering is long April-June. May have several peduncles. The leaves and flowers are abundantly “powdered”.
This species has many varieties. In addition to the gorgeous flower, it has a delicate orange-yellow variety Jupp. Reminds small roses primrose ushkovaya terry. It is very beautiful with dense dark-cherry flowers Crimson Glow, pale pink with a light yellow base Susannah. Unusual Max variety, its flowers are black in the shade, they get a cherry shade in the sun.
Primula pubescent (Рrimula pubescens) is a section of large-flowered hybrids, in the selection of which took part ear buds, shaggy (P. Villosa), sticky (P. Viscosa), stiff-haired (P. Hirsuta). This group is divided into three subgroups: Belgian, English and terry auricles. They differ in the color of the eye and the presence of plaque.
These hybrids are well established in our area, as quite winter-hardy. In addition, retain decorative throughout the season, unpretentious and durable.
Velvet ruby-cherry with a large yellow center in the Rubin variety, white-cream with a yellow eye in the White variety, light purple and also with a yellow eye in the Violeta variety.
This section also includes primrose small (Рrimula minima), Delucluse (Рrimula clusiana), shaggy (Рrimula villosa), Carnioli (Рrimula carniolica), stiff-haired (Рrimula hirsuta), bordered (Рrimula marginata).
4. Cortus Primroses
Primula Cortus (Primula Corthusoides) - unite the inhabitants of Europe, Siberia, Japan, Korea, China. These species have no mealy plaque, they have funnel-shaped flowers and petiolate leaves. This section includes the following types.
Primula Cortus (Primula сorthusoides) - this is our West Siberian beauty. The leaves are ovate-oblong with teeth on the edge, covered with long hairs, arranged on long petioles. Peduncle (10 to 40 cm) also pubescent. At the top of the flowers are collected in a multi-flowered umbrella. Pinkish-purple petals have a deep groove in the middle. It blooms in late May and blooms until the end of June.
Siebold Primula (Рrimula sieboldii) - a native of Japan. It has very decorative leaves, which, due to the special shape of the teeth on the edge, seem to be wavy. Multicolored umbrellas of various colors are located on peduncles 15-20 cm long. It blooms for a long time (almost 2 months) starting from the end of April. Thanks to well-branching rhizomes grows rapidly.
Of the original varieties, I would like to mention white with rare light green specks, Aoyagizome, white with pink strokes, Shibori Gasane. Similar to the carved snowflakes, flowers of the Trade Winds variety.
This group also includes - rock primrose (Рrimula saxatilis), rejected (Рrimula patens), multi-nervous (Рrimula polyneura).
5. Zubchatolitnye primroses
Zubchatolitnye primroses (Primula Denticulaia) - this section includes two types.
Primula capitate (Рrimula capitata) - this species is common in Tibet and India. The leaves are oblong with a blunt tip, wrinkled, gathered in a rosette. On the peduncle (15-30 cm) from the small velvet-purple flowers formed capitate inflorescence. The whole plant is “powdered” in white bloom. It blooms almost all summer. In our area is used primarily as an annual plant.
It has decorative varieties such as Noverna Deep Blue, Salvana.
Primula finely toothed (Рrimula denticulata) - differs from other types in its pretty inflorescences-balls, consisting of small flowers of the traditionally lilac range. Peduncles grow constantly: at first they are only 2-3 cm, but gradually, by the middle of flowering, they already reach 20 cm, and at the end of the season even 30 cm. The whole plant is “powdered” with a yellowish bloom. The primula serrated begins flowering in April, it lasts more than a month. Gives self-seeding and good winters.
Primula finely toothed is represented by various decorative varieties. Dense balls of small flowers with tiny yellow eyes rich pink in Deep Rose, lilac-blue in Cashmeriana, rich crimson in Rubra. White small clouds will please the primrose "Alba".
It has a small primrose grape variety. For example, Corolla, “Pon-pon” consist of different colors (white, purple, red).
6. Primrose Julia
Primrose Julia (Julia) - this section actually includes one species. Often this group includes the Prugonitsky primula.
Primula Yulia (Рrimula juliae) is from East Transcaucasia. This is a miniature plant (10 cm). The leaves are oval, with rounded teeth on the edge, located on long petioles. Lilac-purple flowers (up to 3 cm) are located one at the top of the peduncle. They have a rather long flower tubule (2 cm) and a deep groove in the middle of the petal. It blooms early in April and blooms more than a month.
