Japanese cryptomeria (lat. Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese cedar is an evergreen coniferous plant of the cypress family. In the natural environment, Japanese cryptomeria is common in the subtropical regions of China and Japan. In the land of the rising sun, the tree is a national symbol, in connection with which it is found under the name Japanese cedar, although it has nothing to do with the genus Cedar. The Japanese themselves call the plant "sugi", and in China it bears the name "Shan." If you do not call cryptomeria, it does not detract from its magnificent beauty.
Giant on the windowsill?
Having met cryptomeria in the wild forest, it is difficult to imagine that it is able to settle in the garden, and even more so on the windowsill. It is not connected with the difficulties of cultivation and care.
Such thoughts cast impressive tree sizes:
- Straight trunk tends up to a height of 60 meters. The colorful fibrous bark has a red-brown tint.
- The trunk can barely be wrapped around one person - its diameter reaches about 2 meters.
Garden cryptomeria are limited to a height of 2-3 meters. The derived ornamental varieties of Japanese cryptomeria make it possible to form even miniature trees (bonsai) in indoor conditions.
Of course, the owners of garden plots appreciate every square meter and try to grow more fruit and berry crops. But the picturesqueness of the plant does not leave indifferent. There is a similarity with araucaria. Crown cryptomeria pyramidal shape. The needles are soft to the touch. Three-, four-sided needles of emerald hue, on the shoots is spiral. Brown fruits, cones for a long time remain on the plant, even after shedding seeds.
Cryptomeria Japanese variety Cryptomeria japonica ‘Golden Promise’ photo
Thermophilic cryptomeria was introduced to Europe in 1842. In the open field it is cultivated only in the south (Black Sea coast, Caucasus), where it has become an indispensable embellishment of parks and gardens. Even a long period of cultivation did not help adapt to a cooler climate. However, there have been cases when it maintained a short-term decrease in temperature to -12 ° C.
Adaptation to room conditions
Flower growers, with all their hearts who love their work, have adapted to grow cryptomeria in room conditions:
- To do this, you will need ceramic vases, preferably black or grayish (to keep the roots warm).
- At the bottom of the tank must fit a generous layer of drainage.
- The soil requires light (for example, a mixture of turf, leaf soil, sand and peat).
- To keep growth, you need to take the capacity is not too voluminous, also do not indulge strongly dressings.
- It is favorable to spend the spring-summer period for a cryptomeria in the fresh air - it will become a charming decoration of a verandah, an arbor, a terrace, a garden.
- The plant is rescued from the winter cold by keeping it in a heated room.
Useful properties of Japanese cedar
Separating essential oils into the air that have a bactericidal and antiviral effect, cryptomeria serves as a means of protection against diseases. This is so important during the cold season. We contemplate the beauty and at the same time improve our health.
The wood of the plant has a beautiful pattern, is resistant to rotting, soft, so it is pliable in processing.
Japanese cryptomeria is often planted to create forest shelter belts.
Where to put cryptomeria
Japanese cryptomeria light-requiring. Stick to the diffuse level of light, direct sunlight can burn tender needles. A slight shading is allowed, but it is better to grow with sufficiently bright light. For example, in a room a plant can be placed in a wall between windows.
In the garden, choose a place where direct sunlight will fall only in the afternoon. From the winter sun, conifers can also burn out, we recommend the use of reflective screens.
Air temperature and ventilation
It is better to spend the warm period of a tree in the fresh air. If this is not possible, cryptomeria can tolerate room temperature (the optimal range is 22-25 ° C). Wintering is required to be cool, the mark of the thermometer should be at +12 ° C.
Do not forget about regular airing of the room. Directly stay at the ajar window or door in the winter, as well as the draft at any time of the year, do not allow.
Watering and spraying
Water room cryptomeria must be balanced. Adhere to the rule of the golden mean: do not let earthy people dry up much and do not make swamps. From overmoistening, the root system starts to rot (loosen the substrate a little and smell the rot). If the process is badly started, the chic hamp will die - a big loss for an enthusiastic gardener.
