Most of the construction trailers for temporary residence, offered on the market, pleases the eye of the buyer democratic price. But here's the problem: they are made of cheap building materials of poor quality, poorly insulated and limited in width to save on transportation (2.5 m - the standard size of the truck). If you need a more comfortable and comfortable home, you will have to make it yourself. The cost of cabins, built with your own hands, will not less, but you get a reliable and good-quality construction of the desired size. And the technology of construction is described in our article.
Project and drawings of the trailer
To purchase the required materials, first of all you need to determine the size of the dacha shed, develop the layout and draw up an estimate from the drawings. At the same time, think about how to use this building later, when a full-fledged residential house appears on the site. As a rule, the owners turn a temporary trailer into a bath, a shed or a guest house.
Council It is advisable to provide the dimensions of the structure with multiples of 1.5, for example, 3 x 6, 4.5 x 6, or 4.5 x 9 m. This will save materials, most of which are produced according to building standards.
Draw a plan and side view of the future building with the following recommendations:
- Use the principle of minimalism. The dwelling should be comfortable and at the same time compact, so take as your basis the most “running” size - 3 x 6 m. If you wish, you can expand it to 4.5 m by extending the terrace.
- Try not to do pass rooms. If you need 2 residential premises, the entrance with a platform should be located in the middle, as shown below in the drawing.
- For a one-room house, a porch and a porch should be on the side or at the end.
- The doors from the bathroom or separate shower and toilet should go out into the corridor, not into the bedroom.
- Roof plan shed with a slope of at least 10 ° and overhangs for effective water drainage.
- Small windows are needed in living rooms and in the kitchen, for a bathroom it is enough to make a ventilation opening.
Recommendations on the choice of materials
When the planning is ready, you can proceed to the selection of building materials, the calculation of their quantity and budgeting. It should be understood that all cabins are built on frame technology in such ways:
- the wooden frame is mounted and the frame is sheathed on both sides with clapboard (or other lining), insulation is laid inside,
- the same, only the frame is welded from metal,
- the construction of steel profiles is insulated with insulated sandwich panels.
Note. The construction change house with a sandwich lining, shown in the photo, is very attractive for its appearance. Until you find out how much such panels and fittings cost to them.
Wooden trailer is easier to build, it is lighter and cheaper than metal, although not as durable. If you are not a welder, but know how to handle a tree and are limited in means, then a house from a bar is a suitable option. A few tips on how to pick up wood and other materials for it:
- A 10 x 5 cm bar will go to the main structural elements - struts and strapping beams. If you need to make the house warmer and lay insulation 100 mm thick (instead of 50 mm) in the walls, the cross-section of the struts needs to be increased to 15 cm.
- Lags of a floor and rafter make from cut boards 50 x 100 mm. For strings and lintels, take a bar 50 x 50 mm.
- Boards 25 x 100 mm will fit for roofing battens.
- Use mineral wool, protected from the outside by a diffusion membrane (wind barrier), as insulation
- For cladding, use lining, block house or profiled. It is better to revet the inside of the room with plastic panels, and how to do it correctly is described here.
- There are several variants of budget roofing: the same professional sheet, slate and ondulin.
The construction of the SIP-panels
Council If instead of the mineral wool you want to take a cheaper heater - foam plastic, then cover the walls with OSB panels following the example of Canadian CIP panels. The fact is that wood does not like to contact with impermeable to moisture polymers and begins to rot.
If, however, you need to mount a reliable steel shed, then prepare profile pipes with a cross section of at least 60 x 60 mm for the frame and truss truss, and 40 x 40 and 40 x 60 mm for the batten. The erection technology is similar to the manufacture of wooden wagon, the difference lies in the welding fixtures.
How to build a house - a guide
Construction of a shed - car with its own hands is divided into several stages:
- Preparation of the base.
- Frame assembly, laying floors.
- Installation of roofing and coating.
- The device of an external and internal covering with warming.
- Summing up engineering communications.
Since a wooden trailer is a rather light structure, it is not necessary to prepare a solid foundation for it. It is enough to put concrete blocks on the leveled piece of land so that their upper sides are in the same plane. Observe the installation step of 1.5 m, which means that with a shed width of 3 m, the blocks must be placed in 3 rows - two external and one in the middle.
Note. For more massive metal houses, shallow foundations are built in the form of columns of several blocks resting on a sandy pillow. The marking process and the device of the column base are shown in the video:
Sheathing and wall insulation
In contrast to the finished huts, we build a comfortable temporary dwelling, so the exterior walls must be sheathed using the technology of building frame houses. The “tart” of the external wall fencing insulation is shown in the diagram:
Finishing work is carried out in this order:
- Tension and fasten the windproof membrane web from the outside. Next, sew the facades with OSB plates, and then refine them with clapboard or corrugated flooring.
- In between the racks, insert basalt cotton wool (recommended) or other thermal insulation material. From the inside, close the insulation with a vapor barrier film and nail it with racks to the posts.
- The last step is the inner lining. Usually the vapor barrier is sewn up with the same OSB plywood, to which the internal finishing material is fastened - plastic panels, block house, wallpaper, and so on.
