Most of us are used to the fact that ripe tomatoes should be red, pink, maybe even yellow, as an option. But this sort of tomato, like Cherokee Green Gold, completely refutes this opinion by expanding the color gamut of these tasty and healthy vegetables by one more color - brown-green-gold.
Characteristics and description of the variety
Cherokee Green variety tomato is not so easy to find on the market. It is quite rare, but not young variety. Was launched in 1997 in the United States.
The owners of this variety are mainly collectors. Not only the external characteristics of the fruit are interesting, but also the unusual taste properties of the tomato. Breeders successfully managed to combine juicy sweetish flavor with a touch of tropical fruits. Hue tropics give the vegetable its seeds.
Ripe fruit outside brown-yellow. Some collectors call it the color of old gold, which, in fact, follows from the very name of the variety. The skin is thin, but the vegetable usually does not crack. Inside the tomato has a bright emerald green color with a small amount of green seeds. The flesh is juicy, aromatic.
The tomato belongs to middle-ripening tall varieties. The ripened fruit is medium soft to the touch, flat-rounded shape. The surface is ribbed and shiny. Green tomatoes, not yet ripened, on the contrary, light green in color, solid. The average weight of the ripened fruit is about 300-500 g, and the tomatoes from the first brush are especially large, the rest are usually smaller.
Mature tomato bush Cherokee Green Gold can reach a height of 1.8 m, has several stems. The leaves are rich green in color, they are quite a few, they are evenly distributed throughout the trunk of the plant. If planted in open ground, the height may be less.
The plant in width does not branch much, the growth goes more in height. Each stalk usually has 4 to 5 brushes. On one hand fits 5-6 fairly large fruits.
Tomato varieties Gold Cherokee Green can be called quite fruitful. With good care, you can achieve fruiting up to 7 kg from one bush. It all depends on the climate, growing conditions and proper care at each stage, from the selection of seeds to fruit ripening.
Since the variety is of middle-ripening varieties, the tomato ripening period is somewhat extended. From sprouting up to the beginning of fruiting, it takes about 110-120 days, and before full ripening of the first fruit — another week — another.
Tomatoes are ripening gradually over most of the summer. Therefore, other varieties of tomato can not be planted, the whole season you can make a salad of delicious aromatic tomatoes.
Terms of planting seedlings
Seeds for seedlings should be planted in cups or special boxes for 60 - 65 days before the date of planting plants in the ground. The soil is used standard for vegetables. Boxes with seedlings need to keep in a warm and ventilated place.
It is necessary to replant to a permanent place when the earth is already warm enough, approximately in May. It is necessary to closely monitor and protect the plant from possible frosts.
Features of growing
Before planting, seeds should be soaked in water so that they swell. This will increase their germination. Empty, unsuitable for planting seeds simply float to the surface. They can be thrown away.
On 1 square. m recommended to plant no more than four bushes tomato. It is necessary to form a bush in 2 - 3 stalks, to seed the seed in time. Lower leaves should be cut off immediately, as they begin to dry out or turn yellow. Adult bushes must be tied up so that the branches do not break off under the weight of the fruit.
During the growing season, watering is performed only in case of severe drought. Water should be at room temperature, not cold. It is necessary to ensure that when watering the water does not wash out the roots, it is necessary that they remain under the ground, because, in addition to the main root, there are additional roots on the trunk, through which even greater nourishment of the tall bush and the fruits themselves are made.
In all bushes it is necessary to podpushivat the ground around the stalk, if necessary, in order to supply additional oxygen along the root. Weed also regularly breaks through so that it does not take all the nutrients from the vegetable.
Cherokee Green gold is not suitable for long-term storage or transportation, because the tomato of this variety has a thin skin and the fruit is quite juicy, therefore there is a risk that the tomato will simply crack or crush, losing its original appearance.
The short shelf life is compensated by long and gradual fruiting, until the beginning of autumn, so the gardener can eat fresh vegetables straight from the bush at any time so that he does not lie down for a long time.
Purpose Tomato Gold Cherokee Green
This variety of tomato is suitable for fresh use. Due to its interesting appearance, yellow-purple color of the skin and the emerald core, it will be a great decoration for any salad or just vegetable sliced.
Very interesting taste and color has a juice from a tomato of this variety. The consistency of it is quite thick, with virtually no seeds, so you can not get rid of them. The taste is very bright, soft, sweet with a fruity aftertaste. Emerald color, unusual for a tomato. If you give this juice a try, then not everyone will immediately understand what it is made of.
Resistance to diseases and adverse conditions
Tomato variety Cherokee Green Gold is sufficiently resistant to all kinds of pests and specific diseases. As a precaution, seed can be treated with any pesticide before planting. This will save you from many problems, including the Colorado potato beetle.
As a prophylaxis of fungal diseases, treatment is carried out with preparations containing sulfur or copper.
Benefits of Tomato Gold Cherokee Green
Like all tomatoes, this variety has its advantages, but it is also not without flaws. The advantages are as follows:
- Like all tall varieties, at the expense of growth it gives more brushes with fruits, and accordingly, it is possible to gather more yield from it in comparison with low-growing varieties of tomatoes.
- Beautiful, unusual presentation of the fruit, excellent taste.
- Resistant to pests and specific diseases.
- Unpretentious care.
- Strongly does not branch, so more bushes can be planted on the site.
- Large fruits.
- The long period of fructification, throughout all summer.
The disadvantages of tomato Gold Cherokee Green
This grade practically has no essential shortcomings. Here are its main "weaknesses":
- In the cultivation of Gold Cherokee Green bushes need to be tied up so that the trunk does not break under the mass of fruits.
- It takes a long time from planting to the beginning of fruiting.
- It is used only fresh and in the form of juice.
- It has a short shelf life.
- It can be grown only in a greenhouse or in southern regions with a warm climate.
- Rare variety, not everywhere you can get the seeds.
Regions where Tomato Cherokee Green is grown
This sort of tomato is quite thermophilic. Severe climate the plant will not stand. It is preferable to plant a tomato in a greenhouse or in open ground, but only in the southern regions of Russia with a mild, warm climate.
Although the variety is rather rare, its fruits are very useful, especially for children and people who are allergic to red tomatoes, because due to its color, the Cherokee Green Gold is devoid of the red allergen.
Tatiana, Altai Territory.
Having learned about this variety, I managed to still find the seeds, albeit with difficulty. Planted and tended according to regulations. Harvest very happy. Tomato one to one, has a pleasant, unusual taste. The little daughter, accustomed to red tomatoes, at first did not even believe that it was a tomato.
Arkady Ivanovich, Moscow region.
Cherokee Green did not come across a variety of gold before, until two years ago I tried a fruit of this sort from a friend, a collector. He also took the seeds. Most of all I liked the color of ripe vegetables, the tomato already glistened in the sun. I could not grow a tomato of such a large size, but one still barely reached 350 grams.
Sylvester G., 58 years old, Lgov
Although they say that this variety of tomato is rare, I managed to get the seeds very quickly. I first met Cherokee Green with a tomato about five years ago when I was visiting, and they treated me to a delicious tomato salad. I certainly forgot the name of the variety, but recently I had to try this tomato again, in a different place. Its taste is not comparable with any other variety of tomatoes and I will never confuse it. This time I recorded the title and planted the Cherokee Gold last season. Vegetable absolutely unpretentious, good yield. It's bad that it is not stored for a long time, although this is not a lack at all, because at any time from the ripening of the first fruits until the fall, you can safely pick fresh fruit straight from the bush.
- The main /
- Vegetable seeds /
- Tomato Seeds /
- Indeterminant /
- CHEROKY F1 / CHEROKI F1 - indeterminate tomato, Esasem
Purpose For fresh consumption and for processing.
Maturation term. Early.
Fetus. All aligned in size, bright red, do not crack. Fruit weight - 200 grams.
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• ripening period: early
• weight is 200 grams
• the plant is very compact, the internodes are short. • at a height of 1.5 m forms 8 full brushes. • on a brush of 7-9 fruits, all aligned in size, bright red, do not crack. • ripen amicably and quickly, picking up color saturation even at low temperatures. • Tight and easily transported over long distances. The size of the fruit depends on the growing conditions.
For fresh consumption and for processing.
The main feature of this hybrid is a very high productivity.
Cherokee F1 - Southerner and more like a warm spring, then the size of the fruit reaches 200 g, you are guaranteed the same result for the fall.
It is unpretentious in cultivation, grows both in big greenhouses, and wooden booths with a height of not more than 2 m.
Resistance: verticilous wilt, fusarium, tomato mosaic virus, nematodes.
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Variety does not impose high requirements for growing conditions. Its height reaches approximately 180 cm. The formation of a bush of 2-3 stems is considered optimal. On the bush usually forms up to 8 brushes with fruits. This is a medium early variety. The time to ripening of the first fruits is 110-115 days.
Fruits are semicircular, large, brown-purple shade. The weight of a single tomato Cherokee purpl reaches 300–400 g. But most weighs from 200 to 300 g. Inside is a steak fruit, dense, but very juicy with a large number of seed chambers. The taste of the pulp improves as the vegetable fully ripens. They also have an excellent flavor.
Cherokee tomatoes are used for cutting into salads, making sandwiches. In addition, they are suitable for making sauces and ketchups.
Cherokee purple heart
One of the varieties of exotic tomatoes is Cherokee Purple Heart. In central Russia and in the northern regions it is recommended to plant it in a greenhouse. Only in the south it successfully grows in open beds.
The height of the bushes depends on the growing conditions and ranges from 1.2 to 2 meters. Fruits are purple. They have great taste and aroma. At a grade average term of maturing of fruits. On one brush is up to ten tomatoes. They surprise with a kind of "cordial" view, with a pointed downward. Purple Cherokee is very fleshy with a good delicate taste and a pleasant aroma.
The weight of one fruit is from 150 to 300 g. One bush is capable of producing up to 4 kg of ripe tomatoes in the presence of irrigated regime and timely fertilizing.
The main positive property of a tomato is its resistance to diseases. But if preventive measures are not adhered to, bushes can be affected by the whitefly or spider mite. It is very difficult to get rid of the whitefly, as this species of moths is insensitive to many chemical preparations.
When grown in the greenhouse of this variety of tomatoes, the bushes may be affected by the black leg and fusarium. The emergence of fungal diseases contributes to increased humidity inside the greenhouse.
The height of these bushes is quite high, so they need to be tied to supports. Stems can not withstand the load of the fruits poured and fly to the ground, or break off.
Properly tied tomatoes will be able to withstand the effects of adverse weather conditions. In addition, it contributes to the free penetration of sunlight to the plant and the access of air.
Tying of bushes can be carried out to separate supports, on horizontal lanes, on a hedge from a grid or caps in the form of pyramids. For tomatoes, Cherokee is preferable to a garter to the grid fence. It is stretched next to the tomato rows, and then the stems are attached to the grid using twine or special clothespins.
Preventive measures against pests and diseases
To protect tomatoes from diseases and pest invasions, it is recommended to adhere to the following requirements:
- observe crop rotation
- do not plant them near other solanaceae, in particular, with potatoes,
- timely remove diseased bushes or plants affected by pests,
- after harvesting the tops should be removed from the beds.
According to reviews, Cherokee varieties are the best tomatoes for growing throughout the country.
Yaroslava Ivanovna, 58 years old: “I have planted these tomatoes in my garden for 15 years. Not once did he let me down. Fruiting occurs within 1.5–2 months, so my family is provided with tomatoes until the autumn. ”
Svetlana Nikolaevna, 44 years old: “Cherokee is ahead of many other varieties and hybrids of tomatoes in terms of taste. They are undemanding to the conditions of cultivation. The only difficulty in binding is binding. It is necessary to carry out a garter often, in process of growth of stalks ".
Fedor, 34 years old: “I recently took up gardening, but I already had favorite varieties of tomatoes. One of them is Cherokee tomatoes. They are suitable for fresh use. Quite resistant to the conditions of cultivation and disease. "
Cherokee tomato is a tall indeterminate shrub with height from 1.2 to 2 meters. Sheet plate conventional type. Brush branched, complex type. The plant forms up to 8 brushes. About ten heart-shaped fruits form in one hand. The variety has many advantages, among them - high yield, wonderful fruit taste, resistance to diseases. The grade practically has no individual shortcomings. Like most tomatoes, Cherokee can be affected by diseases, pests, and other growing problems. A distinctive feature of this exotic tomato in front of other varieties is that the Cherokee fruits have a very dense sugary flesh and a small amount of seeds.
Selection of seedlings
High-quality seedlings of tomatoes "Cherokee" choose by external signs:
- The optimal length of seedlings should not exceed 30 cm. In addition, there should be about 10 true leaves on the stem.
- Young plants should be no more than 45-60 days. For planting on one bed, it is desirable to choose plants of the same age in order to obtain uniform growth of all the bushes and simultaneous ripening of fruits.
- The seedlings should have a thick stem, and all the leaves should be painted green. The rhizome should be well formed, without obvious damage.
- Check whether the plants are infected with infectious diseases and there are no parasitic insects (Colorado potato beetle) under the leaves. Deformed and shriveled leaf blades can speak about the infection of seedlings. There should be no black or brown spots on the stem. If there are signs of diseases or parasites on at least one sample, then it is better to refuse to purchase any seedlings from such an unscrupulous seller.
- Sometimes gardeners grow seedlings for sale by an intensive method, saturating the plants with a large amount of nitrogen supplements. The fact that there has been such an accelerated growing is indicated by very bright green leaves, which are twisted inwards.
- Seedlings must be alive (not lethargic). Plants should be sold in containers with the ground, and not in packages.
Soil and fertilizer
American tomato prefers a light soil with a high content of nutrients. To minimize the risk of disease, tomatoes should not be planted in the place where in the past years potatoes, eggplants, peppers and other solanaceous crops grew. Открытый грунт для «Чероки» желательно подготавливать с осени, хорошенько вскопав землю и щедро заправив её органикой. Внесите садовый компост, толчёную яичную скорлупу и золу.
Также томаты положительно реагируют на высокое содержание азота, калия и предпочитают слабощелочную почву, что нехарактерно для большинства овощей. Рекомендуемая реакция должна быть в пределах 6,5-7,0 рН (допускается показатель и немного выше). In this case, the ideal organic fertilizer is wood ash - it has an alkaline reaction and contains potassium. In the spring, as soon as the earth dries out, once again loosen and level the ground with a rake or a manual cultivator - this contributes to the preservation of moisture and the destruction of weeds. Here are some examples of soil mixtures that are perfect for growing seedlings:
- 1 part of sod land, 1 part of humus, 1 part of black or pressed peat, wood ash (based on 1 bucket of soil mixture 0.5 liters of ash), superphosphate (2-3 tbsp per bucket of substrate) and water for moistening the mixture,
- 1 part of garden soil, 1 part of river sand, 1 part of black or pressed peat (you can replace with compost), an aqueous solution of mineral supplements (in 10 liters of water mix 20 g of potassium sulfate, 10 g of urea and 30 g of superphosphate).
Cherokee tomato is a heat-loving and light-loving plant. The ideal temperature for open growing is +20. +25 ° C day and +18. +20 ° C at night. Sharp temperature fluctuations are contraindicated. After planting seeds for seedlings, the pots are kept in a bright, warm place where the temperature does not fall below + 22 ° C. A similar temperature is required for tomatoes when cultivated in a greenhouse. In addition, the land for planting Cherokee tomatoes should be maximally lit by sunlight. To grow tomatoes indoors or in the greenhouse will help LED energy-saving fitolampy. As for air humidity, the optimal percentage is 60-70%.
