Gourd crops include a group of species of pumpkin family (Cucurbitaceae), the fruits of which are usually consumed in the phase of physiological maturity and which, unlike typical vegetable crops of this family (cucumber, squash, squash), are cultivated in field or special melon crop rotations. The most valuable among them are table watermelon and fodder, melon and pumpkin.
In our country, food melons are grown on an area of 400 thousand hectares, forage - on an area of about 200 thousand hectares. Melon growing is located in the south and southeast of the European part of the USSR (in the Lower Volga region, in the North Caucasus, in the south of Ukraine, Moldova, Transcaucasia), in the republics of Central Asia and in Kazakhstan. The average annual production of food melons in the USSR in the Tenth Five-Year Plan amounted to 3.6 million tons, while the purchases of melons and gourds amounted to 2.1 million tons.
Although the Soviet Union ranks first in the world in terms of the production of melon crops, the products obtained are not enough to meet the needs of our country's population. It is recommended that a person consume about 31 kg of melon fruits per year, including watermelon 16.5 kg, melons 9.3 kg, pumpkins 5.2 kg. In fact, the consumption of melons in the country is only 11.2 kg per year per person. Only in the republics of Central Asia is the established norm more or less complied with. This is due to the very low yield of melon crops in the country, which averaged only 8.1 t / ha in the tenth five-year plan.
To provide the population of the country with the production of melons it is necessary to sharply increase their productivity. This possibility is available. This is evidenced by the experience of advanced melon-growing republics, regions and individual farms. Thus, in the tenth five-year plan in Uzbekistan, the average yield of melon crops reached 11.7 t / ha, in Tajikistan - 11.4, in Kyrgyzstan - 13.7, in Armenia - 13.8, and in the Astrakhan region, where the melon-growing is most developed, - 16.6 t / ha. A number of farms in this area on large areas, sometimes exceeding 1000 hectares, receive watermelon fruits of 50-60 t / ha (for example, on the Lenin collective farm of the Limansky district). Record yields of watermelon were grown using irrigation by the brigade of Hero of Socialist Labor I. A. Dedov on the collective farm "Total Labor" of the Limansky district of the Astrakhan region, where in 1976 100.6 tons were obtained from 1 ha of Melitopol varieties of watermelon 142 , and in 1979 - 123.3 tons per hectare of Astrakhan variety watermelon. In 1980, the link of A. G. Yakasova at the Prikaspiysky State Farm in the Narimanov District of the same oblast received 129.7 tons per hectare of watermelon fruits of the Astrakhansky variety.
Among the melons and gourds in our country, table watermelon is the most widespread (it occupies about 70-80% of all melon fields in various parts of the country), then melon (20-30%) and pumpkin (5-10%). The main crop areas of the watermelon canteen are located in the European part of the USSR, melons are in Central Asia, pumpkin is sown everywhere, and its share in the more northern areas of melon growing is higher than in the southern areas.
Watermelon table refers to the species Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum at Nakai (watermelon woolly). Watermelon fodder is also included in this species. All the variety of table watermelon varieties belongs to one botanical variety - var. vulgaris, which includes ten ecological-geographical groups: Russian, Asia Minor, West European, Transcaucasian, Central Asian, Afghan, Indian, East Asian, Far Eastern, and American (Fursa, 1982). All watermelon varieties zoned in the USSR belong mainly to the Russian, partly Central Asian and Transcaucasian ecological-geographical groups.
The fruits of watermelon table - a valuable food and dietary product. They are used mainly fresh, partly for technical processing - the production of watermelon honey (nardeka), molasses, jam, various confectionery (candied fruits, jam, marmalade, sweets, marshmallow, etc.). Non-standard and unripe fruits of table watermelon are used for salting or for animal feed. From watermelon seeds containing up to 50% oil and rich in protein substances, you can prepare high-quality edible oil.
The fruits of watermelon are also of great value for medicinal purposes, especially for patients with diabetes mellitus, they are also used as a diuretic in edemas associated with diseases of the cardiovascular system, in anemia, liver, gall bladder and urinary tract, their consumption improves digestion and helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body.