There are many varieties and hybrids of this species. Popular Sneeuwwitje with snow-white petals and lemon eye. The pleasant lilac-blue color contrasts well with the yellow eye of the hybrid variety Blue Julianas. Old, but very attractive variety Riga-6, the spring warmth is reflected in its rich pink petals and yellow-orange center.
Prigula Pruhonitskaya (Рrimula pruhoniciana) are hybrids of the primrose Julia (Рrimula juliae) and other species. For example, crimson-purple with a bright yellow eye of Wanda.
7. Primrose Muscarioids
Primrose muscarioids (Muscarioides) is a section of plants originally from Tibet and the Himalayas. Grown most often as biennials. Their distinctive feature is long peaked inflorescences uncharacteristic for primroses.
Primula Viala or Orchid Primrose (Рrimula vialii) - this species is quite difficult to take root in our climate, but it is worth it to make a little effort. The leaves are long lanceolate (up to 30 cm), with teeth on the edge and a very weak edge. Peduncle covered with mealy bloom, grows up to 20 cm (in our area up to 15 cm). The inflorescence, something resembling a small corn cob, consists of a set of rich red buds, which, gradually dissolving (from the bottom up), turn into pale lilac flowers with a pleasant faint odor. Flowering lasts from June to July.
This group also includes muskarevid primrose (Рrimula muscarioides). This summer blooming species is very rare in our country.
Primula (Primula) - this section with a common name includes species of European and Asia Minor origin, which are completely absent powdery. Plants of this group are very common in ornamental floriculture.
Primula high - plants come from Central Europe and the Carpathian Mountains. Oval-oblong leaves look wrinkled due to depressed veins. Leaf plate (from 5 to 20 cm) with a dentate edge and sparse hairs. Peduncle slightly pubescent (10-35 cm). Small yellow flowers with a dark middle form a slightly drooping umbrella inflorescence. Flowering lasts about two months from mid-April. Hybrids have larger flowers and an incredibly diverse color.
Now this species has many varieties. For example, "Piano" includes Piano Red, Blue, White, Yellow, Orange, Fire, and even the most beautiful bicolor pink-yellow Piano Rose Bicolor. Due to the high flower stalks, the primrose "Erfurt Giants" ("Big Ben") is suitable even for cutting.
Of the hybrids, we would like to mention the so-called “lace” varieties - “Queen's Lace”, Silver Lace Black, Victoriana Gold Lace Black. The rather dark petals of these varieties are framed by a thin whitish border, so the inflorescences seem to be openwork.
Polyanthus primula, or many-flowered primrose (Рrimula poliantha) - this species is very similar to a high primula (Рrimula elatior), only its flowers are much larger (approximately 5-6 cm), bloom comes later (end of May-June), there is a pleasant aroma. This species is much more tender and can freeze in winter, therefore a large number of such hybrids are grown as pot crops.
The Blue Jeans variety is very popular, its white petals are densely filled with blue veins. The Faye variety plantation is distinguished by an amazing combination of shades, and the SuperNova variety plantation - by very early flowering. One of the most original hybrid varieties is Francesca, the owner of corrugated lemon-green flowers with a yellow eye.
Spring primula (Рrimula veris) is an exclusively European species, which in ancient times was called a forest primrose or medicinal, it is still used for medicinal purposes. The leaves are oval, wrinkled (with depressed veins), uneven teeth on the edge make them slightly wavy. The lower part of the leaf may be slightly pubescent. A bright yellow flower with an orange middle has a long cup. Flowers on the top of a little hairy peduncle form a one-sided umbrella. It blooms from April to June. Numerous varieties have a large variety of colors, can be terry. Spring primula - a very unpretentious look, however, it requires pollination by insects.
For example, the golden sun spray resembles the yellow flowers of the Cabrillo Yellow variety, and the variety of varieties “Spring palette” will delight with joyful colors.
Primula ordinary or stemless (Рrimula vulgaris / acaulis) - grows in the south of our country and Europe. The leaves are oval, elongated (5-25 cm), wrinkled. At the top of low peduncles (6-20 cm) are single flowers, most often yellow, sometimes white with a purple center. Petals resemble a heart, divided into two halves. Flowering in this species is active, so the plants look very attractive. Primula akaulis has many hybrids that have amazing colors, but are less resistant to weather conditions.