Growing from seed to seedlings at home
A good harvest of Cherokee depends largely on how well the seeds are picked, and how well the seedlings are grown. The following recommendations will help grow tomato seedlings in such a way that your efforts are justified.
Try to sort out the seeds, discarding empty, small and deformed samples. You can dip the seeds for 5 minutes in salt water. The emerged raw materials can be considered as waste, and collect the ones that have fallen to the bottom for further processing. Rinse the healthy seeds with clean water, then dip them into a warm, weak solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) for 15 minutes to disinfect. To completely wash out the potassium permanganate, rinse the seeds thoroughly under running water. To improve seed germination, warm them in hot water for a couple of hours or lower the bag of seeds in a thermos.
It is also desirable that the seeds undergo a hardening procedure. This will help them to acquire resistance to low temperatures. To this end, it is enough to transfer the swollen seeds in the refrigerator for 1-2 days. After all the procedures done, the seeds are ready for sowing. However, on the eve of the planting works, it is advisable to additionally hold them for 12 hours in a solution of mineral supplements (in specialized stores you can find ready-made trace elements in tablets), and then slightly strain.
Content and locations
Seeds require a bright warm place where the temperature does not fall below + 22 ° C. As for the capacity for growing seedlings, then fit a variety of pots or boxes - peat, paper, plastic, clay, ceramic. Today, the so-called "cassettes" for seedlings are very popular. They enable compact and in a small room to grow a large number of young plants. A very convenient option is a plastic cup with a split bottom. In addition, the glass up is slightly widened. When it comes time to replant the seedlings, simply press the bottom of the bottom, and the lump of soil is easily squeezed out.
Seed planting process
Planting seeds of American tomato, do the following:
- Moisten the prepared soil mixture slightly and disperse in the containers selected for seedlings. Smooth and slightly compact the soil.
- In each pot (in the ground) make shallow grooves (1 cm) - the depth of immersion of seeds in the substrate should not exceed one centimeter.
- Immerse the seeds in the resulting wells (3-4 pieces at a distance of a couple of centimeters from each other).
- Sprinkle the planted seeds with the substrate and moisten the surface of the earth with a spray.
- Cover the pots with film and store them in a bright warm room with a temperature not lower than +22 ° С.
Care of seedlings
Before the shoots seem, the ground must be maintained in a moist condition at a temperature of 25 ° C. When shoots appear (that is, 7-14 days after sowing), provide them with good lighting. Seedlings should not be over-fed with fertilizers. But the irrigation mode is very important. The first watering is carried out 5 days after germination. Before the appearance of 3 true leaves, water at a minimum (approximately 2 tsp per bush). With the appearance of 6 sheets - half a glass per plant.
Before the picking, 2-3 irrigations are carried out, and after it is watered, the seedlings should be irrigated once a week, avoiding both drying and over-wetting of the substrate. Preparation of seedlings for planting in open ground involves the procedure of "hardening", that is, adaptation to street conditions. During the week, the pots should be carried out at a certain time on the street. The hardening process strengthens the plants at the cellular level, reducing shock and sunburn during transplantation.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
The optimal timing of planting seedlings "Cherokee" in the ground - the end of March and the whole of April. Seedlings are ready for planting in open ground when they have formed 3 pairs of leaves. Seedlings preferably planted in rows. The distance between the bushes should be 75-100 cm, and between the rows - 1-1.2 m.
Seedling transplant plan:
- Dig deep enough holes to allow the root system to freely fit there.
- Remove the plant from the pot carefully, supporting the root with the hands of the earth.
- Dip tomatoes into the soil until the first set of leaves. The deeper the stem is planted, the more roots are formed, which provides the plant with resistance and improves its ability to absorb nutrients.
- After you have placed the plant in the hole, cover it with earth and press down the soil with your hand.
- Around each bush form a small depression for watering.
To begin with, let us clarify that in areas with a cold climate, with open cultivation, tomatoes will not develop properly - they will not have enough heat. Therefore, in this case, the choice of the greenhouse is justified. Another important difference between a greenhouse and open growing is that the greenhouse makes it possible to get a harvest all year round.
But if weather conditions allow (in the southern regions), it is better to grow tomatoes openly. After all, there is no point all summer to keep the tomatoes in the greenhouse - they need the natural environment and watering with rain. You can, of course, select a small bed in the greenhouse and sow the seeds for shelter, but this will be more likely a way to get hardened seedlings for transplanting into open ground. Therefore, we will further consider planting Cherokee seeds directly in open ground, but at the same time, we will take care to provide planting cover. Regarding the location of the beds, the choice should be made in favor of the southern slopes of the backyard. If your land plot has even relief, it is advisable to equip the beds in places where the spring winds do not penetrate or where special protection is built against them - a solid fence of average height will do. The optimum width of the beds - about 1 meter. The soil should be rich in organic matter and sufficiently moist.
Soil loosening and weeding
The soil under the plants should always be loose. Every 1-2 weeks loosen the aisles. To begin to loosen the soil after the precipitation or after each irrigation, in dry weather this should not be done. Loosen the soil near young bushes to a depth of 10-12 cm, then, in order not to damage the root system - up to 5-8 cm.
If the ground is heavy, process it deeper - but only those places where the roots have not yet penetrated. Combine loosening with weeding. Removing weeds is important because throughout the growing season the plant should not be disturbed by weeds that take moisture, space and nutrients.
Competent staving (formation) of a bush is one of the most important conditions for growing Cherokee. Pinch the side shoots constantly, starting from an early age of the bush. By the time the fruits of the stepsons are ripe, there should be no more. Remove them until the shoots reach a length of 3-5 cm. It is preferable to do this in the morning. In southern sunny areas you can not completely remove the stepsons, just do not tie them up. But in the northern regions of this event is mandatory (leave only 2-3 stalks to each plant). In extreme heat, this procedure can not be.
Since Cherokee is a tall tomato, it certainly needs to be tied up. When fruits ripen the bushes can not withstand their weight and break. In addition, the fruits lying on the ground are more susceptible to pest attack. How strong and resistant to weathering plants grow will depend on the correct garter. Tomatoes on tied plants get more sunlight and are better ventilated.
The most common methods of tomato garters in the open field are: individual supports (pegs), horizontal lanes, net fence, wire frame, pyramidal caps. From the point of view of practicality, as well as taking into account the height of the plant, for the "Cherokee" preferable grid fence. In this case, use the grid, pulling it along a row with tomatoes. Plants are attached to the grid with the help of clothespins or twine.
Feed the plants should be throughout the season, and do it preferably once every 10 days or every two weeks. Feed tomatoes for the first time two weeks after planting. Fertilizers can be used different, the main thing is that they contain less nitrogen than other components. First feed with a solution of mullein (1x10) or chicken manure (1x20). Re-feed with mineral fertilizers (60 g nitrophoska mixed with 10 liters of water). Regarding the amount: before flowering, 1 liter for each bush, after flowering - 2-5 liters. Thoroughly mix the composition and pour under each bush.
Pests, diseases and prevention
No matter how carefully and carefully you take care of the Cherokee tomatoes in the garden, they are not insured against damage from diseases and insect parasites. Among the most common and dangerous diseases of tomatoes include late blight, brown spot, fungal infections, summit rot, tobacco mosaic. Among the pests that can attack the Cherokee tomato are whitefly, spider mites, gall nematodes, the Colorado potato beetle, a bear, and tobacco trips. Phytophthora
Most of these parasites and ailments are provoked by abundant rains, lack of heat and sunlight, or, on the contrary, significant overheating, untimely and improper irrigation. The combination of cold and rain can be completely detrimental to tomatoes. Observing preventive measures will partially avoid problems.
In order to prevent diseases, experts recommend adhering to the following rules:
- observe crop rotation,
- never plant tomatoes next to potatoes,
- quickly and without pity, uproot and destroy tomato bushes affected by diseases and pests,
- observe the conditions of keeping tomatoes in open ground,
- never work with wet bushes.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting tomato Cherokee falls in July and September. Shrubs can bear fruit before the onset of autumn frosts. Harvest should be collected regularly (every 3-5 days) to avoid overloading the bushes. Fruits are ready to be harvested when they are fully colored, but still retain their hardness. At the end of the season, when a threat of freezing occurs, you can collect fruits in a semi-ripe condition. After harvesting, tomatoes should be laid out on newspapers in a room with moderate room temperature for ripening.
For the purpose of long-term storage, tomatoes should be carefully removed from the bushes along with the stem. Tomatoes of this variety are able to lie for several months. Fruits should be carefully folded up the stalk into wooden or plastic boxes or trays. The vault itself should be dark and cool. The best option is a cellar, basement or shelf of the refrigerator, designed for vegetables. The optimum temperature of the content - +5. +12 ° С with relative humidity of 80%. Periodically it is advisable to throw away the damaged fruit.
It is necessary to expand the fruit in such a way that they do not touch each other. If you have a small crop and you plan to keep it in the fridge, then after harvesting, the fruit cannot be washed or processed. With regard to long-term storage in the cellar or basement, here the gardeners disagree. But most experienced gardeners have concluded that it is absolutely impossible to wash. The only thing - you can simply wipe each fruit with alcohol.
Possible problems and recommendations
When growing a tomato "Cherokee" problems such as small fruits, withering foliage, absence and a small number of ovaries can be observed. The causes of such problems may be several, but they are mainly manifested due to fusarium. The fungus sits in the soil and begins to actively develop in very hot weather. If this does not comply with the rules for caring for tomatoes, the infection progresses faster. If a tomato already has fruits, fusarium will spread to them.
Similar problems in tomato occur in the event that there is a bacterial cancer. Tomatoes will not have similar problems if you observe crop rotation and other rules of cultivation. Before planting, disinfect the soil with copper sulfate solution (take 10 g of vitriol for 10 liters of water). After harvesting, the tops should be destroyed. Fading Tomatoes' Leaves The Cherokee Tomatoes add a whole range of flavors to many dishes. They can be used not only as an ingredient in sandwiches, but also for making soups, sauces, ketchups, pasta, pies, stews, juices. Tomatoes are excellent with meat and fish.
Seed preparation and planting
Seeds can be harvested independently or purchased in stores. When purchasing seed, it is important to make sure that it has been treated for diseases and pests.
When self-harvesting seeds, they must be disinfected - for this, the dry seed must be heated 48 hours at 30 ° C and 72 hours at 50 ° C. Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, and then washed under running water for 10 minutes. Seed seedlings for seedlings 60–65 days before the planned time of planting young bushes in open ground. Grooves with a depth of 1 cm with a distance of 5-6 cm between them are made in the soil. Seeds are placed there with an interval of 2 cm and sprinkled with earth. Then a bed or a box with future seedlings is covered with a film until the first shoots.
Maintenance and care
The scheme of planting in open ground - tape or chess, with a distance of at least 60 cm between seedlings and between rows.
After removing the film from the garden, seedlings are sprayed with a spray of water. When the bushes are seated in permanent places, watering is needed more abundant - 0.7–0.9 liters should be spent on one sapling.
Irrigation of seedlings is desirable in the afternoon or in cloudy weather, and before loosening the soil. Loosening is done between the rows and in the rows themselves 1 time for 10–12 days. Together with loosening and weed control is carried out.
Important!If tomatoes grow in heavy ground, it is necessary to deeply loosen the soil for 10–15 days after planting.
The first hilling of a tomato bush is made in 9–11 days from the date of transplanting. Before the procedure you need to water the plants. Next time you need to spud in 16-20 days. Over the summer, the bushes of the “Yellow Giant” should be fed three times:
- The first time fertilizers are applied to the soil 10 days after transplanting. Fertilized with bird droppings or cow dung diluted in water (1 kg per 10 liters). After making the feeding is necessary to carry out mulching.
- When the ovary appears on the bush on the second hand, after a week you can fertilize the plant again. A solution of the fertilizer “Mortar”, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate (3 g per 1 bucket of water) is used. Under each bush pours 2 liters.
- The last time fertilizing is done when the first fruits begin to ripen. The solution is the same, but 2.5 liters per bush.
"Yellow giant" is a tall variety with abundant fruiting, therefore, in order for the bush to bear the weight of the fruit, it must be tied up. As a support, you can use the trellis or just stakes.
When using a trellis, stakes are driven in with a gap of four meters and a thread is pulled between them - a bush is tied to it. Колья располагают с северной стороны растения на расстоянии 9–11 см от стебля. Первый раз куст подвязывают сразу после высадки рассады, затем, по мере роста, на уровне второй и третей кистей.
Для получения высоких показателей урожайности томат «Жёлтый гигант» следует пасынковать, оставляя два стебля. Если же нужны плоды особо крупных размеров, то оставляется один стебель. Also, to adjust the growth of the bush, you need to pinch its top, so that during flowering and fruiting, all the forces go to the formation of the ovary.
Did you know?In 1544, the Italian botanist Pietro Mattioli first described the tomato, calling it “Pomi d’oro” (golden apple). Hence the word "tomato", and the word "tomato" has French roots and is derived from "tomate".
Disease and pest prevention
The variety is highly resistant to most pests and diseases. It affects only phytophthora, tobacco mosaic and Colorado potato beetle.
To combat late blight use drugs "Ordan", "Barrier", "Barrier". They are processed before the beginning of the flowering period. When the first ovary appears, use 1% solution of potassium permanganate mixed with a glass of ground garlic (0.5 l per 1 sq. Meter).
If the plant is completely struck by the disease, then it is easier to pry and burn.
To reduce the likelihood of plant contamination with tobacco mosaic, seeds should be treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate before planting. In case the disease has just begun to manifest itself, the affected leaves break down and are burned. With a strong defeat the bush is pulled out and burned outside the site.
Colorado potato beetle attacks only young seedlings. Fighting begins when the first beetles appear in the garden, using the same means as for potatoes. It is best to spray biopreparations "Bitoksibaktsillin", "Colorado", "Fitoverm", "Bicol."
I shoot the most healthy ripe fruit, I crush them. I spread the mass into a glass or jar for three days. Then through a strainer, rinse well with water. Next - drying.
In no case should you dry the seeds on the battery, pan, etc.! Evenly lay them on paper or film on the windowsill for three days. After poured into a plastic bag and in a safe place for storage.
Tomato seed preparation
Four days before planting, I soak tomato seeds in ash solution (for 1 l of water - 1 tbsp of wood ash) for 6-8 hours. During this time, they will not only get soaked, but also absorb nutrients from dissolved ash. Then, for disinfection, I drop the seeds in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, rinse it, pour it into a bag and put it in the coldest place in the fridge (but not in the freezer!) For three days to harden.
We choose the soil
It is best to take the soil for sowing from the site where cucumbers or cabbage were grown. Not from under the onion, potato, pepper: the soil can be infected with blast. I mix the earth with the purchased Violet-type primer in equal proportions.
In the bucket mixture is sure to add 0.5 liters of wood ash, 1-2 st.l. superphosphate, mix and fill the prepared boxes. A good seedling (and as a result, it grows strong in me) is half the job. When it comes time to harvest, from each bush I collect up to fifteen kilograms of beautiful fruits!
CROPS OF TOMATOES
Tanks for planting tomato seedlings
For the cultivation of seedlings fit any containers in the bottom of which there are drainage holes. But to get rid of pathogens, containers must be disinfected. Wash old pots, plastic bottles in warm water, remove salt deposits from the walls, then allow 3-4 hours in potassium permanganate solution. Baking clay containers in the oven.
Tempering tomato seedlings
Sergey Shkurko from the village is sharing his experience in growing tomato seedlings. Volokonovka Belgorod region.
Tomato seeds at the end of February are sown dry in boxes in the grooves at a distance of 3 cm from each other. I pour in soil and cover the container with glass. I keep at a temperature of + 22 ... + 24 degrees.