Sugi loves water treatments. When growing indoors, spray trees regularly a couple of times a day, and “bathe” less often in winter. In the summer, especially on hot days, spray garden cryptomeria with a hose, but by evening it should have time to dry.
For irrigation and spraying be sure to use warm water at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. Water quality does not play a significant role, but let it be at least settled for 1-2 days.
In order for home cryptomeria to grow normally and at the same time have compact dimensions, it is enough to feed it once a year under room conditions. Take a complex mineral fertilizer, dilute in water half the dose recommended by the manufacturer, and pour it under the root. Feed in the spring and summer months.
When cultivating in the open field, feed cryptomeria every spring with mineral fertilizers (full dose) or organic matter. A young plant can not be fed a couple of months after planting, then spend 2 feeding with a frequency of 1 month.
Regularly pinch the tips of the young shoots, then the cryptomeria will be better to bush. Spring prune damaged and bare shoots. The plant lends itself well to formative pruning. To form a tree, you need to cut the side and bottom shoots. Strongly moving away from the trunk branches tied with twine (in the summer you can use wire).
Room Cryptomeria Transplant
It is advisable not to replant garden cryptomeria, choose a suitable place for it immediately.
When grown in a tub or a flowerpot, the plant must be transplanted every spring the first 2-3 years of life. This is done mainly for the purpose of updating the substrate. If you replant cryptomeria regularly and at the same time take the capacity of even a slightly larger size, it “blows up” into a giant. The result will be the same as when planted in a large pot. Therefore, with each transplant, the container should be only slightly larger than the size of the earth coma.
Carefully handle the root system, use the transfer method.
Adult plants are transplanted about 1 time in 5 years. Every spring, the top layer of the substrate should be replaced with a new one. Take it off carefully so as not to damage the roots.
We prepare the soil mixture from equal proportions of leaf, sod land, peat and sand. At the bottom lay a layer of drainage thickness ¼ of the total volume of the tank. As a drainage, claydite, pebbles, small pebbles, broken bricks will be used.
Why do cryptomeria turn yellow and fall needles
Why cryptomeria falls needles Photos of a sick plant
Japanese cryptomeria, highlighting the essential oils, not only cleans the air, but also protects itself from pests and diseases.
The condition of the plant deteriorates with care errors:
- Needles turn yellow in too bright light. Do not place on the south side, direct sunlight is contraindicated,
- Pine needles fall, if the air in the room is dry. It is necessary to regularly spray the plant even in winter. In no case do not place charming sugi near working batteries and heating devices,
- Excessive watering, combined with high air temperature, leads to rotting of the root system. An emergency transplant will be required with removal of the affected areas and replacement of the substrate. It is necessary to cut the roots, which are very susceptible to damage and may not recover. Water moderately to prevent this from happening.
- Regularly inspect the twigs and needles for timely detection of pests. Occasionally there are scythos or spider mites. It is necessary to carry out treatment with an insecticidal preparation (top Bi-58, Aktara).
Diseases of cryptomeria
Infectious lesion of cryptomeria photo
Japanese cedar can get fungal infections from over-irrigation. This will manifest itself in yellowing, darkening of the needles and dying off of the branches. Moreover, this phenomenon is quite rapid, so it is absolutely impossible to delay the treatment. Even with the adoption of appropriate measures, the plant may die.
Measures to save dying cryptomeria:
- Cut off all damaged parts of the plant: dry and yellowed branches.
- Remove the plant from the pot, carefully remove the ground from the roots, inspect carefully and cut off all the rotted parts.
- Transplant fresh soil (be sure to drain), disinfect the pot with a solution of potassium permanganate or boiling water.
- After transplantation, water the plant with a solution of phytosporin, and also treat it by needles and branches from the pulvelizer.
- After transplanting, place in a place where there will be diffused lighting.