The stemless primrose "Potsdam Giants" stands out among other large flowers on a very small bush (15 cm). A terry primrose Primlet resembles bunches of cute little roses of stunningly beautiful colors. Slightly reminiscent of azalea flowers terry variety roseanna. The very original color of the variety “Blue Zebra” (Blue Zebra) is a bright contrast of a golden-yellow eye with striped blue-white petals.
Primula akaulis is very often used for growing at home.
This section also includes primrose. large cup (Primula macrocalyx), lovely (Рrimula amoena), Pallas (Рrimula pallasii), Voronova (Рrimula woronowii), Komarov (Рrimula komarovii), Ruprecht (Primula ruprechtii), Abkhaz (Рrimula abchasica), Sibthorp (Primula Sibthorpii).
9. Primrose candelabra
Candelabra primroses (Proliferae, Candelabra) - this section contains residents of Japan, China, India and other countries in the region. These plants are very beautiful, are flowering. In our climate they grow well, but require careful shelter for the winter. Most often they are used as biennials, but if you create comfortable conditions for them, you can grow them as perennials. Often give a good self-seeding.
Primula bullei (Primula bulleyana) is a native of China, its peduncle reaches 50 cm, and the leaf plate is 40 cm. The leaves are elongated, jagged along the edge. On a high peduncle in several tiers (from 5 to 7) there are orange-yellow small flowers.
Very similar to her Bissa primula (Primula beesiana) and primula powdered (Primula pulverulenta), only they are slightly larger with crimson flowers, and the latter has a mealy patina.
Japanese primula (Primula japonica) - this beauty can be used for cutting. Her peduncle (30-50 cm) is decorated with bright crimson bracelets. Flowering begins in May from the lower tiers and lasts about 2 months.
Japanese primrose is also used in indoor floriculture as a pot plant.
Delicate apple blossoms resemble the Apple Blossom variety, while Miller’s Crimson has rich crimson flowers with a large cherry center.
Primula Kokburna (Primula coekburniana) - also belongs to this group, but is very rarely grown in our area.
As you can see, this is a rather complicated classification and it is not always convenient for an amateur gardener to use it.
Classification of the English Royal Society of Gardeners
This is a more simplified version of the classification.
Group-1. Auricular primroses (auricles) and all kinds of hybrids. This group is divided into 4 subgroups.
- Curb (flower bed) the most hardy and resistant varieties of this group. Thanks to the sturdy peduncle weathering is good. Compact habit allows you to create low flowering borders of them, and a wide palette of colors makes it popular in the design of flower beds. May have a small mealy patina.
- Alpine auricles are also well suited for outdoor cultivation. All of them have a bright color. Middle and tubule binding one color. In flowers with a white center, as a rule, the petals are in the violet-blue range, and if the center is golden-yellow, then the petals may be in the reddish-brown range. May have a bright border. This subgroup does not have on the powdery flowers.
- Primula terry is amazingly beautiful, but it requires more attention and care. However, he feels rather well in the beds with proper care.
— Выставочные — это гибридные, довольно требовательные и нежные сорта. В большинстве своем цветки покрыты, напоминающим пудру, мучнистым налетом, что делает их весьма оригинальными. Однако непогода (дождь и ветер) сильно повреждает этот налет (фарину), поэтому в Европе эти шоу-сорта выращивают под укрытием или в домашних условиях. Кроме того, некоторые из них не могут зимовать в открытом грунте.
Группа-2. Первоцветно-полиантовые примулы. В эту группу входят 2 подгруппы.
— Полиантовые примулы. This includes all complex hybrids with the participation of primroses and many-flowered and high.
- Primrose spring, ordinary, Julia, as well as all sorts of them.
Group-3. Candelabra Primroses. In this group, species with a longline inflorescence are combined. These are Japanese, Byssa and Bulley, as well as all their varieties.
This classification includes the most common species in ornamental floriculture and primrose varieties.
Classification of the shape and location of the inflorescences
This is the simplest and most convenient classification for amateur gardeners, which allows you to choose suitable varieties for flower gardens for their habit and shape.
Cushion. This group includes species with single flowers on low peduncles, they only slightly rise above the “pillow” of leaves. The most popular in the floriculture of this group is the primrose, small, Yulia, Voronova.
Umbrella-like. In this group, the inflorescences form a one-sided or rounded umbrella on peduncles up to 20 cm. Among the most popular species of primrose are high, polyanthic, ear, spring, pink, rejected, and all their hybrids.