The soil consists of garden land and rotted manure (1: 1).
As soon as the seedlings appear, I rearrange the boxes on a cooler window sill. And when outside temperature rises to + 10 ... + 12 degrees, I begin to harden the seedlings (I stand on the balcony), increasing the time daily by 1 hour. Seedlings twice feed infusion of ash (2 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water).
Sampling of tomato seedlings "For" and "against"
What is the pick of tomatoes necessary for and is it necessary at all? How to dive seedlings and when?
Some gardeners believe that picking is an extra worry of young plants, as the probability of damage to the root system and the death of seedlings increases. Others are of the opinion that the picking "trains" the plants, making them more durable and strong.
I would advise to dive. The seedlings, indeed, become more stocky, the plants develop better, and consequently, the chances of a good harvest increase.
After the emergence of the first pair of true leaves in seedlings of tomatoes, the seedlings dive into separate pots, deepening to the cotyledons. At the same time, the soil is tamped to remove excess air, and watered with warm water (+ 20 ... + 25 degrees).
From the moment of the picking and before landing in the ground I spray the seedlings once a week with the following mixture: for 1 l of water - 1 tbsp. serum and 5 drops of iodine. The seedling grows healthy and does not affect the black leg.
Seedlings of tomatoes at the age of 12 days after germination, dive as follows. The determinant varieties are transplanted into boxes for sowing seeds, but already according to the 10 × 10 cm scheme, deepening to the cotyledon leaves. And the indeterminate dive immediately into separate pots, not filling the soil to the edge of about 10 cm. I water the seedlings moderately. So that it does not stretch, I adjust the lighting in the room (not more than 14 hours a day) and the temperature (not higher than +17 degrees).
After 2 weeks I spend the second picks. Determinant varieties "relocate" in liter pots with drainage. I act differently with the indeterminate ones: the grown stems gently bend and spiral onto the soil surface, then sprinkle it, leaving only the top of the head with 4 leaves. Laying the stems in containers before planting in the greenhouse I spend another 2 times, until the pot to the top is filled with soil. Thanks to all these subtleties, the root system of tall tomatoes is very powerful, which is the key to the proper development of plants, their abundant and long-term fruiting.
Diving seedlings in the greenhouse
Tomato seedlings are grown in an unusual way. Seeds sown in boxes. When the seedlings have 2-4 leaves, I take a dive to the land in small greenhouses, which I cover with a dense spanbond. Then, as the seedlings grow, I periodically open greenhouses and harden the plants in the open air. By the end of May, the seedlings together with a lump of earth are planted in open ground. Planting spend with an interval between plants of 40 cm, and the width between the rows - 70 cm
How much light does a tomato seedling need?
Tomato seedlings have a 14-hour daylight period, but the lighting should be extremely intense. I install fluorescent, mercury and quartz lamps with a total power of at least 5 kW on the window sill of a two-frame window!
TIP: Do not use incandescent bulbs to illuminate seedlings - they lead to overheating of the upper leaves.
The lower part of the stems of tomatoes darkened, became thin and began to rot ...
Most likely, they are affected by the black leg (a common disease of seedlings of seeds and seedlings). It occurs most often due to infection in the soil, thickening of crops, irrigation with cold water, strong waterlogging of the soil, and poor airing of the seedlings. For the prevention of disease, the soil before sowing is shed with a solution of potassium permanganate (1.5 g per 10 l of water).
With a small spread of the disease, you can save the plants by pouring a layer of clean sand and peat 1–1.5 cm thick under the seedlings, which will help to dry the soil near the stem. Diseased plants are sprayed with a slightly colored (0.05%) solution of potassium permanganate. Some also try to save the large seedlings affected by the black leg: they cut the stems above the site of damage and lower the cuttings into the water until new roots are obtained. But it is better to sow a new batch of tomato seeds for seedlings.
Up to 8 kg of tomatoes from the bush
I grow tomatoes through seedlings, soak a coconut substrate briquette in cool water. For a 10-liter bucket of ready-made soil, I take 1 part of river sand, garden soil, coconut substrate, add 1 cup of sifted ash and a little (0.5 tsp) of biofungicide.
After 3 days I put the soil in plastic cups (0.5 l), put a hydrogel on the bottom and made 3 punctures in each. Sowing seeds. As the sprout grows, I fill the ground with seedlings.
I put the cups in containers, I cover with a transparent plastic lid (if there is none, with food cling film). I fix the cover with a soft rubber band. I shoot the film when shoots appear.
From early ripe tomatoes, so I plant Caspar F1, Friend, Pride of Siberia. They give up to 8 kg of fruits from 1 bush. In the open field - grow well. White pouring 241, Shuttle.
Marina TERESHKINA, Kemerovo
As soon as I had the opportunity to organize a garden on the windowsill, I immediately got down to business.
True, I wondered: where to start - with tomatoes or cucumbers? She stopped at tomatoes, because they are more unpretentious.
It is clear that you will not plant garden varieties of tomatoes on a window sill. Found a wonderful dwarf variety.
Seedlings sowed in a plastic jar from under the salted herring.
A week later, she swooped in separate jars of sour cream. After another 3 weeks, landed in 3-liter flower pots. At the bottom of the tank poured claydite for drainage.
Then, up to half poured fertile soil into a pot. She planted tomato seedlings, poured and sprinkled the ground to the level of the lower leaves of the tomato. AT
during the growth of the earth spiked.
As soon as the first flowers appeared, the lower leaves were cut off so that they would not take food. I watered only at the root, because the hybrids do not tolerate moisture on the sheet.
One and a half months after transplantation, I have already gathered my first indoor crop - not yet 1.5 kg from a bush, as it was written on a bag of seeds, but I am stubborn, I think these figures are ahead of me!
Irma MOTOSOVA. Perm
LANDING OF TOMATO
With early transplanting to a greenhouse, seedlings will grow strong and healthy. This is due to daily temperature differences: daytime heat and night cold. Tomatoes do not stretch, because the internodes are formed short. The strength of the bush goes on the formation of the stem. The plant is hardened, forming stepchildren, the same in thickness as the stem. The future harvest will be formed on them.
In open ground
I plant seedlings from a greenhouse on the beds as soon as the soil at the depth of the root system warms up to +9 degrees and above. Plants do not harbor, except spunbond, for the first time to shade them from the bright sunlight.
I add peat or humus, superphosphate (1 tbsp), ash (0.5 tbsp.) And magnesium sulfate (1 tsp) to each well.
When planting seedlings in open ground, I will surely deepen the two lower lateral stems. Then, in the course of growth and development, I pour the soil to the third, so that it also takes root. In anticipation of frosts, the lower side shoots are covered with soil. If the upper part of the plants dies, it will give a chance to the tomatoes to grow back due to the strong root system formed.
Each has his own place
Another important point - the area of nutrition of tomatoes. Since the bushes are not the stepson, they significantly grow. Therefore, tall tomatoes are planted in the center of the beds at a distance of 90-100 cm from each other. Stunted - or in the same order (but after 50 cm), or 4 bush per square meter.
Fact: The height of seedlings of tomatoes for planting in open ground at the end of May should not exceed 30 cm.
Prepare for "cheers"!
In May, I'm carrying tomato seedlings to the country. Before this, the plants are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid. I do not dig up the soil in the greenhouse (I do it in the fall), but I prepare only the holes according to the scheme 50 × 50 cm, in each of which I bring 1 bucket of compost, 1 tbsp. ash, 1 matchbox of superphosphate, then mix, spill water and plant bushes.
TIP: In order to evaporate moisture from the soil more slowly in the greenhouse, you can plant tomatoes in the slots of the spreading agrotextile. This will solve the problem of irregular watering: the roots will not dry out too quickly.
Tomato seedling transplant: how to reduce stress
It is known that during transplantation, plants lose up to 80-85% of all roots and almost all root hairs. In addition, the older the seedlings, the harder for it is this process. How to do it right, says the specialist.
- To keep the soil ball as large as possible, it is necessary to water the seedlings a few hours before transplantation.
- Pulling out of the tank, each plant must be seized with the largest possible clod of earth, for
- giving strength diligently compressing his hand.
- It is better to plant seedlings in open ground in rainy or cloudy weather. On sunny days - in the evening.
TIP: Sprawling tomato seedlings are planted horizontally. Not only the roots are laid in the hole, but also two thirds of the stem, after removing the leaves from this part. They are covered with a loose soil layer up to 10 cm. The plant is laid strictly from north to south, so that as it grows it stretches towards the sun, straightens and grows vertically. On the buried part of the stem roots are quickly formed, which in size and efficiency are significantly superior to the main ones.
Tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse in the first decade of May. In the wells when planting add a handful of wood ash and 1 tsp. superphosphate, plenty of water. After planting, I install an additional arc and cover with non-woven material, which contributes to a better survival of the seedlings, protects from sunburn, and saves from cooling.
I also have my own method of watering tomatoes. To do this, I use plastic bottles of 1.5-2 liters. I cut the bottom and when hilling near each bush with my neck I stick in a bottle. In these containers, then pour water, fertilizing. With this method, the liquid does not spread on the ground, does not over-humidify the air, but goes directly to the roots.
The grown seedlings of tomatoes are usually planted in the ground on April 15-20. The week before, I process the plants with Ekosil (according to the instructions). I make the beds narrow - 1.2-1.5 m. There are copayunks staggered on them. I plant two plants in each of them “a walt” - roots together, the tops apart. I put the arc and harness the bed spunbond until the end of May.
In the new hole!
When planting a new seedling in place of fallen, wilted bushes, do not plant a plant in the same hole. Back down 8-10 cm and make a new one to prevent possible contamination by diseases and pests.
Tomatoes are asked to garden
- In order to keep an earthen clod around the roots, I irrigate the plants 6-8 hours before transplanting seedlings into the soil. For better survival, I soak right with cups in Kornevin's solution.
- I put 200-300 g of humus and 5-6 peas of superphosphate into prepared holes. Pour in a liter of water. When it is absorbed, I put the seedlings, straighten the roots and squeeze the soil tightly. Plants dredging up to the first real leaflet. Immediately after transplanting, I water the tomatoes, be sure to mulch with dry soil.
- Low-growing early varieties planted at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other. Varieties with spreading branches require a larger area - between them I leave 40-45 cm.
- For the first 4-5 days I sprinkle the seedlings regularly with water heated by the sun. A week later, I loosen the aisles to a depth of 5-6 cm. I shed it systematically, as well as after the rains.
To harvest tomatoes pleased with abundance, it is necessary to comply with simple agronomic techniques. Our specialist will tell which ones.
Tomatoes are divided into three categories: determinant (including standard), semi-determinant and indeterminant.
Form them in different ways.
Indeterminant varieties and hybrids most often form into one stem, removing all stepchildren. By August on it grows 5-6 brushes of tomatoes. This is the easiest way to form.
Form semi-determinant varieties in 2-3 stems, leaving the stepson under the first floral brush and, if necessary, another one - a little higher. Evaluate their quality, leave the strongest shoots.
Determinant and standard varieties of tomatoes are usually undersized. After setting a certain number of brushes, their growth stops (they are performed). If you grow such tomatoes in one stem, the harvest will be very low. Determinant varieties form 3-4 stalks.
As the tomatoes grow once a week, break out all the stepchildren. In the second half of August, pinch the tops of the plants and remove all the flowers and fruits smaller than the hazelnut. In case of warm September, leave 2-3 bushes intact, without pinching.
Do not forget to remove the lower leaves. Under the brush with already reached their size, but still green tomatoes they should not be. At a time, remove no more than three leaves, otherwise the plant will experience severe stress. Leaves break out to the side, not down, so as not to damage the skin on the trunk.
Toach the tomatoes and break the leaves best in sunny warm weather in the morning. By evening, the wound will have time to dry out and will not give the opportunity to penetrate the infection.
TIP: To contain the spread of disease, stepchild tomatoes in two doses. First, get engaged in the most valuable and healthy bushes, and the next day - all the rest, including with signs of disease.
Watering - just under the root
В сухую погоду растения томатов поливают под корень (обычным или капельным способом). Дождевание отрицательно влияет на цветение, вызывает осыпание цветков, задерживает завязывание плодов и их созревание. Кроме того, увеличивается влажность воздуха, что приводит к появлению и распространению грибковых заболеваний.
Чем подкармливать помидоры?
Минеральные удобрения вносят в жидком виде после полива. В состав первой подкормки (проводят через две-три недели после высадки рассады во время образования завязей на первом соцветии) желательно включить суперфосфат и сернокислый калий (из расчета 20-25 г первого и 15-20 г второго
на 1 кв.м). If the soil is poor, you can add up to 10 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 sq. M. The second, and if necessary (by visual diagnostics) and the third, additional feeding is carried out with the mass growth and ripening of fruits at the rate of 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate and 20-25 g of potassium sulfate per 1 sq.m.
TIP: The optimum temperature for the flowering of tomatoes is not lower than +15 and not higher than +30 degrees.
When the fruits reach a diameter of 1 -2 cm, the water consumption per square meter of the bed is increased to 5-12 liters, watered 1-2 times in 7-10 days. After a strong drying of the soil, it is impossible to carry out abundant watering right away - fruits can fall off, crack, or develop top rot. The irrigation rate in this case is 0.8-1 liters per plant.
To obtain an early harvest, foliar dressings are also used: 16 g of urea and potassium sulfate, 10 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water. Such supplements are often carried out in conjunction with the treatment of plants against diseases or pests. It is better to do this in the evening, when the nutrient solution applied to the leaves dries out slowly, and the morning dew promotes its better absorption.
In order to prevent the spread of fungal diseases, 2-3 times per season (in the second half of July) plants are treated with copper-containing preparations: Bordeaux liquid, copper chlorine, etc.
4 helpful tips
Brushes with large heavy fruits should be carefully secured with a string (twine) to a support or vertical trellis. Otherwise, under its own weight, the stem may break, and the fruits will stop growing.
In the beginning-middle of July, shorten the brush, remove some of the buds and flowers - the remaining fruits will grow larger. If you notice on the tomatoes grown together in one 2-3 flowers, pinch them off (as they can grow ugly ribbed fruits).
3. Water in moderation. If you rarely visit a dacha and the plants of a tomato have not been watered for a long time, do not arrange too much water at once. Otherwise, the fruit may crack. When the tomatoes begin to ripen, reduce watering to a minimum. Excessive moisture retards fruit ripening.
4. Take the harvest. Take off the fruits as they become red (blanche and pink ripeness). Do not leave ripe tomatoes on the bush for a long time, as this inhibits the growth and ripening of new fruits.
Universal dressing for tomatoes
I prepare for the flowering plants of tomatoes a special solution-feeding. In a 10-liter bucket 2 kg of ash pour 5 liters of boiling water, mix and let cool. Then add water to the edges of the bucket, add a small (pharmacy) vial of iodine and a bag (10 g) of boric acid, insist for 24 hours. I dilute 1 liter of water in a bucket of water, pour 1 liter of the working solution into each plant at the root. This top dressing is rich in trace elements. In addition, tomatoes practically do not get phytophthora.
Doctor of agricultural sciences Valery Matveev ties up tomatoes in a greenhouse in the following way: from the crossbar at the top of the greenhouse, he lowers the rope, ties its lower end to the crooked wire, the second edge of which sticks into the ground. Around the roots, a seedling winds around in a spiral. It corrects it as the plant grows.
Why do tomatoes crack?
The most common cause is a drop in soil moisture during the period of intense fruit growth, i.e. heavy watering or rain after long droughts. According to the observations of some vegetable growers, varieties with large fleshy fruits and tender skin are prone to cracking. Also, damage to the fruit by infectious diseases (for example, Alternaria) and some pests can also be a prerequisite for cracking.