- Treat with phytosporin or other fungicide at intervals of 7-10 days 4-5 times.
Even a recovered tree will need to be inspected regularly and with the smallest signs of disease treated with a fungicide.
Growing Cryptomeria from Seeds
Seeds of cryptomeria Japanese photo
Growing cryptomeria from seeds is not difficult. This method is more often used for the reproduction of plants for sale, because it allows you to simultaneously get a large number of trees. Seeds have excellent germination, and young shoots appear after 2-3 weeks.
- Traditionally, they start sowing at the end of February and beginning of March.
- Take any wide container - plastic or wooden box, special-sprouts, etc.
- Lay a drainage layer on the bottom and fill it to the top with a substrate consisting of equal proportions of river sand and peat.
- Moisten the soil by spraying from a fine sprayer.
- Distribute seeds at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other.
- They do not need to be deeply deepened, press into the soil to the depth of the size of the seed itself.
- To create a greenhouse effect, crops should be covered on top with glass or transparent film. Shelter will need to lift daily for airing.
- Also provide diffused lighting, keep the temperature in the range of 22-25 ° C, spray crops as necessary.
After the appearance of the shelter is removed. Grown up seedlings are seated in separate containers. In the open ground can be transplanted next spring.
Reproduction by cuttings
How to propagate Japanese cryptomeria by cuttings photo
At home, cryptomeria is most often propagated by cuttings:
- Cut the cuttings from the non-woody shoots at the end of the summer.
- From the bottom, remove the needles and for a few hours place the cutting into the growth stimulant solution (Appin, Kornevin).
- After the done manipulations plant in a mixture of sand and peat.
- Cuttings can be individually covered with a cut off plastic bottle or glass jar. When rooting in a common container, they are covered with glass or film.
- Temperature conditions and the level of illumination provide the same as for germination of seeds.
- Do not forget about the need for daily ventilation, periodically watering.
- After rooting (this is indicated by the appearance of young shoots) transplant the cutting into a separate container with a suitable substrate.
Reproduction by layering
Adult plants in the garden also propagated by layering:
- In the spring of the lower extreme shoot bend to the ground.
- In the place of its contact with the soil, remove the needles, you can make a small incision, fix it with a brace, and on top pour a hill of earth.
- The top of the shoot should be above the soil surface.
- Throughout the season, make sure that the soil does not dry out.
- The next spring, separate the young sprout from the mother tree and grow as an independent plant.
Garden forms can also be propagated by grafting.
Planting cryptomeria in open ground
Planting cryptomeria in open ground is better in spring. Japanese cedar need to take a sunny place, tolerates partial penumbra. The ideal will be depleted stony soils.
- The plot should not be flooded; if the groundwater is near, make the bed high.
- The soil requires a neutral or weakly acid reaction.
- Prepare a landing hole to the size of the root system and roll over the seedling together with the earthy clod, press the ground with your palms and pour it over the top.
- The root neck should be at the same level as before.
Care for outdoor cryptomeria
The Japanese cedar does not like excessive moisture, but one should not allow a long drought. With a frequency of precipitation 2-3 times a month and maintaining a slightly damp state of the soil, watering is not required. In hot weather, the plant will need abundant watering, preferably in the afternoon. Cryptomeria responds well to fine irrigation according to needles (do it early in the morning or in the afternoon, so as not to cause burns).
Top dressing can be carried out in the fall (end of August-September), using potash-phosphate fertilizers: per 1 sq. M. take the circle of the barrel 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and 1 tbsp. l potassium salt. Spread the fertilizer on the surface of the earth, close up with hoe. Above the floor with a layer of organic matter 10-15 cm. This will be enough to provide the plant with the necessary substances for a successful wintering and active growth in the spring.
Cryptomeria winters only in the southern regions, where the air temperature does not fall below the mark of -12 ° C. Young seedlings require shelter. Mulching is a must for adult plants.