Installation of wind protection film
Note. Thermal insulation and finishing of ceilings are made in the same way. But here it is desirable to use a heater of greater thickness, as well as on the floors.
After finishing the installation, install windows and doors, install the ebb and drainage systems. At the outer corners, under the roof overhangs and in the lower part of the structure, place the fittings covering the joints of the finishing materials.
Interior arrangement of the dwelling
Normal living conditions imply minimal amenities such as heating, running water with sewage and electricity. It is assumed that these communications are already in the country, it remains only to connect them to the cabins. On this account we will give the following recommendations:
- Heating can be organized in two types - electric or wood. In the first case, it is necessary to install convectors or other heaters in the rooms, in the second case - to install the chimney pipe and the furnace. Here it is important to protect wooden structures from fire - the walls near the stove should be covered with iron sheets, and the chimney should be insulated with fireproof basalt fiber.
- The plumbing and sewer pipe is started up through the floor of the trailer car, passing there through previously dug trenches. How it is implemented, see below on the diagram.
- Electrical cable (recommended brand SIP) is attached to the bracket mounted on the wall, and then enters the room through the hole. A protective device (RCD) must be placed on the input, followed by a control panel with automatic switches on the lines of sockets and lighting.
Council Internal electrical wiring is best done in plastic cable channels, they look neat and pretty. Lead the power line to the heaters with a larger cross-section (refer to the dimensions of the connecting factory cables with plugs). All passages through wooden walls should be made in metal cases, in other words, in pipes.
Change house - a temporary structure. But, as usual, there is nothing more permanent than temporary buildings. Hence the conclusion: approach the construction thoroughly, as if you are building a garden house or a bathhouse. Of course, it will take much more time, and it will not be possible to save money, but after a dozen years you will probably happen to evaluate your own work for its worth. Purchased construction trailer for such a period will turn into a wreck.
Types of cabins that build their own hands
The change houses constructed by the hands on the step-by-step instruction are classified as follows:
- shield assembly
- frame structures
- from logs or lumber,
Determining which type of shed to build with your own hands, one thing must be taken into account: for all of them, except for shield structures, at least a minimal foundation is needed.
Shield prefabricated change houses are as simple and quick to manufacture as they are very cheap and completely short-lived - that is why they are almost always constructed as temporary structures. After they are no longer needed, they are usually disassembled, the resulting “spare parts” are used for firewood or, for example, for the construction of panel formwork.
Switch cabins are simple and quick to manufacture.
Cabins of this type are ideal for use in construction sites, where they can play the role not only of a warehouse for building materials and tools, but also, with a suitable climate, even as temporary housing for workers.
Frame change houses - designs more reliable and durable. Usually, in order to reduce the cost of construction, the frame is made of wooden bars or slats, although dog houses with a metal frame have maximum durability. For wall covering use any available material - OSB sheets, profiled sheet metal, “lining” board, in the presence of financial possibilities - sandwich panels.
Log (log) cabins - the most durable and solid option. The cost of such facilities is relatively high, but if necessary they can even be used as residential premises. Self-made huts are remarkable for their wonderful decorative look, they perfectly fit into any landscape design..
Log cabins have a remarkable decorative appearance.
The main drawbacks of such structures are their cost and the need to build at least a shallow tape or column foundation.
Homemade cabins from OSB-panels
"Choosing a place on the site for the construction of a shed with your own hands, you should take into account - the construction should be a convenient approach, but it should not interfere with garden or construction work"
A change house from OSB-panels - one of the most simple and financially available options for construction. The list of materials that will be needed for work is minimal:
- crushed stone, sand, cement,
- metal or plastic fittings,
- OSB plates,
- wooden beam
- roofing material for the roof device.
Let's see how to make such a change house with your own hands on step-by-step instructions.
Works begin with clearing and preparation of a place under a platform (some kind of the base) for a change house. Moreover, choosing a place on the site for the construction of cabins with your own hands, you should take into account - the construction should be a convenient approach, but it should not interfere with gardening or construction work. In no case should not install it in the flooded lowlands, and we should not forget about the probable wind loads - frame sheds belong to very light structures. The traditional choice of the location of the dog house - the free corner of the site.
Selecting a place, mark the site, which is then aligned on the horizon. Then mark the outer boundaries of a small solid foundation under the chalet. Along the marked contours of the future foundation, a few centimeters (10-15 is enough), the soil is removed - a layer of sand is poured in the resulting small “pit”, then a layer of rubble. After filling, it is advisable to tamp slightly with any available materials. Ready-sand mixture is recommended to use only as a last resort.
Then, along the contour of the prepared area with a sand-crushed cushion, a formwork is placed, the height of which is determined by the planned height of the future level of the floor in the change house. Strong zeal is not worth it, but making the thickness of the base plate less than 10 cm is also undesirable. Over the entire area, you need to lay a rebar mesh on the pads - it should be located approximately in the middle of the concrete layer.