Spherical or capitate. Primula spherical forms a dense capitate inflorescence, which looks like a decorative ball on a stem that grows during flowering. These include the small-toothed primrose, capitate and their varieties.
Candelabra or Tiered. The inflorescences of this group are arranged in tiers on a high sturdy peduncle, reminiscent of ancient candlesticks-candelabra. In our climate, primroses are used Japanese, Bulleya, Bissa and powdered.
Bell-shaped. This group has a drooping inflorescence of bell-like yellow flowers at the top of a strong peduncle. The group is small, but planting of these plants is possible along the shore of the reservoirs and in poorly drained areas. These are the Sikkim primrose (Рrimula sikkimensis) and the Florinda primula (Рrimula florindae).
It will be useful to read:
We have reviewed the garden primrose and its classification. However, it should be noted that some species of this plant in our climate are grown as pot plants. Among them, the most common are Chinese primula (Primula sinensis), Kyus primula (Primula kewensis), Malacoides primula (Primula malacoides), Primula obverse (Primula obconica) and soft primula (Primula malacoides).
For example, a Chinese primrose, planted in open ground, blooms in May-June, and at home - from December to March.
A perennial primrose is very diverse and beautiful. And the classifications considered by us will help to choose a variety that is suitable for your garden. Add information informative video.
Adding an article to a new collection
Despite outward modesty (the flowers in plants of this genus are often small, the bushes are low), the garden primrose is no less popular with florists than the luxurious roses or lush peonies.
The very name of this perennial speaks for itself: "primus" in Latin means "first", and indeed, a primula, also known as "primrose of spring," one of the first delights us with its early flowering.
Most species of the Primula genus are perennials, biennial and annual plants are also found. Basal rosettes consist of whole leaves, usually wrinkled and covered with hairs. Flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences, located at the ends of leafless peduncles.
Primula in the garden - a great option for borders, rock gardens, as well as for decoration pristvolnyh circles. Primroses love calcium, therefore it is recommended to periodically add lime or dolomite flour to the soil. If the soil is too greasy, then when planting make rotten compost with sand (1: 1) with the addition of ash.
In the people, this flowering herbaceous plant is called “rams”, because the leaves of representatives of some species have wavy edges. In Scandinavian mythology, a blooming primula was considered a symbol of spring and youth: with the help of these flowers, resembling a bunch of keys, the fertility goddess Freyja "discovered warmth" after the long winter months.
To your attention are the most popular species and varieties of plants of the Primula genus, spring blooming with bright colors in our gardens:
Neat perennial height of 12-15 cm.
Forms compact sockets with fragrant flowers (2.5-3 cm in diameter).
Blooms profusely and continuously in April-July.
Maintains frosts down to –23 ° C.
Perennial height of 5-10 cm.
Forms thick squat curtains with flowers up to 3 cm in diameter.
Blooms profusely in April and May.
Maintains frosts down to –29 ° C.
Beautiful perennial 25-30 cm tall.
Forms rosettes of oblong-ovate leaves with fragrant tubing drooping flowers.
Blooms profusely in April-June, forming
long peduncles. Resistant to frost down to –29 ° C.
Drought-resistant perennial 25-35 cm high.
Forms kutinki from oblong wrinkled leaves with flowers with a diameter up to 2 cm.
Blooms profusely in April-June.
Maintains frosts down to –29 ° C.
Perennial with large fragrant flowers 5-6 cm in diameter.
Forms bushes with a height of 10-30 cm. It looks like a primrose high, but less frost-resistant.
It blooms from mid-May to late June.
Forms rosettes of obovate leaves with a height of 15 cm. The flowers are fragrant, diameter 2-3 cm.
Flowering primrose: April-June.
High frost resistance (up to –40 ° С)
Forms sockets of elongated large leaves with dense spherical inflorescences with a height of 30-50 cm (flower diameter - up to 2 cm).
It blooms in April-June.
Maintains frosts down to –29 ° C.
Forms clumps of ovoid leaves with a height of 30 cm with flowers with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm.
It blooms in April and May.
Frost resistance is high (down to –40 ° С).
Many people mistakenly believe that the time of flowering primrose garden - only springtime. In fact, many species of this plant begin to bloom in early June and continue until the end of August.