To prevent this from happening with your tomatoes, adjust the soil moisture.
TIP: In tomatoes, nitrogen deficiency produces leaf brightening. Top-dressing with urea solution (10-15 g per 10 l of water) will fix the situation.
Tomatoes are sweet
My mom fed tomatoes tomatoes with fermented infusion of dandelions: filled the bucket 1/3 or half with flowering heads, filled it with water to the brim, added a pinch of sugar, kept it for 3-4 days in the shade. Then watered tomatoes at the root at least once a week.
In recent years, alternating feeding from dandelion and sweetened whey. Tomatoes are growing large and sugary!
For several years of growing tomatoes in greenhouses, I tried and tested a lot. I suggest two ways of plant garters.
The first. I stretch the wire or twine horizontally in several rows along the tomatoes. From the bicycle chamber I cut the narrow rings; from the wire I make S-shaped hooks. Ringlets bend around the stem or brush, connect the ends and grab the hook for them with the lower half, upper - to the wire (twine).
Second. Twine I stretch vertically in a greenhouse, making loops on it. I grab hooks for them, lifting them to the next loops as the tomatoes grow. By the way, rubber rings are very convenient: do not pinch the plants, stretch.
Tomatoes: three buckets from a bush
I do not use mineral fertilizers, I believe that they adversely affect the quality of the fruit.
During abundant flowering under each bush I bring in 3-5 kg of half-ripe 3-month manure. I try to keep it from touching the stem of the bush (to avoid burns), water it with water, the solution of Baikal EM-1 and pile up the earth so that this soil stays on
5-7 cm above soil level. With a solution of Baikal EM-1 (according to the instructions), I water the tomatoes once in two weeks, spray them once a week.
In mid-July I make another liquid feeding. On a barrel of 200 l add 2 buckets of manure, half a grass (nettle, plantain), 5 liters of wood ash.
Pour water, insist before fermentation. I feed the top dressing with water (1:10) and water it on the abundantly moist soil of 3-4 liters under a bush. Then I water the EM-1 Baikal solution (according to the instructions) and spud the tomatoes so that furrows remain between the trenches for further irrigation.
From August 10-15, bushes are covered tightly with a film for the night. This saves tomatoes from strong fogs that can lead to blight, and frost.
For all groups of tomatoes during the season I remove the leaves below the fruit brushes. Srednerosly and tall tomatoes form 1-3 stalks (depends on the variety) and remove young stepchildren. For a better ripening of the fruit set in the middle of August, I pinch the points of growth (the tips of the shoots).
Pollen is most active in the morning - at 9-11 o'clock. At this time we pass along the rows of tomatoes and shake the trellis or the plants themselves for better pollination. Additionally, you can apply drugs Ovary and Bud. These biostimulants improve fruit set, increase yields by 15-30%, resistance to tomato phytophthora 4-6 times, reduce the ripening period by 5-7 days. Spray the plants at the beginning of flowering of the first or second hand.
Why tomatoes ugly, uneven
It seemed that everything was done correctly: the seeds were planted according to the lunar calendar, they were cared for, transported, watered ... And the tomatoes were formed with ugly, unevenly colored. Let's try to understand the reasons.
The optimum temperature for the growth and development of tomatoes in the daytime is + 18 ... + 27 degrees, at night - + 12 ... + 15. If the temperature drops below + 10 degrees, the growth stops. Harm and heat, especially above +28 degrees. It adversely affects the viability of pollen. You should also avoid sudden transitions from night to day temperatures. Otherwise, possible dew on the fruits, the formation of cracks.
Brown-black hard spots that occur not only on the tops of tomatoes are most likely caused by boron deficiency. Feed the tomatoes with a solution of boric acid - 5 g per Yul of water.
If hollow fruits are formed (with internal voids), all the fault is poor pollination. This happens because of high (more than +35 degrees) or low (less than +12 degrees) air temperatures. Affects hollowness and moisture. Therefore, it is necessary several times a week to gently shake the plants in the first half of the day for better pollination of flowers and fruit set, and also to regularly air the greenhouse.
This may be caused by underdevelopment of the flower, poor pollen formation, sterility and low pollen viability due to lack of light, overheating, excessive nitrogen nutrition of plants.
A very bad effect on the formation of fruits is a decrease in the relative air humidity of less than 50%. In such extreme conditions, small hollow fruits (puffs) are often formed.
The most good and beautiful, smooth fruits in small-chamber (2-4 cameras), relatively small-growing varieties and hybrids. But in multi-chamber large-fruited tomatoes, especially in low light conditions, ugly fruits can form.
Fact: Tomatoes grow bizarre and not very appetizing if you abuse drugs like the ovary or the bud.
Tomatoes - my main hobby, hobby, my "illness".
I think the secret of a good harvest is that the plants liked the home remedy - a simplified analogue of the widely known Baikal EM-1. This half-forgotten old-fashioned recipe has written out from an old newspaper filing.
He is very simple. In a three-liter jar pour 2.6-2.7 liters of water without chlorine (distilled), add
100 g yeast diluted with warm water and 0.5 tbsp. Sahara. Cover with gauze, keep the jar warm, occasionally shaking the contents. The solution (mash) is ready when fermentation is over. I grow one glass in 10 liters of water and water the plants 1 l each for each bush.
Alla Mishneva, Lugansk region
And your seeds are better
Mature fruits of tomatoes of the sort you like (pay attention to the shape and color) cut into halves and squeeze the grains into the bowl along with the juice. Add some water and leave for 3 days at room temperature. At this time, the gelatinous protective shell of each grain is destroyed and some pathogens are destroyed.
Capacity periodically shake, so as not to form mold.
Then rinse the kernels in a sieve and dry on paper until they are completely dry.
It is very convenient to store tomato seeds in coffee filter bags.
Anna GORDEEVA, Cand. agricultural sciences
Rapid ripening recipes
To August tomatoes ripened more actively, branches with fruits gently turn to the sun with the help of flyers. In addition, I make longitudinal cuts on the stems with a sharp knife and insert chips into them - the cuts should not close. If there are a lot of fruits on the hand, I pick up brown ones, the largest ones together with the stem, and I put them in boxes in the attic to be ripened by a layer of two or three fruit stalks upward, shifting garlic cloves. The remaining fruits on the bushes fill up faster. You can also feed plants with iodine (30-40 drops per 10 liters of water per 1.5 run meters of beds).
TIP: I collect tomatoes as they ripen - once every 3 days. I shoot not bright green, and whitish. So they ripen well and stored longer. And so that the fruits do not turn black, after harvesting I drop them for 1.5-2 minutes in hot water (up to +60 degrees).
Nikolay MOROZOV, Rusino village, Brest region
PESTS AND TOMATO DISEASES
To protect the tomatoes from Medvedka help drug Goizli (4% G, 20 g per 10 square meters). Bring the granules into the soil to a depth of 2-5 cm before planting seedlings in open ground.
Plants are sprayed from the Colorado potato beetle during the period of mass emergence of larvae 1-2 years of age with Novodor biological preparation (FC, TK, 60-100 ml per 10 l of water) with an interval of 6-10 days.
Tomatoes of protected soil from late blight are treated during the growing season with one of the preparations diluted in the indicated dose in 10 l of water: Azophos (50% CU, 130-200 ml), Ditan (75% VG, 12-16 g), Medex (50% GRP, 100 g) or Kuproksat (34.5% KS, 50 ml). For open ground, solutions (per 10 l of water) of Metaxil (68% SP, 80 g), Ordan (73.1% SP, 50 g), Pennkoceba (Tray-dex, 80% SP, 16 g) or Poliazofos (63 % PS, 50 g, consumption of working fluid - 5 liters per 100 square meters, the first preventive treatment, the next - in 5-7 days).
From late blight and Alternariosis, spraying is effective during the growing season with a 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulphate and lime per 10 liters of water). The last treatment is carried out 8 days before harvest.
From brown spot helps Fundazol (50% SP, 10 g per 10 liters of water). The last time the treatment is carried out 10 days before harvesting.
With the defeat of powdery mildew, the plants are sprayed with Byeleton (25% SP, 10-20 g per 10 l of water).
From bacterioses, gray rot, seedlings are processed after picking or adult plants with Isar (10% of WRC, 10 ml per 10 l of water).
With a complex of diseases, tomatoes in greenhouses and greenhouses are treated with the biological product Bactogen. Seeds are soaked for a day in a solution (according to the instructions), seedlings are watered in the phase of cotyledon leaves and 3 days after picking (diluted with Bactogen with water 1: 1000), adult plants (1: 1000, 4-6 g per hundred) with an interval of 15 days When planting seedlings contribute to the wells of the biological product Trikhodermin (10 g per plant).
Vladimir DUKTOV, Cand. agricultural sciences
TIP: Be sure to timely destroy aphids on tomatoes. In recent years, there has been a significant damage to plants by viral diseases, the carrier of which is precisely this pest.
Prevention of phytophthora
There is no worse enemy for tomatoes than phytophtora. For the prevention of the disease, while the fruits are still green, I treat with drugs Oxyg, Azofos, Acrobat. But as soon as the fruits begin to grow brown, I turn to the Bordeaux mixture. I do the final treatment 20 days before the harvest. It is best, along with prevention, to feed phosphorus-potassium liquid fertilizers.
During flowering spray plants with a solution of boric acid.
Phytophthora: Protecting Tomatoes
Remove and destroy affected brushes and plants. Infected fruits can be saved from spoilage during storage by immediately removing them and warming up for 2 minutes in hot water (exactly +60 degrees).
Ventilate the greenhouses, make sure that the air in them is dry, since the formation of condensate on the film and droplets on the leaves leads to the rapid spread of the disease. Water the bushes of tomatoes only at the root in the morning, and then air the greenhouse.
Accelerate fruit ripening. For example, put plastic bags on the brushes and make holes in the bottom of them for condensate drainage.
From the folk remedies, the infusion of garlic is effective (1 tbsp of crushed cloves and 1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of warm water, process the plants at the rate of 2.5 liters of composition per 1 sq.m).
During the period of fruit ripening, use biological preparations: for example, Fitosporin-M (5 g per 10 l of water) or Ekosil. The researchers found that spraying Ekosil three times (15 drops per 3 liters of water per 100 square meters) significantly reduces late blight.
At the first signs of phytophthora I process tomatoes with a solution of metronidazole tablets and green leaf greens. The first drug allows you to destroy the causative agent of fungal disease, the second - to treat plants. It turns out that this way you can grow environmentally friendly products!
20 minutes before processing, I dissolve 15 tablets of metronidazole in a cup, then pour this concentrate into a 10-liter bucket of water, add a green vial of pharmaceutical bottles. Pour the working solution into the sprayer and spray the leaves from the bottom and top. For the prevention of phytophthora, it is desirable to carry out the first treatment at the beginning of summer - 10 tablets of metronidazole are enough for a bucket of water.
Raisa Goryachenko, Izmail
Copper will help
For the prevention of phytophthora, I pierce the stalks of tomatoes at the base with a piece of thin copper wire and fold them down. Water, rising from the roots, spreads copper ions throughout the plant, which inhibit the development of the disease.
Zaytsev's love, p. Krasnogvardeyskoe, Adygea
One day there was trouble with my tomatoes. Part of the plants began to wither and grow suddenly. Having studied in detail all the signs of the disease, having turned over the necessary literature, he came to the conclusion that it is Fusarium.
The next time he planted tomato seedlings and treated with infusion of stinging nettle and celandine. In a keg (50 l) he laid 4-5 kg of herbs and poured 4 buckets of water. The infusion was ready in a day. Once a week, a liter of water diluted with water (1: 5) was consumed per plant.
Do not believe it, but for 4 months of growing tomatoes, no signs of fusarium appeared!
Vladimir Nekrashevich, Gorki.
TIP: With a lack of phosphorus in tomatoes are small leaves with a purple-purple shade. To remedy the situation, feed the plants with superphosphate (8-10 g per 10 liters of water).
Solanaceous crops have a new dangerous pest that is increasingly moving to us from abroad - the tomato miner moth.
This pest can completely destroy the crop in both open and closed ground. The size of an adult insect is about 6 cm. Caterpillars are yellow-green with a pinkish back about 9 cm long. The tomato moth has a high reproductive potential: females lay 250-300 eggs each. Butterflies lead a twilight lifestyle. In favorable conditions, up to 10-12 generations of the pest develop in a year.
Remove weed species of nightshade, observe crop rotation.
Install mosquito nets on windows and greenhouse ventilation openings. In the period of the flight of butterflies hang on beds with solanaceous glue baits.
If you notice a pest, on plants, remove damaged leaves, stems and fruits.
If necessary, use one of the approved drugs: Actellic, CE, Con-fidor Extra, EDC, Fufanon.
Treat the greenhouses and adjacent structures with insecticides at the end of the season.
Alexander AKSENYUK, Cand. s-hnauk
5 GENERAL RULES FOR PREVENTION OF TOMATO DISEASES
1. Compliance with crop rotation and the correct choice of the predecessor.
2. Selection of resistant varieties or hybrids for your site and climatic zone.
3. Регулярное проветривание теплиц, соблюдение температурного и влажного режимов.
4. Регулярное рыхление, борьба с сорняками, грамотные подкормки в зависимости от особенностей культуры.
5. Обязательное уничтожение послеуборочных растительных остатков при осенней перекопке участка.
Те, кто поправляют свое здоровье чайным грибом, могут этим же средством помочь и томатам.
Засыпаю в десятилитровую кастрюлю с водой по 50 г черного и зеленого чая, полстакана сахара и кипячу 10-15 минут. I cool it down to + 25 ... +30 degrees, add a mushroom and cover with gauze. After 15-20 days (maybe later), the infusion is filtered and periodically spray them with tomatoes to prevent phytophthora.
TOMATOES - LANDING AND CARE: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
After tying the fruits of tomatoes, the stalks of the plants begin to dry. What is the reason?
Galina Melnikova, Mogilev
The source of infection is soil and plant residues infected with fungal diseases. Control measures The destruction of all plant residues after harvest.
Disinfection of the vacated site from a fungal infection. To do this, the soil is treated with a solution of copper oxychloride or copper sulfate at the rate of respectively 40 and 50-80 g of preparations per 10 liters of water (consumption per hundred).
Compliance with crop rotation - tomatoes can not be planted after the nightshade, they are returned to their former place no earlier than after 3 years.
In mid-August, tomatoes were attacked by some kind of green caterpillars, boring unripe fruits, eating from the inside. What is this pest and how to fight it?
Caterpillars scoops - tomato and garden - can hurt.
Adult caterpillars of tomato scoops reach a length of 27-30 mm, from green to dark brown in color. In the garden shovel, the caterpillars reach a length of 30-32 mm, from light green to pinkish-brown, with white spots. These pests are the most dangerous: first they eat leaves, then they take root into the green fruits of tomatoes and eat them into the pulp of the cavity.
Before the formation of the fruit, tomatoes are treated with chemicals. 100-160 ml of Aktelli-ka or 80-120 ml of Fufa-nona are used in closed ground for 10 l of water, and 10-50 and 20-40 ml, respectively, in the open.
During the formation of fruits, the plants are sprayed with infusion against hatching caterpillars: pour 400 g of crushed mass of celandine, wormwood, tobacco, tobacco and 200 g of pureed garlic 10 l of water (+ 60 ... + 70 degrees), insist for 24 hours, filter, add 40 g household soap. During the season you need to spend 1-2 treatments.
Tomatoes with black spots, dry, depressed or shriveled. What is it?