Watermelon table - an annual herb with a strong root system. The main root usually goes vertically down to a depth of about 1 m. The lateral branches are located almost horizontally, mainly at a depth of 20-30 cm in the arable and subsurface horizons, reaching a length of 4-5 m. The watermelon stem is creeping, powerfully developed, strongly branched, can reach 4-5 m long. The leaves of the watermelon plants are long-petiole, usually dissected, with 3-5 lobes. There are varieties with uncut leaves (Melon leaf, whole-leaved).
There are three types of flower in watermelon plants - male, female and hermaphroditic. In the early ripening varieties of watermelon, the first female flowers are laid in the axils of the 4-11th leaf of the main shoot, in the middle ripening - in the axils of the 15-18th leaf, in the late ripening - in the 20-25th nodes. The fruit of the watermelon is a multi-seeded, berry-like pumpkin of different size, shape, color, pattern and thickness of the bark, with various pulp in structure, color and other properties, and with various seeds in shape, size and color.
For watermelon plants characterized by rapid germination of seeds and high intensity of growth processes. Under favorable conditions, its seeds can begin to germinate on the 3-4th day and sprout on the 9-10th day after sowing. Seed germination begins with the development of the root, which is strengthened in the soil, gives lateral roots, and only after that does the growth of the stem begin, are taken out to the outside of the cotyledon. By the time of emergence, the main root can reach 10–20 cm and in some cases have lateral roots. After 5-6 days after the emergence of shoots on plants, the first true leaf is formed, then every 3-4 days - the third, fourth and fifth leaves with shortened interstices, the plants take the form of a small upright bush (“shatrika” phase). After 20-40 days, the formation of the main shoot (scourge) begins, and then the lateral first and subsequent orders.
Simultaneously with the growth of the vegetative organs of the plants, the flowers are laid and formed, and then their flowering begins, approximately on the 40-50th day after germination. First bloom male, and then female flowers. Flowering usually begins with flowers located in the axils of the lower leaves of the main stem, then in the axils of the leaves of the lateral shoots of the first and subsequent orders, extending upwards. Immediately after fertilization, the growth and formation of the fruits begin. From setting to the ripening of fruits in different varieties of watermelon takes 35-50 days, and from the emergence to the ripening of fruits - 60-120 days.
Watermelon - heat-resistant culture, very demanding to the temperature of the soil and air. For normal germination of watermelon seeds, the soil temperature is not lower than 16-17 ° C and not higher than 40 ° C, the optimum is 25-35 ° C. Approximately the same temperature is necessary for normal growth and development of plants. When the temperature drops to 15 ° C, plant growth and development linger, yield decreases, and prolonged exposure to a temperature of 5-10 ° C is detrimental to them. Watermelon and melon plants do not tolerate frosts.
Watermelon is a drought tolerant crop. Its drought tolerance is due to the ability of plants to extract moisture from the soil, even with a small amount of it, thanks to the powerfully developed root system and the large sucking power of its root hairs. Watermelon plants are also highly demanding of lighting conditions. When plants shade (for example, in cloudy weather or when it thickens), their growth is weakened, the formation of generative organs, the process of fertilization and the formation of fruits worsen, they do not reach their normal size, and little sugar accumulates in them. Most watermelon varieties are neutral to day length, some respond positively to a shorter (10-12 h) light day.
The melon (Cucumis melo L.) is second in size to the pumpkin gourd after the watermelon. It belongs to the genus Cucumis L., which includes about 40 species, of which melon and cucumber are cultural, and the rest are semi-cultural or decorative. According to the last classification of A.I. Filova (1969), all forms of melon are included in one type of Cucumis melo L., which is divided into seven ecological-geographical groups: European, Central Asian and Asia Minor (cultural forms), serpentine, Chinese, aromatic (semi-cultural). ) and wild weed-field melons.
Melon fruits are a valuable food and dietary product, surpassing even watermelon fruits in the content of sugars and vitamins. Melon fruits consume mostly fresh immediately after harvesting (early and mid-season varieties) or after autumn-winter storage (late-ripening varieties). In addition, they make melon honey (beckmes), jam, candied fruits, jam, marinades, and edible oil from seeds. In Central Asia, the melon fruit pulp is dried and dried in the sun. Waste, non-standard and unripe melon fruits are used as animal feed.