Since ancient times, perennial primrose has been used as a medicinal plant. Few people know that this plant is a honey plant: the fact is that because insects are too long (by the standards of the bees), the flowering tube is inconvenient to collect pollen, so they do it infrequently.
Your attention - the most popular species and varieties of primroses, blooming in summer:
Forms curtain up to 30 cm in height. The leaves are elongated, with wavy edges.
Flowers are fragrant, diameter - 2.5-3 cm.
It blooms from June to July.
Maintains frosts down to –29 ° C.
Forms bushes with a height of 90-120 cm. Flowers with a diameter of 2 cm are located on long peduncles.
It blooms in June and August.
Maintains frosts down to –23 ° C.
Forms clumps with a height of 30-70 cm. The leaves are collected in a powerful outlet, the flowers are arranged longline (diameter up to 2.5 cm).
It blooms from mid-June to August.
Forms long stalks.
It is frost-resistant at –23 ° C.
Forms thick sockets with a height of 30-50 cm.
Flowers with a diameter of 2 cm are collected in multi-tiered "rings".
It blooms in June on long peduncles. Not afraid of frost to –29 ° C.
Forms bushes up to 60 cm in height with very large leaves and long flower stalks.
Flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in "rings".
Forms bushes up to 90-100 cm in height with obovate leaves and flowers 2-3 cm in diameter.
It tolerates temperatures down to –23 ° C.
Forms curtain 15-30 cm tall. Leaves oblong, wrinkled.
Flowers are collected in compact "umbrellas" with a diameter of 0.8-1.2 cm.
It blooms from June to August.
Frost resistance is maintained at –29 ° C.
Forms clumps up to 40 cm high. Leaves oblong, pubescent. Peduncles strong, small flowers are collected in a narrow conical spike 1.5-2 cm in diameter.
It blooms in June and July.
Maintains frosts to –20 ° C.
We hope we have helped you discover new species of this beautiful unpretentious plant. We are very interested to know what primroses you grow in your garden, so we are waiting for your photos in the comments!
If "rams" and "keys" do not grow on your site yet, then we recommend reading the article about how the primrose plant is grown in open ground:
In group Primula includes the most common primroses that grow in Russian gardens for more than one century. Currently, there are numerous varieties with the most unimaginable colors of flowers, as well as terry and dissected petals. In a culture of very unpretentious. The beginning of the magnificent varietal plants from this group gave 3 European species: spring primula (P. veris), high primula (P. elatior) and primula ordinary, or stemless (P. vulgaris, P. acaulis).
The genus Primrose, or Primula (Primula), from the family Primrose (Primulaceae) has about 500 species. In nature, primroses are found almost across the globe. Most grows in Asia, they are in Europe, Africa, North and South America.
Ear Primroses (Auricula) - low plants with thick rhizomes and fleshy leathery leaves. Peduncles and flowers are covered with a white mealy bloom. Petals are pink, lilac, purple, yellow, often with a bright eye. Wild-growing species, which became the basis for breeding, - ear primula (P. auricula) from Central and Southern Europe.
One of the most spectacular and popular groups of primroses. Especially loved in England, where it is a collection plant since the XVI-XVII centuries. Over the past century, an incredible number of varieties and forms of ear primrose were obtained in the country: terry, variegated two-, three-colored, iridescent perlamutrovye, with exotically colored petals: gray, brown, green, orange, red.
Group Denticulata are dentate primroses with a dense multi-flowered spherical inflorescence located on a thick erect peduncle. Ancestor of varieties - fine-toothed primula (P. denticulata) from the Himalayas and Western China. The flowers are purple, white, purple. Jagged primroses are unpretentious and winter-hardy. Their only drawback is the leaves growing strongly after flowering, which in the summer give the plantings an untidy look.
Seeds of common primrose (P. vulgaris) and finely toothed (P. denticulata) in culture do not require stratification. The first type requires germination in the light, the second - in the dark. It should be remembered that shoots of almost all types of primroses do not like direct sunlight.
Primula Viala, or orchid (Primula vialii)
In recent decades, more and more exotic sections can be found in gardens. Muscarioides - Muscarius Primroses from the Himalayas, Tibet, Western China. The most common species in the gardens is Primula Viala, or Orchid (P. vialii). These primroses have unusual cylindrical inflorescences for the genus, which resemble muscari or northern orchids. Most species are cultivated as biennials. During the growing season moisture-loving, prefer penumbra. In autumn and winter, excess moisture is extremely harmful. For the winter they need shelter or transfer to a cold greenhouse.