Grigory Nikanorov, Slutsk
- This disease is top rot. Manifested in years of high temperature and low relative humidity with a lack of moisture in the soil. Negative effect and lack of calcium in the tissues.
Secondary microorganisms (fungal diseases) can infiltrate into the places affected by apical rot, which leads to their softening.
Observe the water regime. During the period of intensive growth of the fruit, spray the bushes with a 1% solution of calcium nitrate or calcium chloride (1-2 times a week).
No matter how many tomatoes are ripe, around the stem they remain green and firm. Why it happens?
Most likely, the matter is in the peculiarities of the variety and the cultivation technology (malnutrition, heat and water conditions in the greenhouse, some infectious diseases).
- Choose varieties of tomatoes salad destination.
- Balance nutrition with macro-imikroelements (pay special attention to potassium and phosphorus).
- Do not forget to air the greenhouse and water the plants in a timely manner.
- There is information that the tomato is unevenly ripening when the lighting conditions are disturbed, therefore, take this moment into account (if necessary, light up the greenhouse).
Planted tomatoes in open ground. The leaves are large, with a palm, and the trunk is thick. Shrubs with a height of 1.2 m, and almost no flowers. What is the reason?
Vladimir Gorikov, Krasnodar
It can be assumed that a large amount of organic (manure, bird droppings, etc.) and nitrogen fertilizers were applied for planting tomatoes. A similar situation happens most often if you contributed saltpeter, which stimulated intensive growth of green mass, therefore, such sizes of leaves and stem.
Organic fertilizers must be applied under the previous culture. Of the nitrogen - better urea (carbamide).
It is also necessary to water more bushes and be sure to handle late blight.
Previously, tomatoes were grown from their seedlings, and last year bought it on the market. Tomatoes vymahali under 2.5 m. The leaves began to turn yellow, the spots "sprawled", without affecting the trunks and fruits. The flowers withered and turned black; there were few tomatoes. What is the reason?
Svetlana Mikhailovna, Mozyr
Based on the above symptoms, we can assume several causes of the disease of tomatoes. They may have grown under 2.5 m because you acquired an indeterminate variety or hybrid, i.e. unlimited growth type. If plants of a determinant (limited) type of growth, most likely, an excess nutrition of their nitrogen or organic fertilizers, "fattening" and the wrong formation of the stem.
Tomato leaves could turn yellow due to a lack of mineral nutrients. The fall of flowers could cause a lack of trace elements, in particular, boron. In this case, it is useful to include boric acid in the foliar top dressing.
And, undoubtedly, the whims of nature. Rains in the spring and early summer caused an intensive increase in green mass, and the drought and heat, which came later, slowed down the intake of nutrients from the roots and provoked starvation of plants, yellowing of leaves and the deterioration of fruiting tomatoes that had previously “fattened”.
How to beat a stolbur?
The second year I have problems with tomatoes. The crop is scanty, and the fruits are unenviable: some of the side of the stem remains green and very hard, and the pulp is fibrous, watery. Why it happens?
Nadezhda Ivanchikova, Orsk
According to the described symptoms, it can be assumed that the author was faced with the problem of mycoplasmal disease - stolbur. The first signs of infection appear on young leaves. They shrink, grow coarse, become pinkish, the edges bend upwards. The stem can thicken. Flower buds grow upwards, petals shrink, turn green, the cup grows together and looks like a bell. The flowers are often sterile, and, as a rule, only the very first of them give fruit.
Tomatoes are unevenly colored, tasteless, their flesh is firm and whitish. The vector of the disease is an insect cycadka. Plants with stolbur are practically not treatable. They must be destroyed immediately. For prevention, remove all weeds, even between the rows. Seed plants spray insecticides from cicadas and other insects with sucking mouth apparatus (for example, aphids).
How many years in a row can you plant tomatoes in a greenhouse and planting siderats?
Valentina Lebedeva, Minsk
A maximum of 3 years in a row, after which, in order to reduce the diseases and pests of tomatoes in the soil, their planting should be alternated with other crops.
Tomatoes after raspberries
Is it possible to plant tomatoes on a plot where raspberries were uprooted a year ago (green mans were sown in the fall)? Raspberries did not suffer from a dwarf bushy virus, verticillium wilt, bacterial root cancer, sprouting, curly.
You can, if you destroy the shoots (and with a raspberry is not easy to do) and clean the area from perennial weeds (wheat grass). Considering that raspberries usually grow in one place for 8-10 years and greatly depletes the soil, in the fall, 6-8 kg of organic matter (manure, compost) and 30-50 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M are brought under digging. And in the spring before planting - IQ-15 g of potash and 20-30 g of nitrogen fertilizer per 1 sq. M.
The raspberry diseases you have listed do not affect tomatoes.
In the greenhouse - hot
Last year, tomatoes in the open field grew better than in the greenhouse, although the variety and care for them were the same. Why?
Stanislav Gates, Grodno region
The main reason for this phenomenon is the high temperature of the air in the greenhouse. On some days of July 2014, the air temperature reached +35 degrees, and in film greenhouses it was much higher. High temperatures along with low humidity prevented normal growth and fruiting. The optimum air temperature for the growth and development of tomatoes in the greenhouse in sunny weather is + 24 ... + 26 degrees, in the daytime and + 16 ... + 18 degrees, at night. Tomatoes stop growing at + 10 ... + 15 degrees, the same happens at temperatures above +35 degrees. With less than + 12 and more than +30 degrees, the flowering stops, the ovary may fall, as at low temperatures the pollen does not mature, and at high temperatures it becomes sterile.
In tomato seedlings small leaves, which also twist down. How to fix the situation?
Ekaterina Petrova, Saransk
A decrease in the leaves, as well as their curling, is observed with a lack of most macro- and microelements: magnesium, iron, boron, manganese, molybdenum, etc. But most likely, this indicates a lack of calcium, which is necessary for the plant for a normal metabolism. Feed the seedlings with complex mineral fertilizer with trace elements.
I heard that before planting, the seeds of tomatoes can be kept in vodka for 10 minutes and then rinsed under running water. What does it give and is it worth doing so?
Anna Koval, Orsha
Indeed, this option of pre-treatment of seeds from diseases exists. However, professional growers and amateurs prefer a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of warm water). Seeds are put in a gauze bag and immersed in the solution for 20-30 minutes. Then washed with water and always soaked for 12 hours in boiled chilled water. For better germination, seeds can be dipped for 12 hours in a solution of microelements, Epin or Ecosila (according to the attached instructions). After that, rinse with water, wrap in a damp cloth and put in a warm place to peck.
Last year, tomato seedlings did not have real leaves, only cotyledons. I had to throw it away. What caused this and what to do to prevent the situation from happening again?
Raisa Kovaleva, city of Mogilev
This usually happens with a small landing. Tomato cotyledons cannot shed the seed coat and open. Moreover, because of the dry air, the shell can be hard. Such shoots lag far behind in growth, and sometimes they die. Spray the seed-seed plants with warm water as soon as possible. When the seed rind softens, strong shoots will throw it off. You can gently release the seedlings with tweezers, trying not to damage the cotyledon leaves. Do not forget also about pre-sowing preparation: pickling and soaking. All this will help grow healthy seedlings.
Tomatoes grew well last year, I thought I would harvest a great crop. I cut one red tomato - white dense flesh. Cut the second - the same. As a result, about half of the harvest had to be thrown away. What could it be?
Inna Yurieva, Togliatti
I got into trouble with tomatoes - for some fruit, the flesh inside for some reason turned out to be not red, but white. He went to all those familiar with a big gardening experience and showed these tomatoes. The findings were not comforting. As experienced gardeners said, I didn’t properly care for tomatoes. I thought, if they grow in a greenhouse, I water them on time - everything will be fine. But it turned out that temperature is important for tomatoes. The summer was hot, but I didn’t always air the greenhouse. They advised me more often to air the greenhouse during the day and feed the tomatoes with potassium before flowering.
ROLLS AND PREPARATIONS OF TOMATOES
I skip 2.5 kg of tomatoes through a meat grinder, 1 kg of peeled sweet pepper, carrots and apples (preferably sour-sweet), 5-6 pieces of bitter pepper. I add 1 tbsp. sugar, sunflower oil, 6% vinegar, 2 tbsp. with a pile of salt, bring to a boil and cook for an hour. 5 minutes before the end of cooking, I put 200 g of crushed garlic. Hot roll in sterilized jars. Out 4 l. And delicious as! For kebabs wonderful seasoning!
TIP: Often, instead of sterilization, just wash my jars in hot water. Then I fill them about a third with a solution of soda (1 tbsp per 1 liter of boiled water) and rinse. Never has a single jar exploded!
I put tomatoes and cucumbers in 3-liter jars (arbitrary proportions). Then squeeze the juice from the tomatoes through a juicer. I heat it up to +70 degrees, fill them with cans, add 1 tbsp. salt. Sterilized for 30 minutes. Roll up, turn over, hold to cool. I keep in a cold place.
I cut it in the center, but I don’t fill the bucket of green tomatoes and finish it. For the filling you will need: 2 sliced buns of parsley and a bunch of dill, 8 chopped garlic heads, 6 pieces of sweet pepper, cut into cubes. Tomatoes laid out in 4 three-liter jars. Preparing brine: 4 liters of water - 2 tbsp. sugar, 1 tbsp. salt. Boiling, at the end of pouring 0.5 liters of vinegar. Brine pour tomatoes in jars and sterilize each 5 minutes. Roll up and wrap.
TIP: To prevent the formation of mold on tomato paste, it is often sprinkled on top of it with salt or filled with vegetable oil. And I just smear a little plastic cover with mustard (paste or dilute some powder with water). The stock is stored for a long time! I note that this can be done with other conservation.
I put whole tomatoes in jars, sliced Bulgarian pepper (2 or 4 quarters) and 3-5 cloves of garlic. Pour boiling water (you can drain and pour the 2nd time). For saline water (or separately) I make brine: for 1 l - 1.5 tbsp. salt and 6 tbsp. Sahara. I add 1 tbsp. 9% vinegar. It turns out delicious!
Harvested tomatoes in the fall stored in a dark dry place laid in one layer of stalk up. I place the green fruits in flat wooden boxes and keep them on the floor where it is cooler and darker. The temperature should be above zero. If next to put 2-3 ripe tomatoes, the rest ripen much faster.
And if you select the healthiest green fruit, each wrapped in paper and put the stalks up in a box lined with straw or shredded newspaper, then they will lie down until the New Year. You need to store in the dark at a temperature of + 11 ... + 13 degrees.
Surely this recipe will seem extreme to someone. No sugar, no vinegar, no salt. Natural product in pure form. True, the cooking process is somewhat unusual. The main thing is to do everything quickly. By the way, such tomatoes are stored and in taste are not too different from fresh ones.
In a clean, “roasted” jar in the sun, I put washed and dried tomatoes of ripe blush.
Poured into the container 2 tbsp. alcohol, ignite and shake sharply several times. After that, immediately rolled up the sterilized lid.
Harvested tomatoes in the fall stored in a dark dry place laid in one layer of stalk up. I place the green fruits in flat wooden boxes and keep them on the floor where it is cooler and darker. The temperature should be above zero. If next to put 2-3 ripe tomatoes, the rest ripen much faster.
And if you select the healthiest green fruit, each wrapped in paper and put the stalks up in a box lined with straw or shredded newspaper, then they will lie down until the New Year. You need to store in the dark at a temperature of + 11 ... + 13 degrees.
Salad without vinegar
We really like to harvest tomatoes salad without vinegar and salt.
Pure, ripe fruits are cut into medium-sized slices, placed in half-liter jars, shaking gently to thicken tomatoes.
Then pour juice from the remaining tomatoes into containers so that it covers the contents, but does not reach the lid. After all, the salad has yet to be sterilized for 10 minutes. After that, I roll up the cans, turn them over, wrap them up and leave them for about half a day (until they cool down).
When we open the jar, we eat not only the tomatoes themselves, but also drink the juice. Tasty and healthy!
TOMATOES: USE AND HARM
Heels - no cracks
When I was a student at work in the Crimean State Farm, most of my friends, and I, too, faced such an unpleasant and painful phenomenon as cracks on the heels. But the medicine, as it turned out, was growing right under our feet! We were treated like this: a ripe tomato was broken in half and abundantly smeared the affected heels with it, waited for it to dry out. Repeated the procedure 5-10 times per day. For the first time, the wounds pinched heavily, and then gradually healed. The improvement was noticeable on the second day.
Olga AMBRUZHEVICH, Grodno
Fresh tomatoes should be limited with gallstone disease due to the high content of organic acids. And canned tomatoes, in which, as a rule, a lot of salt, it is desirable to avoid patients with hypertension, diseases of the kidneys, circulatory organs.
- Tomato is a rather allergenic vegetable. People with food allergies should eat it very carefully.
- Marinated, canned and salted tomatoes are desirable to exclude from the diet of those who suffer from hypertension, kidney disease and the cardiovascular system.
- With constant drinking of canned tomato juice there is a risk of kidney stones and bladder formation.
- Nutritionists warn that tomatoes are incompatible with fish, eggs and bread. Between the intake of these products should take a break for a couple of hours.
The nutritionist advised a female friend who is overweight to replace sweet high-calorie juices with tomato. And for the best result in losing weight, mix tomato juice with pumpkin and apple juice (2: 1: 1). Drink a glass for 20-30 minutes before meals.
Fact: Tomatoes are an ideal product for replenishing minerals. They contain potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus. And thanks to the antioxidant - lycopene - they protect the cells of the body, helping to prevent cancer.
To make a salad with tomatoes bring maximum benefit, fill it with sunflower oil, because in combination with vegetable fats lycopene is absorbed much better.
Which tomatoes are better?
Show me a man who will say that he does not like tomatoes, and I will think that he has lost a lot in life! В соленьях, в маринаде или просто свежие желтые, красные, черные — как же все помидорки неизменно хороши! Люблю экспериментировать с посадкой разных сортов, все ищу, какие вкуснее.
Причем ищу еще именно такие, чтобы особых хлопот не доставляли (нет времени долго возиться) — желательно невысокого росточка и без пасынкования. В прошлом сезоне меня порадовали несколько сортов, расскажу о них.
Абрикос F1 — суперранний сорт с чудесными золотыми плодами. From a distance, beds of ripe tomatoes seem like small apricot dwarf gardens! To taste - a real delicacy! Very good in salads and in preservation.
And what a beautiful color assortment is obtained from Apricot and red tomatoes varieties Manzherok F1.
I often preserve them together, because Manzherok is also an early variety. And I note that the best tomatoes for conservation have not yet met. Fruits-cream and ask to lie down together in a jar. It is easy to care, the bushes are low, standard, do not lie down, do not require staving.
Not the earliest and not the largest - so I can characterize tomatoes of the F1 Debut variety. What he won me - high yields. Last year, she took about 5 kg from each bush! Even distributed to neighbors.
Why did I love the Duchess F1 variety?
I have five reasons for this!
Beautiful, juicy, tender, fragrant, sweet. The last quality, by the way, I especially appreciate in tomatoes. Only sweet tomatoes, in my opinion, give when salting fruits amazing to taste. Fresh "dyushesiki" have a thin skin and very tasty pulp. Bushes nevelichki can not stepchild.
If you want the mother-in-law to call you on pancakes not only for the feast, plant the Golden Mother-in-law F1 tomatoes. In open ground, the height usually reaches 80 cm, in greenhouses - higher.