Cryptomeria in landscape design
Cryptomeria in landscape design photo Sort Cryptomeria japonica Globosa Nana
Japanese cedar or Japanese cryptomeria is used for landscaping parks and gardens. In all its glory, it is revealed in vast spaces. The alley, planted in a staggered manner, creates a stunning effect of solidity.
The derived varieties allow the use of cryptomeria in less modest areas. They are planted near recreation areas, in rocky gardens and mixborders, as a tapeworm on the lawn.
The best varieties of cryptomeria
The colossal work of breeders is crowned with excellent results. In addition to the main species, the opportunity to grow a variety of decorative varieties.
Japanese cryptomeria golden variety Cryptomeria japonica ‘Vilmorin Gold’ photo
Golden - a variety of yellow-golden hue needles at a young age.
Japanese cryptomeria Cryptomeria japonica Вandai-sugi photo
Vandai-sugi - a variety of incredibly popular among European landscape designers. The tree is limited to a height of 2 m. The branches are spreading and fluffy. The needles are green with a gray tint.
Cryptomeria Japanese Elegance Cryptomeria japonica ‘Elegans Compacta’ photo
Elegans compacta is a slow-growing tree up to 2 m high. During the warm season, the needles are green-brown in color, and in winter it becomes green-violet or maroon-bronze. The plant is drought resistant. Cultivation in making does not affect development.
Cryptomeria Japanese variety Cryptomeria japonica Vilmoriniana photo
Vilmoriniana - the annual growth of the plant is several centimeters. The hue of the needles to the autumn becomes purple-red.
Cryptomeria Japanese Cryptomeria japonica ‘Globosa Nana’ photo
Globosa nana - a plant with a spherical shape of the crown. The tree reaches a height of 2-2.5 m. The shoots are uniform, dense, slightly raised. Needles of unequal length, thick, evenly spaced. The plant is able to withstand temperatures as low as -12 ° C.
Cryptomeria Japanese Cryptomeria japonica ‘Green Pearl’ photo
A real green pearl, which corresponds to the name of the variety: of enchanting beauty, large needles are gathered in fluffy thick branches. Loves sour or neutral soils, does not tolerate excessive watering. Lighting requires bright diffused.
Cryptomeria Japanese variety Cryptomeria japonica Dinger photo
This variety grows almost spherically and attracts the attention of very short needles, grows well, adult plants reach a height of about 1 m.
Botanical properties of cryptomeria
- In most species, the crown has the shape of a pyramid, the needles are bluish-green, in winter it can change colors to a darker one.
- The height of the trunk varies from 1.5 to 50 meters, the crown is usually thick, narrowed from the sides.
- Bark - brown with shades of red, with pronounced fibers.
- Leaves - spiral, greenish, slightly curved at the base.
- Cones - spherical, with a diameter can reach 2-3 centimeters.
- The wood is light, slightly rotting, but very soft. It is because of this factor that it is not used in any area other than decor.
Types of cryptomeria
Cryptomeria attracts attention with its genuine beauty. Не зря еще в середине 19 века ее начали культивировать в южной и центральной Европе. В 21 веке ученые вывели множество разновидностей японской криптомерии, отличающиеся по цвету хвои, высоте и диаметру ствола, устойчивости к погодным условиям.
- Сryptomeria japonica. Sharp needle leaves that change color from bright green to bronze depending on air temperature.
- Elegans Compacta is a subspecies of Japanese cryptomeria, the name speaks for itself: it has a smaller size. Needles change color depending on the season.
- Elegans Viridis - the crown has the shape of a wide cone, the branches are strongly branched. Suitable for landing in mid-latitudes, including Russia.
- Cristata - the branches are more compressed to each other, growing quickly enough.
- Vilmoriniana - the crown is more rounded, has a slow growth.
- Вandai-sugi - dwarf tree, a maximum of two-meter growth, has gained popularity in Europe. It grows small, but fluffy.
The use of "Japanese cedar" in landscape design
Various types of cryptomeria are used in landscaping parks, and also used as a forest protection belt.