Japanese Primula (Primula japonica)
In group Candelabra are included candelabra primrosesThey originate from the mountainous regions of southern China, India, and Japan. Heat loving. Large summer flowering plants with high peduncles, flowers arranged in tiers. In central Russia in need of shelter for the winter. Can winter in cold greenhouses, on window sills in cool rooms. Japanese primroses (P. japonica) and Bulley (P. bulleyana) can be grown as biennials. They love moist fertile soil, partial shade. Easily propagated by seeds. Look great and feel at the reservoirs.
Garden primroses: varieties and views from a photo in the landscape
Primroses bloom in early spring, hence the name primrose. However, not all varieties of it can be applied - there are letne-blooming species. The leaves of the plant are leathery, covered with a soft down. This feature was the reason to come up with a primrose, another name - rams. In England, annually held flower exhibitions, it is easy to find the most rare and unique varieties.
Primula (Primula) is a medium-sized, flowering herbaceous plant (biennial and perennial), belongs to the family Primrose, of the order Heather. Different types and varieties of flower scattered around the world. Somewhere legends are made about him, and in some countries, primrose leaves are used to make spring salads and medicinal tea. But it is worth being careful, for example, the primrose Opconica is dangerous for allergy sufferers.
Varietal, species and hybrid variety of primroses (description and photo)
Primula for some reason is considered to be a forest plant, although in nature it is also found off the shores of ponds, in the mountains, on alpine meadows and even near the snowfields. Sometimes a flower is found in such extreme conditions, where other, even the most hardy plants cannot settle down. And what is remarkable, such primroses are almost impossible to grow in a flower garden.
Botanists, because of the enormous diversity of primroses, divided the genus into 23 sections, and amateur growers distinguish several groups. In the culture there are also certain species, varieties and hybrids, it is extremely difficult to describe them all, we consider the most popular ones.
These are miniature and medium-sized primroses that bloom as soon as the snow melts. Stemless leaves, on the edge of finely toothed, flowers in the original species pink with yellow throat. Bright representative of the section - pink primrose, the flowers are small, solitary, or collected in loose umbrellas, the height of the peduncle is about 15 cm. The species blooms at the end of April or in May, and the leaves grow after the buds wither. Pink primrose loves wetlands.
Spike Primrose Section
Most interesting - Primula finely toothed with spherical inflorescences on half-meter peduncles. The leaves are wrinkled, elongated (about 20 cm), the bush is covered with a yellow powdery coating.
Flowering begins in April, but even a rosette of young leaves with unopened buds looks very beautiful. Unpretentious, frost-resistant, easy to grow view with flowers of various shades:
- Alba - diameter of white flowers is up to 2 cm, and inflorescences are about 15 cm, like shaded, moist places,
- Vilet - inflorescences slightly smaller than the previous variety, the buds are purple, peduncle not higher than 30 cm,
- Rubra - ruby-red flowers, the parameters of the plant are the same as the variety Vilet.
Section includes primula capitate (perennial, rarely biennial plants), all parts of the bush have a mealy bloom, it is especially thick on the back of the foliage. Stem up to 30 cm in height. Bell-shaped with jagged edges of the flowers are collected in flat-circular, capitate umbrellas. It blooms from mid-June to early August. Kind of shade-tolerant, moisture-loving and relatively cold-resistant. Varieties:
- Mura - differs in a powerful bush and wrinkled foliage, densely covered with a mealy patina,
- curly - no bloom.
Candelabra primrose section
All plants included in this section require good shelter for the winter. The buds in the inflorescences are arranged in rings. Most prominently Japanese primrose - the stem is not higher than half a meter, flowers up to 3 cm in diameter are collected in verticils, which are arranged in tiers (from 4 to 6). The color of the petals can be pink, crimson and white.
The plant is more comfortable in moist soil in partial shade. It blooms from early to mid-summer. Grades:
- Valley Red - cherry flowers with a red tint,
- Miller’s Crimson - crimson, very bright flowers with a dark throat,
- Apple Blossom - pink, delicate flowers with a red center,
- white flowers - Alba and Postford White.
Also impossible not to notice primula powdered. In nature, it grows in the marshy areas of China and is the most decorative in this section. Flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, their color depends on the variety, they can be different shades of pink. The bush is covered with a mealy bloom, the stem up to 1 m in height contains about 8 tiers.