The melon is an annual herb. Its root system has the same structure and location as that of a watermelon, but is developed somewhat weaker. The main root of a melon reaches a length of 60-100 cm, and the side - 2-3 m. The stem (lash) of melon plants is long (up to 2.5-3 m), creeping. Along with dlinnopletistymi there are short striders and bush forms with a length of shoots of about 40-60 cm and fruits that form at the base of the plant. Leaves of melon plants are long. The assimilation surface is much weaker than that of a watermelon. Most melon varieties are female bisexual flowers, but there are varieties with dioecious and with hermaphroditic flowers. The melon fruit is a multi-seeded pumpkin. Melon fruits vary in shape, size, color and pattern of the bark, thickness, color, structure and taste of the pulp, size of the seed nest, texture and type of placentas, in shape, size and color of seeds.
At a melon at a soil temperature of 25-35 ° C, the seeds germinate already on the 2-3rd day, shoots may appear on the 8-9th day after sowing. 20-30 days after the emergence of shoots, the phase of the shatrik begins, after which the main stem and lateral shoots begin to grow, and 30-60 days after the shoots start flowering. The first bloom male, and after a few days, and female flowers. Fruits of melon varieties of different ripeness ripen in 20-70 days after fertilization of the ovaries or 55-120 days after germination.
Melon, like watermelon, is very demanding to heat, heat-resistant culture. Its seeds germinate at a temperature not lower than 15 ° C, and for normal plant growth a temperature of 25-30 ° C is necessary. It is highly resistant to moisture deficiency. This is mainly due to the ability of melon plants to reduce the water return during drought due to the high level of water-holding force in the leaves, osmotic pressure, sucking power and concentration of cell sap. Melon plants are demanding to light. To the length of the day, most of its varieties are neutral.
Pumpkin (genus Cucurbita L.). There are 27 types of pumpkin, of which six are cultivated, the rest are wild. In the USSR, the most widespread were three species: solid or common (Cucurbita pepo L.), large-fruited (C. maxima Duch.) And nutmeg (C. moschata Duch.).
Pumpkin fruits are of great nutritional, feed, dietary and medical value. As a food crop, pumpkin is used in home cooking of various dishes (salads, soups, porridges), canned, pickled, and prepared pumpkin juice and other processed foods. Especially valuable for these purposes table pumpkin varieties, as well as zucchini and squash. From the seeds get a very valuable edible oil. Pumpkin is also widely used for feeding purposes as a succulent feed for animals.
Pumpkin is an annual herb. Its root system has the same location and structure as that of watermelon and melon, but much more powerful. The taproot reaches a length of 2 m, the lateral roots of the first order are 2-5 m, the second order is up to 2.5 m, and the third order is up to 1.5 m. The stalk of the main pumpkin range is creeping, branched, consists of a main lash and side shoots of the 1-3rd order, sometimes reaching 10 m in length. There are also short and bush pumpkin shapes. Pumpkin leaves are large, long. Pumpkin fruit is a multi-seeded berry (pumpkin).
Plants of various pumpkin species have their own specific morphological features (Fig. 20 and 21). Thus, the pumpkin plants have hard-cut, furrowed stems, dark green leaves, usually with five pointed blades, leaves and stems covered with hard prickly thorns, flowers with orange, erect, pointed petals, barrel-shaped yellowish calyx, with styloid bowels. Fruits vary in shape, color and pattern, there are varieties with hard (armor-clad) and soft bark, fruit pulp is fibrous, coarse, stalked, prismatic. Seeds of medium size (weight of 1000 seeds 180-220 g), yellowish-white or cream with a distinct smooth rim (hem).
Large-fruited pumpkin has cylindrical, pubescent stems, rounded, reniform or weakly foliate leaf blades of green color, flowers with bright yellow petals bent outward, a goblet-shaped, green calyx with narrow, filiform sepal. Fruits are large, usually white, gray or pink, usually flattened or spherical in shape, with soft bark, low fibrous, loose pulp, cylindrical peduncles. Seeds are large (weight of 1000 seeds is 300-450 g), white or coffee-colored, smooth with an obscure rim.
According to their morphological features, butternut squash occupies an intermediate position between the dredger and large-fruited squash. The stems and leaf stalks of plants of this species are rounded, and the peduncles are faceted, widened at the base of the fruit. Leaves are dark green, softer than those of other species, five-lobed, weakly budged or bud-shaped with white spots. Flowers with pale orange pointed petals, dark green calyx, with elongated, wide sepals, which often turn into leaves. The fruits are varied in shape and size, their surface is usually pinkish-brown or yellow with light longitudinal spots, the flesh is orange or dark orange, with a nutmeg smell, dense, tender. The seeds are medium in size and small (mass of 1000 seeds is 80-150 g), off-white with a darker twisted rim.