Some gardeners grow this ornamental tree right at home, in the winter garden or on a warmed balcony. As a rule, dwarf varieties are chosen for such purposes, and they are planted in small tubs. To maintain growth, it is necessary to replant cryptomeria occasionally.
In addition to the excellent decorative properties, it can change in a positive way the microclimate of the room (due to the release of essential oils that can destroy harmful microorganisms).
The optimal time for planting a young plant is the beginning of March. The soil mixture will need to be prepared in advance, its composition: sand, peat, hardwood and turf, all the ingredients must be in equal proportions.
A layer of small pebbles is laid on the bottom of the dug hole or pot, this will ensure balanced drainage.
Home Cryptomeria Care
- The plant is light-loving, but you should not place it under direct ultraviolet rays, the partial shade would be the most suitable option.
- In the summer it will be better to place a tree on the street, if you do not have such an opportunity, then do not forget to air the room in which the tree is located. It feels bad in stagnant air.
- The optimum temperature for a plant is from 19 to 25 ° C in summer and from 14 to 20 ° C in winter.
- Watering is needed less often, only when the top layer of the soil dries out. Excess moisture can cause rotting of the root system, and then the final death of the plant. But it is necessary to spray the leaves 2 times a day with plain water at a temperature of 20-26 degrees. If you ignore this item, the needles from your tree will gradually fall off and lose their natural color.
- Top dressing needs to be carried out only a couple of times for the whole year, preferably from June to August. Use mineral fertilizers diluted in water.
The origin and botanical description of the plant
Japanese cedar in the wild is a tree of impressive size, the trunk of which reaches 2 m in diameter. Such size is a coniferous plant at the age of 150 years. The pyramidal crown and the straight cylindrical trunk of this charming plant attracts attention. Needle needles on the branches stand out in a dark green shade, even giving off blue, covering the shoots in a spiral. Single spherical cones are distinguished by a brownish color, they appear already in the first year, they are up to 3 cm in diameter.
This culture belongs to the family of Cypress, the plant is known among the people as Japanese cedar. The name of the ephedra deserved thanks to gigantic size and majestic strict appearance. Its homeland is Japan and China, so the plant grows well in the humid subtropical climate of the East. Cryptomeria is found both in forests and in alleys, reaching a serious height and width.
Thanks to the hard work of scientists, indoor species of cryptomeria (bonsai), and options for growing in pots, in home gardens, in gardens, greenhouses, and parks were developed.
For cultivation in the garden were derived the following forms of cryptomeria:
- The plant is notable for its short stature, long shoots with thick spiral twisted needles. This is the main feature of this species.
- An evergreen tree has a straight trunk and grows up to 2 m. Spreading branches with a large number of branches form a beautiful crown, which only increases its decorative effect.
- The ephedra is distinguished by its compact size; sockets of needles are formed on its numerous branches. It is noteworthy that their color varies depending on the season: in the spring-summer season - green with a bluish tinge, and closer to winter - red-brown.
- The plant is distinguished by the presence of two trunks and a large number of long, growing in a chaotic position, branches. They are covered with short dark green needles.
- Height elegans reaches 10 m. On dense branches there are soft long needles of bluish-green color. By autumn, their color changes to purple or brown. Small buds can be formed only on young plants. The advantage of this form is a high degree of resistance to adverse environmental factors.
Transplantation and reproduction of cryptomeria
In the first years after planting, the plant needs to be replanted annually, and this should be done with extreme caution. Only slightly change the dimensions of the subsequent pot, as the plant grows rapidly. And it is possible to do at all with just one transshipment, then the danger disappears in damage to the sensitive root system.
It is problematic to propagate cryptomeria at home with seeds, sprouts sprout only after 6-8 weeks, and you can hardly grow a truly decorative specimen. It is better to use cutting: carefully cut the cutting and put it in water. When small roots appear, the tree can be planted in the ground.