This variety requires pasynkovaniya. But I planted it for the first time out of interest and I will plant it again this year. Early ripening, together gives the harvest, and what wonderful fruit! Smooth, sunny orange, delicious, and smell! Plus, unpretentious and unpretentious plant. Give the mother-in-law to the table a bucket of such a miracle - she will welcome you forever!
If you notice, all listed varieties are hybrids. Yes, in our climate, I prefer not to risk it, and if I grow tomatoes, so surely. And I practically do not plant late varieties.
Not because there are no decent ones among them, but because at the end of summer the weather begins to be capricious and late varieties produce poor-quality crops. I hope my advice will help someone to make the right choice and get pleasure from their work this summer!
If the tomatoes inside are white stolbur
In recent years, more and more faced with such a problem: you harvest the first crop of tomatoes, everything seems to be good, there are many tomatoes and everything is ripe, and you cut them - the fruit is white, fibrous, hard and tasteless. You get upset, well, you think it happens, the rest will be tied, it will be better.
Only the subsequent harvest is not tied at all. And it turns out: he cherished, cherished the plants, guarded, spent his strength and was left with nothing. Many neighbors also complain about such a bad harvest. I began to understand what was happening, how to save my tomatoes, and I learned about a disease called stolbur.
I must say, it's nasty and harmful sore, but it affects seedlings and very young plants. Recognizing it in the first stages is almost impossible, but still be careful, more often look at your stretch marks on the windowsill.
If you notice that the leaves are shrinking, the trunk grows coarse and thickens, you need to worry, but if the plant has a pinkish tint instead of green, then you need to sound the alarm by ringing all the bells, although the stolbur disease is very tricky and may not show itself at the seedling stage. Even if you did not see the first signs, this does not mean that you can relax. After planting tomatoes, keep looking after them, do not be lazy to notice all the changes, the infected plants grow coarse leaves, flower brushes grow up, and the calyx grows together and resembles a bell.
And they distribute stolbur cicadas. Immediately the question arises, how can seedlings get sick if the tsikadki appear only in June?
And the answer is simple: cicadas infect many weeds - bindweed, dope, spurge, alfalfa, plantain, chicory. And already from weeds the disease spreads to tomatoes and not only - all of nightshade are susceptible to stolbur. A plant can become infected quite late, in the middle of summer, when the fruits have already appeared, but in this case it is difficult to recognize the disease. Therefore, unsuspecting gardeners are already harvesting tomato seeds from diseased plants.
It turns out that escape from the stolbur is not easy: if the plant has become infected, then write it is gone, and you can’t cure it. But the way out still exists and it is in the conduct of prevention.
And this is not the most, I want to tell you, the worst option. As you know, forewarned - armed. Therefore, we begin prophylaxis with seed disinfection. We continue to tirelessly remove all weeds, clean garden - the key to a good harvest. Do not forget to actively loosen and water the soil.
In June, when the cicadas and aphid are massively distributed, we spray it with insecticides. It seems not difficult, in fact it is a daily work in the garden, which everyone already does. The main thing is to do it in a timely manner and then not only a stolbur, but also many other diseases can be avoided. There are also varieties of tomatoes that are resistant to stolbur: East. Standard Alpatieva.
Last year, despite the hot beginning of summer and a lot of insects, I managed to avoid this ill-fated sore that ruined my tomatoes. I hope you will have a positive result. Good luck to everyone in the gardening business.
Nina Semenovna Kolomina, Lipetsk Region
Damage to the stem of tomatoes
I'm in a greenhouse on tomatoes someone bites a stalk of flowers (like a strawberry weevil). Flowers on a brush dry up. Harvest 2-3 brushes on a single bush. What to do, tell me, please. Attaching photo. I live in the Vladimir region.
Elena DILE (by email)
Natalya SOLONOVICH, scientist agronomist
Many gardeners are familiar with the situation when seemingly completely healthy tomato bushes from time to time have flowers that have not yet blossomed dried out or ovaries are falling off. The main cause of crop loss is not pests, but a violation of the pollination process.
Tomatoes, although a culture of self-pollinating, able to do without insects, but for successful pollination requires certain conditions. These are created in a greenhouse at a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 * C and humidity from 40% to 70%. If the summer is too hot and the air temperature stays above + 32'C, the pollen is simply sterilized and ceases to perform its functions. Flowers wither, not even blooming.
The most harmful factor is high temperature with high humidity. If at temperatures above + 32 ° C humidity of the air tends to 100%, fruiting can not wait at all. High humidity leads to the adhesion of pollen into lumps, it does not fall on the pistil and can not be transferred by wind. Experienced gardeners have long noticed this feature and know that tomatoes love drafts.
Unexpected and abrupt cold snaps bring no less harm than high temperature. If during the night the temperature drops to + 13’C and stays at this level for 5 hours or more, the pollen also loses its properties. In the greenhouses in the spring, the air often warms up to + 25'S and higher during the daytime, and drops below + 13 * С at night. Therefore, do not rush to plant seedlings in unheated greenhouses too soon, when the threat of return frost persists.
Flowers of tomatoes also fall in the event that plantings are thickened, poor illumination of plants. The problem is especially aggravated in the absence of good ventilation.
Partial loss of yield may also result from:
a) excess nitrogen, leading to the modification of flowers. This happens if you overfeed the plants with manure. Most often, the first brush is badly tied. Nitrogen deficiency, on the contrary, reflects badly on the setting of the second and third brushes,
b) a large load on the plants during flowering. This is especially noticeable in the cultivation of large or multiple varieties,
c) disease. Plants afflicted by them shed flowers and ovaries.
How to help tomatoes
Do you want to create favorable conditions for pollination? Make it so that the wind constantly goes around the greenhouse. In the heat will require more and shading. During the mass flowering of tomatoes in the morning, it is advisable to gently shake the bushes or knock with a stick on the posts to which they are attached.
Advanced gardeners use electric toothbrushes, mobile phones in vibration mode or install fans in greenhouses to easily shake bushes. For me, it’s quite enough to do manual shaking every other day.
Dry pollen is easily poured from the anthers on the stigma. But for it to sprout, the stigma of the pistil must be wet. Therefore, after shaking it is necessary to carry out light irrigation with spraying. With such pollination, fruit sticking will be maximum.
To ensure the access of the sun and air to all parts of the plant, it is necessary to form tomato bushes in a timely manner. Moreover, the lack of illumination affects the set of fruits much more than cooling.
Pollination will be better if you sprinkle the plants during flowering with a solution of boric acid (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water), at the rate of 1 l per sq. up to 10 l) or drugs such as Ovary or Tomatone (according to the instructions). Such actions are especially effective in cloudy weather.
How to find out if the harvest will be
Tap the flower lightly. If you see a light cloud of pollen, your harvest will be fine. To better consider the process, you can hold a sheet of dark paper behind the flower. The absence of pollen, protruding stigmas on a long column and dried corollas - evidence that the process is broken and the fruit will not.
All unbound flowers should be removed, and if there is not any fetus in the hand, then cut it completely. This will help the bush to redirect plastic substances to the early formation of subsequent brushes.
Modern tomato hybrids are capable of tying fruit well in any weather.
Growing tomato seedlings - my experience
I admit that I am especially not indifferent to letters and articles about tomato seedlings. I reread them many times. And that's what I noticed: many gardeners believe that it makes no sense to immediately grow it in large containers. And I think that in a spacious box the seedlings are better: constant temperature plus the same humidity of the soil - and the shoots are friendly.
I plant mostly my two or three varieties tested over the years in one box, and new and late ripening - in separate jars. And here in them, the shoots are always uneven, because small containers rather warm, but cool quickly, besides, the ground in them can dry up on one side.
Yes, I understand the reasons that lead gardeners. Especially the one that all sorts of small cups great save space. But after all, a seedling does not live in an apartment all year, for some time it is possible to suffer for it. And in close cups in two weeks the leaves of the seedlings will close, and it will become cramped. Of course, it will be attached, but it will still soon begin to stop growing and lose weight. In general, a big mistake - growing seedlings in small pots without transplanting for a long time. Yes, it is not drawn out. But where could she be before - if only to survive! She tolerates and waits.
And when at last the hostess pulls her out of the cup, she will have a ball of roots in her hands (there is no land there either). Once in normal soil, the poor hotbed rushes out of all the last heels to grow, blossom and somehow give birth to the children of the heirs. And if the hostess had earlier transported her seedlings into large containers, even at the end of April, then a couple of weeks would have remained before landing in the ground. And the harvest would have ripened earlier and better.
And I think it’s better to dive with the first leaf, while the spine is small - it will be less injured. In what to dive, everyone decides for himself. I've decided to give up homemade cups. Why are they? Look how many now any packaging left over from the products. In addition, it is easy to clean and stack.
It is only important that the width of the tank be greater than its height.
For example, mayonnaise jars, in my opinion, are best suited for picking. The roots of the plants there breathe "full breasts", and do not suffocate in deep glasses, made of newspapers. But plants still have to live there no more than 20 days. Next - transfer into a large container. A jar of such a volume now of all colors can be found. It’s very convenient: you don’t need to sign anything - I plant one variety in blue, the other in white, the third in pink. When grown in an apartment, with a lack of light, it is often necessary to rearrange the jars. It is important not to confuse varieties, and the color will always tell you where you put it.
It is often written that jars for seedlings need to be holed so that excess water flows from them. In my opinion, useless labor. Just do not be zealous with watering, here and there will not be an overabundance of moisture, and the black leg will not start. I once, for the sake of experiment, drilled several jars. And it was in them at the time of disembarkation the seedlings turned out to be the worst. Why?
Yes, because when the shoots grow five to six leaves, they have increased thirst, a clod of earth quickly dries out, but with the next watering, the water takes and flows into the holes, not having time to feed the roots.
Now a little about your greenhouse. She has dimensions 6 × 4 m, she has glass. The land in it has been prepared since autumn (for the seedlings, by the way, also). In winter I put snow in it. At the end of February - the beginning of March, it begins to melt and saturate the earth with life-giving moisture. On the remnants of snow I covered the soil with black film. For one quarter of the greenhouse I set the arcs for additional shelter of seedlings.
In mid-April, I begin to carry seedlings. I go by bus. I can take 15 jars at a time. Early varieties by that time already with small buds. When I bring it, I immediately load into large pots with a volume of one and a half liters (and again, different colors are selected for each variety). By April 20-25, all the seedlings are already sitting quietly in a large container. For two or three weeks in such a "sanatorium" she recovers well in the light and freedom. And by early May, ready to disembark with large buds and flowers.
And to hide in the greenhouse in arcs is not a problem. Convenient materials for this now also abound. And if absolutely angry return frosts appear, then late in the evening plastic bottles with hot water can be placed under shelter, because the nights are not so long in the spring.
However, caution should be exercised when planting seedlings in the ground at such a time. Since the earth is still not warm enough, in order to rid the plants of the cold coming from inside, I plant them almost two or three centimeters without deepening them.
In the greenhouse I place 80 roots. Another 20-30 in the open ground - it will be a “trifle” for salting. I form everything strictly in one stalk.
M. Belousova Sverdlovsk region
I love tomatoes! And eat and grow
A very long time ago, tomatoes were grown only in warm countries. For Europeans, they were discovered by Christopher Columbus, calling “tomtal”, which means “large berry”. Europeans were wary of unusual fruits, growing them only for beauty, in flowerbeds. Only in the XIX century, the myth about the dangers of tomatoes disappeared. For the beauty and benefit they were called "the apple of love." And nobody argues with that today.
I have countless varieties; growing new varieties has become my real hobby. Nowadays, many people buy seeds for seedlings, I want to share my collection: whatever the bush is, it's a masterpiece!
Very decorative look on the bush, like a rose flower, tomatoes American ribbed, Lothargin Beauty, Izmailovsky ribbed. The colors of these tomatoes are very different: red, pink, orange. The weight of each fruit is up to 600 g.
Tomatoes grow from which you can not take your eyes off Tiger, Apple color, Fireworks, Silver spruce, Hen Ryaba, Green zebra, Matrosik. Fruits as if doused with golden stripes.
And another variety with velvet yellow fruits - Peach. Fruit and tops pubescent, very fruitful.
Loved one of the most beautiful and tasty tomatoes - Striped. The elongated red fruits are decorated with bright yellow winding stripes. Tasty and good for canning.
A rare variety Super Exotica will not leave anyone indifferent. Plum-colored fruit of the motley color is very tasty.
In the open ground and for preservation, and just on the table look spectacular Chinese tomatoes. They are all speckled and striped, very sweet and fruitful. So, Ildy's yellow cherry cherry hangs on the branches to the very frost, endlessly setting fruit. Very resistant to diseases. Past such a sweet children do not pass by.
Another novelty is tomatoes Voyage (garlic) Germanic breeding. This is a tall plant with fruits from accrete slices, similar to a bunch of grapes. He tore the lobule, and it grows further.
My 5 kopecks - tomatoes - questions and answers
It will take a little time, and the tomatoes sown for seedlings will turn green, go to growth, perplexing the novice gardener with various questions.
How deep should sow tomato seeds? Am I right?
It is necessary to sow to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. If it is less, the seedlings may appear with a seed coat, from which they will not be able to free themselves, and they will die;
Do I need to deepen the seedlings when picking?
Сеянцы томатов в возрасте 25-30 дней (в фазе 2-3 настоящих листочков) пикируют в горшочки, заглубляя до уровня семядольных листьев или меньше. На заглубленной части стебля образуются дополнительные боковые корешки, усиливающие питание растения.
Прищипывать ли корешок при пикировке?
Томаты имеют стержневую корневую систему. Потому растения, высаженные непосредственно в горшочки (или грунт) без пикировки, формируют один мощный корень с редкими разветвлениями. Растения, у которых прищипнули кончик корешка, вынуждены формировать разветвленную мочку, которая оказывается более сильной и приспособленной для выращивания в почвах с небольшим плодородным слоем.
Надо ли пересаживать рассаду в более крупные горшки?
Each transplant retards plant growth for 10-14 days due to enhanced root growth. Re-transplant is used only if the seedlings outgrow.
What should be done so that the seedlings grow even and not kosobokoy?
It is necessary to turn the pots and drawers every 5 days. You can also make a screen that reflects light from the room. The screen will help, firstly, to increase the illumination of plants, and secondly, make this illumination even and comprehensive.
Crop of tomatoes will not be if ..
These notes are the result of my many years of experience.
I suppose that these are not all the reasons on which tomato harvest depends.
I hope that other gardeners will complement me.
- in the daytime temperatures above 30 °, and at night below 10 °. Flowering occurs "idle and the ovary is not formed. Irrigation helps to reduce the heat, and to heat the greenhouse in the evening it is enough to put bottles of hot water in the evening,
- Deep landing and transfer to cold (below 10 °) soil. Such conditions cause inhibition of root growth, and weak roots poorly “feed” the plant,
- thickened planting - tomatoes are poorly pollinated, more easily affected by infection and pests. Soot not more often 4 bushes per 1 sq. M. Delete old and diseased leaves. On the bushes I leave the leaves only for the formation of the crop (below the loose brush). If you remove too many leaves, the ovary will begin to crumble, and the fruits will crack,
- windless weather, lack of drafts in the greenhouse. Therefore, be sure to walk along the rows and gently shake the stems for better fruit set,
- soil lack of or excess moisture. Therefore, in sunny weather I water tomatoes rarely, but plentifully and regularly until mid-August. You can not stop the watering in the heat and resume them after a long break,
- too wet due to rain or condensation accumulates in the greenhouse. High humidity of the air not only affects the formation and pouring of fruits, but also contributes to the development of diseases. In the open ground over the tomatoes, you can install a film canopy, and the greenhouse must be aired,
- lack of carbon nutrition. In a greenhouse, you can put a barrel of fermented grass or dung, and in the garden helps mulch from mowed grass,
- lack of potassium, phosphorus and trace elements in the background of excess nitrogen. Fatty tomatoes are tying little fruit. Manure dressings give only in the first half of summer. Then I water the plants under the root of an infusion of ash or a solution of complex fertilizer without nitrogen or with its low content,
- wrong shaping. I leave no more than two stems, timely break out the stepchildren,
- neglect preventive measures. The disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, I spray tomatoes with biological preparations of Alirin, Gamair, Fitosporin, NV-101 almost until the end of the growing season,
- wrong choice of varieties - not for its soil-climatic zone,
- It is important to deal with the "fatigue" of the soil. I apply the methods of recovery: crop rotation, application of organic fertilizers, the use of mulch and side-rats.