Pumpkin plants are characterized by higher intensity of growth processes than watermelon and melon. Under favorable conditions, pumpkin seeds can sprout in 6-7 days after sowing. Further growth and development of pumpkin plants occurs in the same manner as watermelon and melon plants: the shatrik phase begins, followed by the growth of the main and lateral shoots, the formation of flowers and peduncles. In various pumpkin varieties, flowering occurs 35-60 days after emergence of shoots, and fruit ripening - 46-68 days after fertilization of the ovaries, or 75-135 days after emergence of shoots.
Pumpkin demanding to heat, but more cold-resistant culture than watermelon and melon. Its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of about 13 ° C, and in some varieties at 10-12 ° C. Normal plant growth of various types of pumpkin occurs at a temperature of 20-30 ° C. The most resistant to cold varieties of durum pumpkin, and the most demanding to the heat of nutmeg pumpkin varieties. Pumpkin is a less drought-resistant crop than watermelon and melon, because pumpkin plants grow intensively throughout the growing season and their assimilation apparatus reaches very large sizes, they all need a lot of moisture. Pumpkin is also demanding for lighting conditions.
Gourds contain sulfur, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium. They also contain riboflavin, thiamine, carotene, vitamin C. Most of these plants are distinguished by long stems, large leaves and large yellow flowers. However, there are also bush melons (the photo illustrates their features). Plants are characterized by high resistance to drought. This is due to their powerful root system. To get high-quality melon vegetables, you need a lot of light and heat. During fruit ripening, the weather should be dry and hot. Such conditions exist in the Lower Volga region, Central Asia, in the south of Moldova and Ukraine, in the North Caucasus. In the central zone of the Russian Federation can also be planted gourds. Species of these plants are diverse.
The main feature of the varieties is their resistance to environmental conditions. Например, для центральной полосы подходят скороспелые и хладостойкие бахчевые культуры (арбузы, тыква). При выборе семян внимание необходимо обращать на длительность вегетационного периода - число дней от начала роста до полного созревания. Ранние сорта должны успеть пройти полный цикл не более чем за 90 дней.
Климатические особенности центральной полосы страны не позволяют выращивать крупные плоды. In this regard, it is best to give preference to medium-sized varieties. In taste, they are in no way inferior to large southern fruits. High yield can be obtained from such varieties of watermelons as:
- "Pink Champagne".
- "Moscow Charleston."
- "Siberian lights".
- "A gift to the north."
- "Siberian Rose".
- "Krimstar" and so on.
As for melon varieties, of interest are:
- "Kharkov early".
- "Northern cantaloupe".
- Golden and others.
Care for cold-resistant and early ripening varieties practically does not differ from the rules that apply to the cultivation of cabbage, beets or carrots. All these plants are planted by direct sowing of seeds in the open land in the middle or at the end of May. Gourds of other varieties can grow in greenhouses or through seedlings. In the latter case, the period of their stay in open ground is reduced. Middle-ripe include popular Astrakhan varieties "Honey", "Pineapple", "Kolkhoznitsa".
In the open ground, as was mentioned above, early-ripening melon crops are sown in the central zone. For harvest use 2 and 3-year-old seeds. As practice shows, they bloom earlier, due to which the process of ripening their fruits is accelerated. If fresh seeds are used, they must be dried at 30-35 degrees beforehand within 2-3 days. Planting is carried out nested method. The distance between the holes depends on the type of plant. Short-leaved melons (melon, pumpkin and others) can be sown thicker, long-leaved - less. The optimal distance is considered to be 1 m. In each depression, before sowing, 1-1.5 kg of compost or humus should be applied. It is recommended to fertilize the land under watermelons with potash and phosphorus mineral mixtures. Planting seeds is carried out at a depth of about 5 cm. The first watering of melons and gourds should be generous. In this case, the water should be taken warm. The first shoots appear about 8-10 days after sowing. Watering gourds in the process of growth should be abundant, but not frequent (about once a week).
This process, according to many experts, is of great importance for the development of plants. Due to the pinching, female flowers develop better on shoots of the 2nd order. It is better to carry it out when there are 5-6 leaves on the shoots. Repeated embossing of plants is carried out when the same number of leaves develops on shoots of the 2nd order.