Dangerous diseases and pests
Leaves and wood of cryptomeria - a delicious food for shitovki or red spider mite. Therefore, the owner of the plant will have to carefully examine it every week.
Typical signs of infection: shrinkage, loss of needles, discoloration of the bark. The only right decision in this case is cutting and subsequent removal of the affected parts. Sections will need to be treated with a fungicide.
How to keep cryptomeria at home, landing
- Lighting and site selection. Most of all for growing Japanese cedar bright lighting is suitable, but with diffused sunlight. This can be achieved by placing a pot of cryptomeria on the window sills of windows with an eastern or western location. If there is no way out, and the plant is located on the south window, then it is imperative to shade the direct streams of midday ultraviolet with lightweight fabric curtains. In the north - will need to carry out illumination fitolampami.
Temperature content In the summer period, it is recommended that frequent airing is carried out for cryptomeria and it is desirable that the heat indicators do not rise above 25 degrees, but with the arrival of winter it is important for the plant to lower the temperature to 5–12 units, since without such cool conditions the Japanese cedar will be tight. In the summer, you can take out the plant to the open air, this will suit the balcony or terrace, where the windows will be open or the place in the garden.
Air humidity. Humidity indicators in the room where the plant is located should be in the range of 60–80%. When cultivating cryptomeria, it is necessary to spray the crown of a tree 1–2 times a day, since Japanese cedar is very sensitive to dry air. You will need to increase the level of humidity by a variety of methods: installing humidifiers next to the pot, you can put the pot in the pan with a small amount of water poured in and filled with expanded clay or pebbles, the easiest method is to install a vessel next to the cryptomeria. Regular airing is also recommended.
Watering cryptomeria. Moisten the soil in a pot with Japanese cedar should often, but in small portions. Water is used only soft, heated to 20-25 degrees. In spring and summer, such irrigation is daily, but with the arrival of winter, this operation is carried out as needed, and depends on the conditions of wintering. It is important to prevent both stagnation of the liquid (this will lead to decay of the root system) and complete drying out of the earthen coma (the needles will begin to turn yellow and fall off). If the plant overwinters in cool conditions, then watering can be reduced by half.
Fertilizers for Japanese cedar, they are applied once every 3-4 weeks, from May days to the beginning of autumn. It is important not to overfeed cryptomeria, as there will be an explosion of its growth. The main thing is that top dressing does not contain a large amount of nitrogen in its composition. It is recommended to use liquid formulations of mineral fertilizers. However, if transplantation is carried out, then in the following year it is not necessary to fertilize such a plant.
The substrate should have friability, cryptomeria grows well on acid soils, the reaction to lime is negative. Usually, the soil is composed of leafy earth, compost and coarse-grained sand, everything is taken in equal parts.
After the plant has been transplanted, its crown is abundantly sprayed for the first few days 2–4 times.
Tips for self-propagating cryptomeria
You can get a new young plant of Japanese cedar by sowing seeds or using cuttings and layering.
Freshly harvested seed should be placed one unit in cups with a peat-sand substrate (1: 1 ratio). Covering the container with a plastic bag, it is placed in a warm place with shading from the direct rays of the sun. It is necessary to carry out daily ventilation and, if necessary, spraying the soil. In 2–3 weeks, the seeds will hatch.
But the most successful is the method of grafting. A non-woody twig (young shoot) is selected and the workpiece is cut from it with a knife sharpened and disinfected with a knife not less than 10 cm in length. The cut is recommended to be treated with a root formation stimulator (for example, with heteroauxin or “Kornevin”) and the branch is placed in a vessel with water.
When root shoots appear on the handle, it is possible to plant in separate pots. Ground mix is used from sheet and sod soil, river sand and peat (2: 1: 1: 2 ratio) or a substrate based on sod, leaf soil and coarse grain sand is used (parts are equal). At the bottom of the pot need a drainage layer, so that water does not stagnate.