© A.VDOVIN Tyumen region.
To make tomatoes ripe
I have been growing tomatoes in the greenhouse for a long time, but no matter how hard I tried and no matter how early they were planted, they still did not ripen. Well, so wanted to pamper the grandchildren ripe tomatoes, especially with the purchased, they can not be compared. After all, their own! During the long years of torment I read a lot of magazines and chose three effective ways for myself.
I collect green fruits and put them in boxes. It is important that they are intact, free from damage. I lay a newspaper on the bottom, put tomatoes on top of two, sometimes three “floors” (to fit more) and tidy up the drawer under the cupboard. The room should not be hot. If the temperature is above +30 ° C, the fruits will get a motley uneven color and do not ripen. Best of all, tomatoes work out at a temperature of + 23 ... + 25 ° С. Look under the cupboard somewhere in five days - it will be possible to harvest the first “harvest”. And then check the box every two days to remove ripened tomatoes on time. Just wake up - perezrezet, rotting and even spoil the neighbors. So be on the lookout! Another very important thing: it is necessary to remove tomatoes from a bush as early as possible - in a state of blanket ripeness. If you tighten, late blight will get to them before you.
If it's time to harvest the tops of the tomatoes, and green tomatoes still hang on it, you can try to save them. You do not need to tear off the fruit, just pull out the bush, shake the ground from the roots and hang it upside down indoors. Plants gradually wither, and most of the fruits ripen.
I learned this original way from my sister. She puts several bananas in a box for unripe tomatoes. In this neighborhood, tomatoes ripen faster. Bananas choose not green, but already with the outlined brown spots on the peel. They contain ethylene, which accelerates the ripening of any fruit. This is very convenient, if you need to quickly, in just a couple of days, get bulk tomatoes. By the way, bananas act in the same way on all vegetables and fruits. Therefore, now I keep them only separately, so that they do not overripe before time.
© Natalia Glazova, Vladimir region.
Growing tomatoes in the Leningrad region
In the winter of last year, I sat on the Internet and repeatedly watched a video clip with a famous St. Petersburg gardener G.A. Kizima. She assured that tomatoes can grow without watering. Oh, how I liked this idea! But it was scary to realize it, all sorts of "what if?" What if the seedlings wither, and suddenly the fruits are not tied up, and if they are tied, they will not survive?
But the eyes are afraid, and the hands do. Besides, I have been doing tomatoes for 10 years, I have experience. Sometimes I experiment with one goal: less labor costs - a bountiful harvest. I understand people who get super crops, investing a huge amount of time and effort, and are justly proud of it, but I myself want to get a stable big harvest without any special problems. In other words, I am a supporter of the golden mean. But where it is, this middle, everyone defines himself.
I have a standard greenhouse, made of cellular polycarbonate, 3 × 6 m, it has two rows of 40 cm high, edged with professional sheet so that it does not bend under the ground, and even a bar 120 × 120 mm.
I sow the seeds in March, grow seedlings until the end of April, then about half of the bushes pinch the tops and put them in the water. Cuttings let the beard of the roots, and in May (last year it was the 8th and 24th numbers) I planted seedlings with a clod of earth and rooted cuttings (approximately equal of both) in the greenhouse.
I must say that both the seedlings and the cuttings were of unimportant quality. But the main idea was what? Grow tomatoes without watering. In spring and summer, if it rains regularly, I have close groundwater. But if it costs two or three weeks dry, it’s dry everywhere. And who is easier to settle down on a new place - a young cutting with a small root system or an adult “solid” plant with a clod of earth tightly braided with roots? It turned out that they both take root (for which I love tomatoes).
The greenhouse beds themselves (even without the greenhouse) were in my autumn-winter 2013-2014. covered with cardboard so that the weed does not grow, and I don’t like to dig. In April last year they set up a greenhouse over them. One half of the bed (where the cardboard quickly rotted away) still had to be dug up, as it was overgrown with tears and wheat grass. In time, I did it: I got to the bottom of a mink with four crooks. My scream stood on the whole district. Well, I can not kill them, they are alive and squeak! I had to call an assistant, he took them away from the site.
And so, by making a peg a hollow for cuttings and digging holes for the bushes, I planted my future wealth, pouring 1-1.5 liters of water under each. Immediately after landing, she leveled the ground, covered overlapped with newspapers of 5-6 layers, and covered it with hay on top and pressed it with bricks and stones in some places. And she said to her wards: “Well, guys, in a good hour!” And that’s all. No worries or watering.
Golden mean always and in all
I began to observe, looking several times a day into the greenhouse. My gavriks thought for a week, and - and there is nothing to do - they began to grow. I was still afraid for the first month that I would wither (I repeat: there was no watering!), But when I saw my stepchildren from the strong plants <и, конечно="" же,="" удаляя="" их="" своевременно),="" поняла,="" что="" дело="" идет="" на="" лад,="" и="" так="" оно="" и="">и,>
I will say more, they increased the green mass in excess, somewhere I removed the leaves, somewhere I broke out the branches. I think because the land was fresh, a lot of nitrogen.
I am very pleased with my harvest. But it could be even more if the quality of the seedlings was better.
The entire greenhouse was planted around the perimeter with black beans every 20-30 cm, but the mole piles from the outside were still there, and the beds did not suffer, as the whole summer was closed with newspapers and hay.
By a very rough estimate, I got 3-4 kg from a bush (all determinants). And let these numbers seem undignified to someone, my spool is very dear to me
I want to say a few words about mineral fertilizers. Many are proud of the fact that they do not “chemically” on their site. Well, it's great if your players feel great. I reason as follows: if I see that some plant lacks some element for growth and development, and I know which one (well, or at least I suppose), I give it additional fertilizing with mineral fertilizer or in the ground, or (which is faster) hood, spraying on the sheet. Honestly, you will not suffer for a long time with a headache, but take some medicine. Mineral fertilizers for plants are like pills for us: drinking handfuls (consider putting handfuls in the ground) is stupid, but not curing at all either will not work. What are we doing? We find, we select that golden mean.
V.A. Ratnikova St. Petersburg
Accelerate tomato ripening
Tomatoes from green ones become lighter - milky ripeness, after they turn brown - blanchevaya ripeness, and then ripen finally, becoming the inherent color of the variety. All this takes about 15 days. However, the period can be reduced, especially if the fruits are threatened with fogs - precursors of phytophtoras. /. Two days in a row I water the plants with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or spray it with a solution of iodine (30-40 drops per 10 liters of water) - and after 5-7 days they noticeably redden.
2. This year on plants I will try to put fruit brushes in plastic bags, put them over the skin of a banana and tie a bag on a branch for 2-3 days. They say it works.
3. In August, stop feeding. And 1 -1.5 weeks before the last harvest - and watering.
4. At the end of the season, you can close the greenhouse for the day - the heat will accelerate the ripening of the fruit. In the evening to air.
Roman EROSHENYA, Soligorsk
In the morning I pick up all the brown and large green tomatoes and leave them for roasting on the windowsill. If there are many tomatoes, put them in wooden boxes and put them one on top of another in a dry ventilated room.
I add a couple of ripe specimens to the fruit - they produce ethylene, from which other tomatoes redden faster. Once a week I check the crop, pick ripe ones, throw out suspicious fruits. Tomatoes can also be poured in the released greenhouses: I put plywood or straw on the ground and lay the fruits in 2-3 layers. On sunny days I air. She noticed that tomatoes ripen faster in the light, and more evenly in the dark.
Natalya Furs, Vitebsk
More - down!
So that tomatoes spend their energy on pouring the available fruits, and not wasting on the formation of new ones, which still do not have time to ripen, remove the branches from the ovaries, the unblown and excess flowers, the ovaries. As a result, a maximum of five brushes remains on short and medium plants.
In August, after the fourth brush, I pinch the tops of the bushes. Above the inflorescences with knotted tomatoes I leave 2-3 leaves, and under them leaves are removed.
Powerful bushes of tomatoes and eggplants make a little stress, from which they quickly tend to form fruits and seeds. For example, on stems at a height of 8-12 cm from the ground with a sharp knife I make longitudinal cuts 7-10 cm long and insert toothpicks into them so that the walls do not close. Or this: holding the lower part of the stem, a couple of times gently smack the bush towards me to tear the roots.
If the stem 4-5 cm from the ground is wrapped around the copper wire rings from the phytophtoras, this will also somewhat accelerate ripening.
Marina SHEVTSOVA, Volzhsky
Seed - Cassette - Ground
Tomatoes are usually grown through seedlings.
The scheme is known: soaked the seeds, planted, spread out the shoots. But this last stage - picking - do tomatoes really need it? There is an opinion that it is possible without him.
It all started with the fact that I remembered what a root is. It is a “holder” of a plant in the ground and a supplier of nutrients and water. And how this happens, many have forgotten. Although the textbook botany 5th class has an interesting picture - it shows the length of the roots of different plants. Even the children were surprised that the roots of sugar beet deepened by 3 m, and the roots of sunflowers are looking for something at a depth of 2.7 m.
The roots of tomatoes are able to reach the depth of 1.5 m, and especially curious specimens are 2 meters deep. Tomato roots are taped: the main root begins to branch at a depth of more than 0.5 m. It grows lateral, or secondary, roots. The volume of soil in which the entire root system of a single plant is located is approximately 1.2 cubic meters. m
Why does tomato root when there is a gardener?
But why should a tomato look for food so deeply when a caring gardener will fertilize the surface tillage layer? So there appeared an opinion, introduced into the rank of the law, that tomatoes should be disfigured by all means in childhood, tearing off the very tip of the spine (many tear off the entire root!), So that it turns from bar-shaped into fibrous. But! The growth zone is located on the very detached tip; without it, the root cannot climb to the depth it needs. It remains in the arable layer exactly where fertilizers are applied.
It seems everything is logical! Let the roots grow there. where there is food for them. If something is not enough, the gardener will add. And water will be poured into each tomato well, so as not to suffer from drought. And what if you let the plant have the root that nature has endowed it with? Let the plant itself get to moisture! Let her search for the necessary substances! Let it grows extremely tasty fruits!
I grow without picks
Dishes If you plan to grow only 20 tomato bushes, then you will need 20 pots or any utility container, such as sour cream boxes or peat cups. And if you need 100 plants, it is better to buy cassettes in the garden center. This is a unique opportunity to place all the seedlings compactly, because the cassette is a mini-pots, gathered together in one place. Cells or cups come in different sizes.
For flowers, I choose a smaller one. For tomatoes, I recommend cassettes with large, voluminous cups. Two or three cassettes will take up considerably less than 100 individual pots.
Soil for seedlings buy ready. It is a guarantee that the black leg does not destroy the seedlings.
It is necessary to put soil in each cell of the cartridge with a spoon so much that after compaction two thirds of the volume is filled. Now you can expand the seeds in each cell. It is desirable for a few things, at least two or three. What for? Not all seeds will come out equally, among them there will be weak sprouts and those who could not throw off the seed coat from themselves will be presto late. In each cell I leave one plant, ruthlessly remove all inconspicuous.
From above, I again compacted with a spoon and poured the soil. All sowing is over. Now you need to water. It is even simpler here - I pour warm water into the pan, I watch that the cassette is standing horizontally, otherwise the water does not reach all the cells. Therefore, when the first watering let the tape stand on the table.
And nothing! All work has been done! It now remains to place the cassette in the warmest place (this is definitely not a window sill!), But first pack it in a clean, new large plastic bag for bins. Wait for the first shoots of the day three or four. Then the bag can be removed. The seedling will be quartered each in its house before landing in the ground.
And how to fertilize the seedlings and prepare it for sowing, I will tell in the next issue.
© Author: Vera TUKAEVA, Altai Territory
How to choose a sort of tomato for planting?
From the old proven can not refuse, and new items must be tested. And there is only one greenhouse!
I read the label and what is not suitable for my conditions, I dismiss at once. The main thing is to understand that tomatoes differ in growth type (interdeterminant and determinantal). And in appearance are divided into three types.
Always powerful, strong, but compact bushes. With a large number of dark green leaves, huge, like paws of fir-trees, thick, with short petioles, which can keep the bush upright, because the lowermost ones rest against the ground of the beds. However, at least once a season, but they are tied up so that the fruits do not touch the ground.
Interesting variety Shuttle. Height of a bush is 45 cm. Old and good acquaintances: Alpatyev, Volgograd. Yamal.
They are also called non-standard. Growth they may be different. There are high with powerful greens, there is kutsie, as if they had just recently been broken by a hurricane and all the leaves were torn off. How do they differ from standard? They have trunks
frail, thin. The stalks themselves can not even keep without fruits. And so loaded with a crop, they will lie, and the crop will spoil from contact with the earth. And no matter how fruitful the variety, the gardener will get little. These tomatoes must be tied up to the support! If you recall your growing experience, it turns out that almost all were ordinary tomatoes. Да и сортов этой разновидности больше всего. Ляна. Дина, Новичок, Перебудова, Пикет, Ракета – это обыкновенные, или нештамбовые помидоры.
Никогда, ни на одном пакетике такие слова прочесть нельзя. Хотя означают они всем знакомое понятие – картофельные листья,
Если из всех семян пакетика вырос один с картофельными листьями, то это не ошибка природы, а недосмотр поставщика семян. Потому что выведены сорта томатов с такими листьями. Их немного. Достоверно известно, что сорта Юбилейный Тарасенко, Микадо, Лотос. Японский трюфель – это помидоры крупнолистные с картофельным листом.
Beautiful large fruits up to 600 g of raspberry-pink color at the variety Pink Elephant, the height of Bach-temir is only 50 cm, the fruits are rather small, only 80 g, but they are stored for 20 days. The Czech variety Moravian miracle is an early miracle, it needs 86 days for small fruits, like those of cherry tomatoes, to ripen. Cut from Holland - a plant of unlimited growth.
Suppose I took a bag of the Bullfinch variety, I read: the plant is not a standard, determinant, the first inflorescence is laid over the 6th leaf, the next through 1-2 leaves, the variety is early ripe, the fruits are up to 200 g. Now I understand what we are talking about?
© Author: Vera TUKAEVA, Altai Territory
And watering and protecting tomato seedlings
Tomato seedling is now expensive. I collected the seeds and decided to sow myself. Prepared soil: earth (3 parts), sand (2 parts), ash (1 part). She took a plastic box for vegetables, first laid the bottom and sides with cellophane, then put the cardboard and put the soil in the box.
Sowed the seeds, lightly sprinkled with earth for seedlings and poured warm water (from the hand). I planted seedlings on April 19, the next year I sow earlier, and in autumn I will prepare the soil.
She put the seedlings into the warmth for the night, carried her out into the street during the day. She rose together. Watered with warm water, a month later, transplanted to a permanent place under the p / e bottle (1.5 l). Called her mini-greenhouse for tomatoes. The bottom of the bottle must be cut off first with a knife, and then with scissors in a circle. And be sure to remove the cork, otherwise the plant will die! I tried to adapt the bottom, but the seedlings under it died. I water over the neck of the bottle. It is necessary to use a greenhouse-bottle only on cold nights, if left in a hot time, the seedlings will die - the sun will burn.