Gourds planted with this method give a good harvest. At the same time, the growing season does not exceed 90 days. Seedlings should be grown in pots to prevent damage to the root system. Within about 30 days, the seedlings will be ready for transplanting into open ground. Before sowing seeds in pots, you can soak them so that they sprout a little. This will reduce the time of emergence.
It has a number of features. First of all, it is necessary to provide conditions in which the air temperature will be at least 20 degrees. In this case, good seedlings will be obtained. On cloudy days and at night it is recommended to lower the temperature slightly. This will prevent the plants from pulling out. You also need to ensure that the shoots do not touch the leaves, and push the pots from time to time. Additional coverage for seedlings is not necessary, since the seedlings are sown in the middle or end of April. During this period, natural light is enough.
When using top dressing, care should be taken, because the melon crops are poorly adapted to the synthesis of trace elements. They absorb like sponge and accumulate nitrates and heavy compounds. In this regard, all fertilizers during the growing season should be in an easily digestible form in the form of green, ash and humic concentrates. As for active organics with granulated minerals, it should be made during the autumn digging of the earth. When using minerals or manure in natural form during watermelon cultivation, for example, the fruit will be supersaturated with nitrate compounds, the flesh will be tasteless, speckled with inedible white veins, with undigested seeds and a very thick crust.
Preparation for landing
On the ready seedlings should be 3-5 leaves. Melon shoots have some special features. On the side shoots female flowers are formed earlier than on the main thing. In this regard, the tops of seedlings, ready for planting, should be pinched. Approximately a week before the day on which it is planned to move the seedlings to open ground, the daytime temperature should be reduced to 15 degrees, and the nighttime temperature should be reduced to 12. It is also necessary to periodically air the plants. So the seedlings harden and quickly adapts to the open ground.
There are no female flowers on the main melon stem. In this regard, the first pinching should be carried out on the third sheet. Do not rush to planting seedlings, otherwise you will have to equip a greenhouse or greenhouse. Often, in the central zone by the beginning of May, the weather is fine. But by the middle of the month it is noticeably deteriorating, there may even be frosts. Under such conditions, seedlings will inevitably die. Experienced breeders recommend planting plants in late May. You should first get acquainted with the weather forecast for the near future.
Accommodation in an open area
Before planting seedlings are made indentations at a distance of a meter from each other. In one hole you can put two plants with the condition that the shoots will subsequently develop in different directions. Pre-feeding should be done in the indentations (compost or humus not less than 2 kg). It is more expedient to do this 7-14 days before planting the seedlings. Before placing the plants, the wells are watered abundantly with warm water. Seedlings should be carefully removed from the pots and put in a mush in the holes. It is not recommended to deepen the seedlings, otherwise the root system will begin to rot. Seedlings are arranged so that it protrudes above the ground.
Usually, no special events are required during the first week. Watering is carried out as the soil dries. At the same time, it takes so much water that it soaks the ground to at least 50 cm. Watering is done carefully. During it, care must be taken not to wet the knee and plant leaves. If necessary, weeding and loosening the land. In order for the plants not to direct their forces to the development of the foliage, but to spend them on the growth of fruits, pinch the tops regularly. Above it was said that the first time this is done while growing the seedlings or after the appearance of 5-6 leaves. After the appearance of fruit ovaries, pinching should be repeated, leaving 2-3 leaves. Barren sticks must be completely cut. After processing, the tops are laid so that the plants do not interfere with each other. When the size of the ovaries reaches the size of an apple, you need to remove the weakest.
To obtain a high yield during the summer period, it is necessary to apply complex fertilizers several times. In addition to them, you can also feed plants with bird droppings or slurry. Fermentation and watering should be stopped before ripening. Otherwise, they will begin to crack and lose taste.