If breeding is carried out using cuttings, then the lower shoot should be bent to the ground, after a little incision. At the ground, such a branch is pressed and fastened, and the ground is filled up so that only the tip of the shoot sticks out from it. At the end of the month, such a layer gives roots and successfully takes root, forming its own shoots. Then carry out the separation from the parent plant cryptomeria.
Both seedlings and rooted cuttings, and cuttings grow with great speed and begin to bush, so you can even form a crown on a small tree. The first five years transplants are needed in the spring to a larger pot, and then such an operation will be required with regularity in 3-4 years.
Pest and disease control for cryptomeria care
Since the Japanese cedar, like all coniferous representatives of the flora, has the ability to secrete phytoncides, many pests avoid it. However, if the above rules of keeping are violated (low air humidity), then cryptomeria may become a target for the red spider mite. Such a pest is manifested by the formation of a thin, almost transparent cobweb on the shoots and needles. To get rid of the harmful insect and its waste products, you can do a shower wash of the crown Sugi and perform the treatment with systemic insecticidal preparations.
If yellowing and abscission of pine needles began, this is also evidence of the dryness of the air in the room. Here, prevention will be the daily spraying of the crown, as well as increasing the level of humidity in all possible ways.
Interesting facts about cryptomeria
Cryptomeria is considered to be quite an ancient representative of the flora, and by the age of 150, its height parameters can reach 60 meters with a trunk diameter of up to two meters.
According to some Japanese data, there are up to 337 forms and cultural variants of Sugi, however, with more thorough research, this number can be reduced to two hundred. But, for example, if there are many forms in Japan that no one ever heard of in Europe, then in Germany you can find varieties that the gardeners of the land of the rising sun did not like at all - such as Vilmoriniana. It is also known that up to 20 gardening options are cultivated in German lands, and the rest can be found only in private collections.
Frequent guest of cryptomeria and in the gardens or park zones of Russia, for example, if you take the Black Sea coast.
Since cryptomeria, as well as all its “coniferous relatives”, has the ability to isolate phytoncides, the plant will fill the room with negative oxygen ions, and the aroma of the needles will help prevent viral diseases, serving as a natural bactericidal agent, therefore the development of pathogenic microbes will discontinued.
Cryptomeria: description and types of conifers
Cryptomeria, which came to us from China and Japan, is still mistakenly called Japanese cedar. This name is so ingrained that few people associate it with a botanical counterpart. In fact, this conifer has nothing to do with cedars and belongs to the Cypress family.
In its natural environment, it lives in the subtropical conditions of the East and grows to a height of 60 meters. In a humid favorable climate, the trunk of an adult tree is beyond the power of hugging one person. In diameter, it can reach a record 2 meters. Tourists often gaze upon these coniferous giants with highly fibrous reddish-brown bark, exfoliating large stripes, and a pyramidal narrow crown of light and dark shades of green. According to the description of wild cryptomeria, it is difficult to imagine this oriental guest in the landscape gardening design or room interior. But thanks to the efforts of botanists, a lot of decorative forms have been developed that do not exceed two meters in height and look great in single and composite plantings. In addition, the needles of some species in the winter gets yellowish and purple tones. Needles are not prickly to the touch, awl-shaped and not long. Fruits are small, roundish, brown in color. Their ripening period does not exceed one year.
Scientists distinguish cryptomeria in a unique form and cultivate a variety of decorative varieties of this tree. Particularly popular are the dwarf forms of Vilmoriniana, Bandai-sugi, Araucarioides and spherical Еlegans compacta, Сompressa, Dacrydioides, Globosa. Some varieties have golden or smoky blue foliage.
How to choose garden lighting for cryptomeria
The tree is comfortable on warm, protected from strong winds and drafts areas. Japanese cryptomeria prefers well-lit places, but is afraid of direct sunlight. It can easily adapt to the shadow, which is absolutely not displayed on its decorative. Culture does not like low temperatures, in summer it is comfortable at 22-25 º C, and in winter at + 12 ºС. Therefore, the plant is often grown in pots, which in the hot season, put up in the garden on partial shade lawns and leave for the winter until strong frosts. If the tree is not covered from the cold, it will disappear.