Spend drip irrigation of n / e bottle. I cut the bottom, do not remove the cork, but make holes with a red-hot nail 10 cm below the cork. Once a week I add a top dressing to water: a glass of ash per 10 liters of water, a week later - a second time. Or 1 liter of fermented herbs per 10 liters of water - nettle, dandelion, knotweed, etc.
Read more about openings in bottles. I make a different number of holes - 1,2,4. A hot nail does not need to be deeply buried in a polyethylene bottle, it is enough just to pierce the hole with the tip, otherwise it will turn out to be large and the water will quickly go away, and we will have drip watering. Depending on the number of holes, I put a bottle or under the seedlings of tomatoes (1-2), or under the strawberries (4 or more) in the middle of the bushes. I lift the ground slightly with a shovel, insert the bottle, seal my hands well and pour water for irrigation.
© Author: Anna Manuilova
My tomato technology
My gardening experience is over 60 years old! During this time, he himself wrote many articles, and gathered a lot of useful literature, thanks to which he developed a suitable agricultural technique. For convenience, all the stages of growing tomatoes are listed in the table. I hope it will be useful to readers.
Soil preparation February 6-12
In peat, humus and turf (1: 1: 1) add 1 tbsp. ash and superphosphate, 1 tsp potassium sulfate and urea based on a bucket of soil. 6 days before sowing, the mixture is slightly compacted, I spill with warm (+ 30 ... + 40 degrees) Humate solution (the color of beer) and heat it at +100 degrees. 20 minutes. Then wet again.
Seed preparation - February 13-19
1. First, immersed in salt water to empty.
2. Then I disinfect the solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes (1 g per 1 tbsp of water).
3. Rinse with water.
4. Soak for a day in a solution of the drug Ideal (1 tsp. Per 1 liter of water).
5. Hardened day at a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 degrees.
Sowing - February 20-26
1. In the boxes with the ground I make every 5-6 cm grooves 1.5 cm deep.
2. I spill them with a solution of the drug Bud (1 g per 1 l of water) and, as it soaks, spread the seeds at a distance of 2 cm from each other.
3. I fill the grooves with soil and cover the boxes with a film (I do not water it!).
February 27-29, March 1-4
1. After all the seeds have come, I water a little. Next time - in 7-8 days. 2. During the day I keep the temperature + 16 ... + 18 degrees, at night - + 13 ... + 15 degrees. 3. After the emergence of seedlings, I feed with urea (1 tsp. Per 3 liters of water).
1. I water with warm water under a root.
2. Until the appearance of the 2-3rd sheet in the daytime I keep the temperature + 18 ... + 20 degrees, at night - + 15 ... + 18 degrees.
3. 10 days after the previous feeding, I make Agricola Forward (1 tsp. Per 1 liter of water). Or in 3 liters of water I mix 1 tbsp. superphosphate and ash, watering 0.5 st. on the plant.
1. I water with warm water under a root.
2. I spray polystochkam skim milk (1 tbsp. Per 1 liter of water).
3. A week before the picking, I feed with a nitrophosphate (1 tbsp of nAZ l of water) - 1 tbsp. on the plant.
In the phase of 3 true leaves I water the seedlings with the solution of the preparation Barrier (1 tbsp per 1 l of water).
© Author: Vladimir MANUNTSEV, Samara
Tomatoes without hassle
Tomato seeds (I prefer Rio Grande varieties, Bounty, Bull heart. Wild rose, Persimmon) sow in March. I pour the earth into the trays, wet it a little and make a groove 1–1.5 cm deep every 2-3 cm. I put the seeds in them and sprinkle them with the soil. I moisten from a spray, I cover with a film and I put in a bright warm place. After 5-7 days, fragile shoots appear, which I watered from the sprayer before picking. I plant seedlings in separate peat pots when they have 2-3 leaflets.
After growing up, according to the instructions, I feed up every 7-10 days with fertilizer Zdravna for tomatoes. I spray the bushes and carefully loosen the ground in pots. 2 weeks before landing in the ground I start hardening. First, I increase the airing, then gradually carry the seedlings out into the street for 10-15 minutes, increasing the time every day by 5 minutes. After the threat of frost has passed, the seedlings are planted in the ground.
TIP: In order not to spray tomatoes with pesticides in the summer, I plant basil, tobacco and marigolds next to them. Due to their smell on plants there is neither aphids nor the Colorado potato beetle.
© Author: Maria GUZENKO
Growing tomatoes in caps
Many are now promoting the principles of natural farming, but, unfortunately, on my site you can’t do without spring digging - during the winter the soil is so compressed that neither a flat cutter nor a chopper can be stuck into the ground. Planting C-derata helps a little. Therefore, the shovel remains my main friend in the country to this day.
(In addition, we always have problems with water, they give it strictly according to schedule for an hour and a half in the morning and evening, and even after a day. You just don't have time to pour all the landings on the plot. You have to mulch the land generously to hold at least a little moisture.
However, even under a thick layer of mulch, our sandy soil dries out extremely quickly. Accordingly, the feeding, which I spend, also do not have time to fully digest the plants. But I want the work invested not to be in vain.
A few years ago we did repairs and blocked the roof in a country house. After that, a lot of old ruberoid remains. I cut it into rectangular pieces. Then each stapled. It turned out cylinders, half of which were 15 cm high, and the rest - 20-25 cm. The diameter of those and others was about 20 cm. These cylinders decided to use when growing tomatoes - small for short-growing, and large - for tall varieties.
When transplanting seedlings into open ground, I put on such a “cap” for each shoot. At first, he protected the plants well from the wind and the scorching sun, and contributed to a more rapid adaptation. Later, as the tomatoes grew, I began to pour humus into the cylinders, removing the lower leaves. Due to the humus, the plants quickly developed an additional root system, which favorably affected the growth and fruiting of tomatoes.
Watering and dosed top dressing made it in this cylinder. Due to it, the soil remained wet for a very long time. In the first season, as I began to use my inventions, the harvest was that-. mats just surpassed all expectations! Since then I use cylinders every year. Now I have reduced the number of seedlings almost 2 times, and I still get a big harvest.
© Author: Irina KUDRINA, Voronezh
Dark for tomatoes
I grow tomatoes in the open pound, but there are wire arches in the garden. Cover material used depending on the situation.
Immediately after planting, I plant black spunbond arcs on the arches and hold plants under it for 3-4 days. This is so that the seedlings adapt and do not wilt under the sun. A neighbor does differently. At night, each tomato bush she covers a cardboard box, so warm. After planting 10-12 days, I do not water the seedlings until the plants have taken root, there will be enough water for planting at this time. Watering tomatoes is always at the root, so that water does not fall on the leaves, and only in the afternoon. But at first I don’t really like watering. I watch only that the pound was wet and not dry. But when the fruits start to grow, then I water it often and regularly, otherwise the fruits grow with cracks and do not mature well.
Spud or not
Personally, I spud. I believe that in this way the soil is enriched
with oxygen, the root system is more developed, and pits form between the mounds, which hold water for a long time. But I know those who do not spud and harvests no less. I occasionally look at the tomatoes and see that adventitious roots have appeared on the stem, in this case I will need to spud. But not everyone has the opportunity to water the tomatoes daily. Then your salvation is a mulch. To keep the soil moist, lay peat, straw, sawdust between rows.
To prevent phyto-rose. I prepare the ash solution: 2 tbsp. l ash per 1 liter of water, insist for 2 days. Ash solution protects and nourishes from diseases. I spray them with tomatoes every 2 weeks.
It has been 20 days since the date of the planting of tomatoes, I begin to feed. The first dressing: in a bucket of water, I dilute 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 50 g of superphosate and 30 g of potassium sulfate. On each plant I pour out 1 l of solution.
The second feeding - in two or three weeks and the same composition.
The third dressing, when the tomatoes reached the fruiting period: in a bucket of water I spread 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 60 g of potassium sulirat, 30 g of superphosate. Someone believes that this is chemistry, and someone - that the vitamins for plants. I try not to abuse it, although I would be happy to listen to the advice of supporters of natural farming. Write how to grow tomatoes without manure and without mineral fertilizers? I would be glad.
I. MASLENNIKOV, Vyatka
Sometimes novice gardeners in any change in tomato leaves see a threat to the entire crop. Find out when the fears are in vain, and when it’s really time to sound the alarm, an experienced gardener Sergey SAMUSEV will help us.
Even when planting seedlings in the well, be sure to add nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements - the owner shares. - During flowering from barren flowers, if the ovary is weak or small, I add boron (Bormaks, Borvit). When tying fruits of tomatoes and peppers under the root or on the leaves, I give calcium (Vap-novit, chalk, dolomite flour, calcium chloride - 30-40 g per 10 l of water, calcium nitrate - 5-10 g per 1 l of water) . Otherwise, when there is a shortage of calcium, there is a high risk of dry (top) rot on the fruit, the first sign of which is leaf curling. In general, for the season I can give calcium three times.
What are the “help signals”?
If the leaves turn yellow - the plants do not have enough magnesium, pale - phosphorus is needed, turned blue - they froze, and they were also poured (loosen the soil so that the earth dries out).
How to distinguish between the lack of an element and the beginning disease? Sometimes they look like ...
The disease progresses, and a burn or lack of an element usually does not go further, if it manifests itself. For example, if the leaf has dried up and turned yellow - this is most likely a lack of an element. But if there are new brown dry leaves with dark veins - this is alternarioz. Which, in turn, is often confused with late blight, although it strikes first the tops, and only then descends further along the bush, making the leaves gray-black, and their opposite side is gray, but with black veins.
How do you fight disease?
And if the pests attacked?
The hardest to deal with the whitefly, because it appears more often when the fruits are already poured, but I don’t want to apply “chemistry”. Therefore, I remove the fruits from the affected bushes and only then process them with Sharpei (you can use Fufanon). Nurel helps from aphids and caterpillars, but they can be processed no later than 28 days before harvesting. If the pests appeared shortly before harvesting, use drugs with a faster period of decay - for example, Superkil.
Tomatoes were sweet
In the greenhouse, I grow proven tall indeterminate tomatoes of the varieties Mazarin, Sevruga, Rosy Honey, Raspberry Jingle. Peruvian, Golden Domes. They give aromatic, dense, fleshy and sugary fruits weighing 400-500 g. But the composition of the soil also decides a lot. If it contains enough potassium and magnesium (there are enough of them in the ashes) - a tomato is sweet, if it is low and more nitrogen - sour acid prevails.
Tomatoes form in one stem. On stunted in the open field I leave 3-4 brushes, and tall greenhouse - 6-8 brushes.
Every week the stepson, otherwise the tomatoes will be tied up a lot, but they will grow no more than a walnut, and we need no less than with a man's fist! And I cut the leaves of all of them before the first fruit cluster - “barefoot” bushes are better ventilated, which means they are less susceptible to diseases.
If the leaves are pale, water the bushes with infusion of weeds. If the leaves turn brown at the edges - I water the plants with a 0.5-1% solution of potassium sulfate. If the bushes “fatten”, bloom poorly and do not tie fruit - I feed up 5% superphosphate extract.
In rainy and cold summers, tomatoes are threatened by late blight. In order to prevent the onset of the disease, I spray the bushes with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, with Homeom or Oxyx drugs - three times with an interval of 10 days.
© Author: Tamara KURDYUKOVA. Ishim
My secrets of growing tomatoes
I have been growing tomatoes on my plot for 30 years already, and during this time I don’t remember a single lean year.
Fruits always grow tasty, fragrant and in large quantities. The pledge of a rich harvest is fertile soil and little secrets, which I gladly share with readers of the Gardener and the Gardener.
Secret One: Seating Wisdom
In order for the seeds to germinate well, and the plants to be strong and healthy, dry seeds before sowing must leave the “warm sides” on the battery for a day, pretreated in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or soda.
Sowing seeds in the garden soil with the addition of ash and peat (10: 1: 1).
Seedlings dosachivayu 14-16 hours a day. To prevent the plants from stretching, I maintain the temperature in the room at about +20 degrees.
Before planting in the ground two or three times with an interval of ten to fourteen days I spray the seedlings with a solution of boric acid (1 tsp. Per 10 liters of water).
The secret of the second: orders on a tomato garden
In the fall, I collect stalks and leaves from fully healthy tomatoes, crush and put the shovels in the soil on the bayonet bayonet where I plan to grow tomatoes next year. In spring I form a bed from east to west so that the bushes are well lit from all sides. Before planting seedlings in the wells I throw a pinch of nitroammofoski.
Next to the tomatoes that I grow in the open field, I sow the seeds of beans, basil, carrot, radish, radish, green onions, watercress, spinach and celery. And I never grow cucumbers, fennel, kohlrabi and sunflower in the neighborhood. I mulch a garden bed with tomatoes with any material that you can eat: hay, straw, compost, sawdust, newsprint, fallen leaves, mowed grass, tree bark, pine needles, and peat.
I spud plants only with moist earth during periods of active root growth: the first time is when bulges resembling pimples appear on the ground stalk, the second time when the stalk near the ground itself becomes bluish.
Throughout the season, I delete stepchildren. And so that they do not grow back, I do not remove them completely to the stem, but leave a small stump in 0.5-1 cm.
The third secret: food
Every 7-9 days in calm weather in the evening I spray bushes with one of the compositions (alternating them).
- 1 tsp I grow urea in 10 liters of water.
- 1 tsp potassium nitrate or potassium monophosphate dissolved in a bucket of water.
- 1 tsp Calcium nitrate is diluted in 10 liters of water.
After pinching and healing of wounds, I spend the root feeding: 0.5 l of mullein, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate, 1 tsp magnesium sulphate, 1.5 tsp I dissolve boric acid in 10 liters of water and pour out 1 liter under each bush. During the period of the mass ovary, I spray tomatoes with this solution: 0.5 l of milk, 5 g of boric acid, 15 drops of iodine, 50 g of soda ash I dilute in 10 liters of water.
During the flowering of the second and third flower brushes, 1-2 times process plants with a weak solution of boric acid (10 g per 10 l of water).
When tomatoes begin to bear fruit, I alternate such feedings once every two weeks.
- I pour 1.5-2 l of a weak iodine solution at the root (3-4 drops per 10 l of water).
- In 2.5 liters of water I dilute 100 g of yeast and 0.5 tbsp. Sahara. I give a ferment. 1 tbsp. the composition is dissolved in 10 liters of water, pour 1 liter under a bush.
- 2 liters of ash pour 5 liters of boiling water, after cooling, add another 5 liters of water, 10 g of boric acid and 10 ml of iodine. Insist day. Pour a liter of solution (1:10) under each bush.
Fourth secret: no phytophthora!
Against late blight, I spray plants with a solution of greens (1 drop per 1 liter of water) two weeks after transplanting to a permanent place. Treatments repeat every two weeks.
There is in our family a favorite recipe for tomato preparation.
At the bottom of a liter jar I put a pinch of chopped dill, 4-5 black peppercorns, a small onion, cut into rings, 2 chopped cloves of garlic, add 1 tbsp vegetable oil. Then cut down I put strong, washed tomatoes cut in half. Заливаю доверху теплым рассолом (3 ст.л. соли, 7 ст.л. сахара, 1 ст. 9%-ного уксуса на 3 л воды). Стерилизую 10 минут с момента закипания. Закатываю, переворачиваю вверх дном, укутываю до остывания. Храню в холодном месте.