Pests of Gourds
Wireworms, spider mites and aphids are considered the most dangerous for plants. Some birds are also threatened. Wireworms, including false, are the larvae of darkling beetles and clickers. They damage young shoots, gnaw through the underground stem part. Gourd aphid - small greenish-black or yellow insects. They settle in groups, damaging the lash, ovary, flowers, lower part of the leaves. Insects suck the juice from the plant, from which it dries and dies. Spider mite causes damage in hot and dry summers. Insects settle on the lower parts of the leaves. Mite braids their surface with a thin web. First, light spots begin to appear on the leaves, then some parts of the plate become discolored, after which these parts of the plants die. Another dangerous pest is tobacco trips. This insect has a proboscis with which it pierces the skin of the leaf, as a rule, from below near the veins. Thrips sucks the juice out of the plate. At this place there are bright shiny streaks and spots, which subsequently become dark brown. After sowing, birds immediately cause harm (rooks, crows, and others). They choose seeds in the fields, peck at the ovary, damage young plants. As a means of struggle using soil loosening, spraying plants.
Fusarium wilt, powdery mildew, anthracnose are considered the most dangerous. These diseases occur especially intensively in cloudy, humid weather, and also when melons are planted often in one place. Bacteriosis is also a threat. Fusarium wilt is characteristic of all melon crops. Young shoots become sluggish and depressed, grow poorly and eventually die. On an adult plant, 1-2 lashes are damaged first, and then the disease affects all other parts. On the incision of the stem, the browned vessels are seen, especially clearly they are visible at the root collar. With increased humidity at the base of the scourge, a pink or white bloom is noted. Plant is affected through the soil, infected seeds, crop residues. Mushroom can be in the ground up to 15 years. The greatest danger is the fungus for plants that are in wet conditions at low temperature. Wilting crops can occur from suffocation with a lack of air. As a rule, it is marked on compacted soil, especially in hot weather or after a cold rainy day. Mealy dew is very dangerous for pumpkins and melons. On the upper, and then the lower parts of the leaves, spots appear with white bloom. Over time, they merge and cover the entire surface. Subsequently, the leaves turn yellow, gradually drying out. Powdery mildew damages crops when temperature drops sharply. For example, when it is too hot during the day and very cold at night. When peronosporoza leaves damaged in all phases of development, starting with the cotyledons. Angular or round yellow-green spots appear on the plates. They quickly grow and cover the entire surface.
Features of melon crops
Growing melon crops has some peculiarities.since these plants come from tropical and subtropical countries and high yields can be obtained only with the creation of optimal indicators of temperature and a stable low level of humidity. Such a combination of temperature and humidity can be provided exclusively in a greenhouse equipped with special equipment, but in the southern regions of our country, melons and gourds grow beautifully and bear fruit also in open ground conditions.
The list of main melons includes food crops such as melons and watermelons, as well as zucchini and pumpkin. And if you grow a good harvest of pumpkins and zucchini is not difficult even for beginning vegetable growers, then it is rather difficult to get high-quality fruits of thermophilic watermelon and melons.
The crop of these crops is consumed fresh, but also used as fodder plants and for medical purposes. Despite some botanical features and a similar structure of the fruit, melon pulp contains significant amounts of potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and sulfur, as well as basic vitamins.
A significant part of the melon crops has a creeping and rather long stem part, and is also characterized by large leaves and large yellow flowers. However, there are and are widespread in the conditions of home gardening also relatively compact, bush forms of melon plants. The presence of a strong root system allows plants to tolerate drought easily.
Homeland of all members of the family are the tropics and subtropics of Africa, Asia and America. They are not only eaten, but also used as a feed additive in livestock breeding. Fruits and vegetables are eaten in the phase of physiological maturity, and grown on specially organized fields - melons.
Many people do not know that melon belongs to melon crops, therefore, a tasty fruit is mistakenly considered a fruit. Eat fresh immediately after harvesting or several weeks after storage. In addition, the melon can be used for cooking:
Herbaceous annual plant has a similar root system, like a watermelon, but not as powerful. The main rod does not grow more than 100 cm, and the side - up to 2 m. Scourge a melon long (up to three meters), creeping along the ground. The flowers are often bisexual, although there are hermaphroditic. Fruits are elongated berries, the shape, taste and structure of which depends on the variety.
Seeds germinate on the third day after landing in the ground, and in 3 weeks the growth of the main stem begins. Buds appear after three months, and the berries ripen in 60-120 days. The plant has a high resistance to drought. In the heat of a melon reduce the return of fluid and increase the sucking properties.
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)
If you want to plant a watermelon in your plot, you must first carefully select the variety, and only then plant the seeds. Some varieties of watermelon can not fully grow in black soil and high humidity. Therefore, the best varieties of watermelon are: "Astrakhan", "Kamyshinsky", "Monastery". Watermelon should be planted not earlier than mid-Maywhen the weather was warm enough. Gourds very badly tolerate cold, especially night frosts. Also, monitor the humidity of the air, it should be about 60-70%.