Garden cryptomeria develops well on fresh, deep and loose substrates. In addition, they must be well drained, because the tree does not tolerate stagnant moisture. Also it is impossible to plan a landing in places with a close location of groundwater and on limestone. Ideal oriental "herringbone" sourish moist soil.
Rules for planting cryptomeria in the gardenDue to poor winter hardiness in open field, cryptomeria can grow only in the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Black Sea coast. In these warm regions for planting evergreen tree enough to find a good place and the right substrate.
In areas with more severe winters, the plant is always cultivated in pots. And pick up small ceramic products with a dark or grayish coloring. На дно емкости выкладывают слой дренажа, присыпают его почвой из равных частей лиственной и дерновой земли, торфа, песка и опускают саженец, после чего поливают и засыпают расправленные корневища землей.
На зиму криптомерию, даже если она достигла двухметровой высоты, убирают в зимний сад или другое прохладное место.
How to water the plant
В уходе за криптомерией главная роль остается за водным режимом. Especially from March to August. In winter, the amount of water poured into the ground is intentionally reduced, preventing the earth coma from drying out. It is also important not to overdo it with watering so that liquid does not stagnate. Pay attention to the needles: slightly yellowed lifeless leaves indicate a lack of moisture.
Cryptomeria on the characteristics of a very moisture-loving culture. In addition to regularly moistening the soil, it is important to spray the crown twice a day.
For mature crops in the summer you can arrange sprinkling. If you cultivate the plant in room conditions, the humidity level should not be below 60-80%. In addition, the systematic airing of the room.
Feed cryptomeria when grown in open ground, preferably every spring organic or mineral complex fertilizers. If the culture is developing poorly, the procedure can be repeated again in the fall. In room conditions it is recommended to limit any feedings, especially with nitrogen-containing drugs. Young trees, regardless of the method of cultivation, need spring in the monthly two-time fertilizers. Consider: cryptomeria cannot be fertilized for two months after it is planted.
All about transplanting and breeding cryptomeria
Reproduction of Japanese cedar is possible by seed, layering or grafting.At home, gardeners almost never take root grainsSince the process is very laborious and the probability of a successful result is low. If you still have a desire to try yourself as a botanist, act traditionally: fill the container with a substrate of peat and river sand, fill it with seed and pour it, cover it with film or glass from above and put it in a warm, well-lit place.
Reproduction by layering apply to garden plants. To this end, the lower thin shoots are cleaned of leaves, tilted to the ground with oblique cuts down and sprinkled with a small slide, pinned from above. It is important to ensure that the soil does not dry out. After the appearance of the roots do not rush to cut off the young sprout from the parent. This is done when the root system is strengthened.Gardeners believe that the most effective way to reproduce cryptomeria is grafting. It is better to exercise at the end of the summer. To do this, cut off the tops of healthy strong shoots, remove them from the bottom of the needle and leave for a day in the growth stimulator solution. After the done manipulations, the cutting is deepened into peaty-sandy soil and covered with a film to create a greenhouse effect.
Having figured out how to grow cryptomeria, let's stop on plant transplants. For outdoor trees, this procedure is generally contraindicated. Replant only indoor plants every 2-3 years. At the same time, a large container with a diameter of several centimeters is being searched for, a bottom is well drained and an earthen ball is rolled over with a tree. Top sleep with fresh deciduous-sod land.
The main diseases and pests of plants and their methods of treatment
Due to isolated phytoncides, the tree is very resistant to diseases and harmful insects, however, with poor agrotechnology, attacks of spider mites and scale insects are possible. Any insecticides will cope with them. Aktara, Bi-58 have proven themselves well. For the purpose of prophylaxis, regularly inspect the needles and branches of the tree.
Now you know what cryptomeria is and how to care for it. If you truly love planting, your efforts will be richly rewarded.