It is best to plant biennial seeds. For quenching from cold, they can be planted in peat cups and kept in a cold place for no more than a day. Already germinated seeds are recommended to be planted in the soil. To do this, they need to hold about two days in a wet rag, and only then planted under the open sky.
It will be good if in the area where you plant a watermelon, perennial herbs or some of these plants were previously grown:
- winter wheat,
- leguminous crops,
The fruits of watermelon can lie by mid-October, in some regions - by mid-end of September. If the fruit has ripened, then, having struck on it a palm, you will hear clunk. The collected seeds can be stored in a dark place for about 4-5 years and remain suitable for planting.
Melon (Cucumis melo)
To plant a melon, seeds of three to four years old are required. If you plant last year's seeds, the plant may not bear fruit. And all because the flowers will be male.
Melon seeds desirable before planting process for 12 hours in zinc sulphate. Planting melon crops and caring for them require considerable effort, especially as regards melon, which is very thermophilic. Therefore, she, like watermelon, requires hardening. First you need to land the seedlings in peat cups. When the first sprout comes out, it should be turned towards the sun and left in that position for another 10 days. After that, the plant can be transplanted into the ground. For this you need to make small holes at 20-30 cm in depth. Planted together with a glass in order to avoid damage to the melon root.
In the future, you need to do everything the same way as for watermelon. Loosening and watering are mandatory procedures. As a result, you get a tasty and sweet fruit.
Squash (Cucurbita pepo var. Fastigata)
Squash is another representative of melons. It needs less sunlight and better tolerates colder air temperatures. Gourd plants such as zucchini can be planted seedlings for 10-20 days before watermelon and melon.
After the seeds are planted to break through and become two-three lobes, they can be planted under the open sky. Before this, the soil should be loosened and fertilized with phosphorus and potash mixtures. You can use the infusion of mullein. During the landing in the ground to add some water and add wood ash. This will protect the plant from various diseases.
Zucchini can not be planted to the place where the gourd, squash or cucumber used to grow. Желательно ежегодно сменять место посадки этого бахчевого растения и не сажать его туда же на протяжении четырех лет. В период вегетации растение нужно опрыскивать различными смесями, дабы не дать вредителям уничтожить кабачок. Также нужно регулярно поливать и полоть растение, тогда плоды будут максимально большими и приятными на вкус.In general, the cultivation of such a melon crop as a zucchini has become an integral part of any gardener in our region. Therefore, many people know that if the plant is properly looked after, then in 35-40 days it will bear the first fruits.
Squash (Cucurbita pepo var. Patisson)
Gourd culture, which has a name in Latin Patisson, very similar to the zucchini in terms of growth. Some even plant these plants together for joint pollination. In some sources you can read that the taste of the squash resembles a white mushroom and it is sweeter than a zucchini. Each taste buds are different, but the plants are almost identical in taste.
The same applies to the planting of this plant. If you do everything the same way as for the zucchini, then you will not regret it. Here there is only one nuance: the scallops love a little more heatso plant them a week later zucchini. The fruit of the patissons are of different colors: white, yellow and green. Again, everyone chooses to his taste. Among gardeners there is an opinion that the fruit of yellow color has the best taste.
One of the yellow varieties of patissons has the name “Sun”, and the average fruit weight reaches 300 g. The green squash of the “Bingo-Bongo” variety produces fruits weighing up to 600 g.
Pumpkin is a useful and dietary fruit. It contains many nutrients that the body needs for normal functioning.
This fruit contains vitamins A, C and PP, organic acids, salts of magnesium and calcium, as well as rare vitamin T. These vitamins, acids and salts have a positive effect on the digestive and cardiovascular systems. Pumpkin is grown both for food and feed. It all depends on the type of plant. There are about 27 varieties.
Planting pumpkin sort of melons should be the same as zucchini. Almost the entire growth process resembles the same zucchini process. Only pumpkin fruits ripen a little later, although it depends on what kind of plant care will be. A ripe pumpkin can weigh up to 5 kg or more. Harvesting occurs at the end of September. Some varieties may lie longer.
Pumpkin can strike such diseases:
- powdery mildew,
- fruit rot.