Why do you need
The shelter is a universal structure, it serves as a room for construction tools and material, for shelter from the weather, you can stay in it for the night. These are not all the functions that a room can take on; after construction, it can serve:
- barn (for storing inventory),
- a bath,
- summer kitchen
- closed gazebo
- guest house.
The location of the building will depend on its purpose in the future:
- if it serves as an economic room for storing firewood, equipment and other things, then it should be placed where there is free access to it, at the same time it should not be noticeable,
- it is desirable to arrange the workshop closer to home in order to be able, without wasting too much time, to enter and exit,
- it is better to place the sauna or bath away from the house and other buildings, observing fire safety,
- in the case of the planned transportation of a mini-house to another place, its location will be convenient when leaving the territory.
We recommend reading about how to build a bath, a cellar in the garage, a veranda, a greenhouse of window frames and polycarbonate, as well as a summer shower, a gazebo, a wooden barrel.
The size of the shed is again dependent on plans for the future, as well as the layout of the room. In any case, at first you need to count on the presence of a bathroom, a place for rest, comfortable for at least two people, as well as a dining place and a few meters for tools and building material. Compact and convenient dimensions, for example, 6x2.5x2.5 m.
A solid premise of multi-purpose. Mini-building can be equipped with everything necessary for life: light, water, bathroom. Wood - the material is expensive, but environmentally friendly and durable, especially with appropriate processing.
Step by Step Construction Instructions
For the construction will need tools and materials that you need to prepare in advance. You will also need a drawing of the desired structure.
There are three main types of base for a small structure:
- columnar - consists of bearing columns-supports, the easiest option for light construction, it will be built for our design,
- tape - it requires more time and material, labor for erection, digging a trench for it, preparing a formwork from reinforcement rods, fastening with concrete and waiting for a month for the base to set and the concrete to harden, this type of foundation is suitable for brick and stone buildings,
- monolithic - also requires a lot of time and cost (formwork, concrete), it is difficult to lay it alone, the advantage of the monolith is that its surface serves as the basis for the floor.
We will make a wooden shed and a column base for it.
- Looking at the previously drawn scheme, measure the dimensions for the foundation.
- Then pegs are driven in along the perimeter and the lighthouses are tightened.
- Under the pillars they dig out the required number of holes, with a certain distance between them. Gravel is poured at the bottom of the pits, then sand, this “cushion” will hold back the soil deformation when the seasons change.
- Bricks are laid on the sand, they are tied together with a mortar. On the sides of the pillars make the casting cement.
- Ruberoid pieces of roofing are laid on the posts for waterproofing.
- From the wooden bar perform the bottom strapping and the basis for the future floor.
Important!Since the building will carry electricity and water, it is necessary to take measures to protect wooden materials from moisture and fire. There are special compounds from moisture and rotting. Any oil-based antiseptic will also work; there is an impregnation called a fire retardant against fire, many of them additionally protect wood from insects.
After laying the foundation and tying the base under the floor, load-bearing vertical supports are made of timber with a cross section of 100x100 mm.
When assembling, please note that a single-shed roof is planned; for this, the front beams are not installed in the same vertical plane with the rear and front, but 50 cm higher for the roof slope. We put temporary bracing for the support structure.
- We strengthen the frame with additional racks, where we consider the location of the door and window openings.
- Устанавливаем по две стойки для каждого окна и горизонтальные опоры на границе проёмов из бруса 50х50 мм.
- Меняем временные раскосы на постоянные, укрепляем.
Крыша и пол
Крыши для небольших строений используют либо двускатные, либо односкатные. For a gable roof will need more material and more labor. The advantage of such a roof in a free space between the roof and the ceiling of the building, which can be used as an attic. Learn how to make a gable and hipped roof, how to make a mansard roof, how to cover the roof with ondulin and metal tile.
For the type of structure we have chosen, an inclined roof would be ideal: minimum material, minimum physical effort.
We collect the roof:
- We trim vertical pillars using beams 100x50 mm.
- We connect the bottom and top of the base with rafters, put on the edge. We consider the protrusion beyond the perimeter of the walls by 15 cm (roof overhangs), sew up the ends with a board.
- From above we sheathe sheets of plywood.
- The top can be covered with any durable and waterproof material.
The example in the figure. We install the logs for the floor, put on an edge in increments of up to 60 cm. We nail a wooden bar to the side surface of the boards, which will serve as support for the subfloor. Laying the floor insulation in the figure below. After laying the floor clean from the board.
Windows and doors
When installing the frame and equipping the openings under the windows and the door, it is necessary to carefully measure, use plumb lines and level so that there is no bias when installing the windows and the door. Windows and doors must be ordered in advance, guided by the dimensions indicated on the drawing of the desired building. Did you know?Before the appearance of glass windows in European countries, instead of glass, windows were covered with a stretched bovine bubble film. Only in the 17th century, glazed windows of small squares with lead binding appeared at the court in France.
Outside, an electricity supply line rushes through the air, it looks like this. We conduct electricity to the house. On the outside we attach the bracket to the wall, to it - the main cable, through the drilled hole we run the cable into the interior of the room.
Important!To protect against leakage current install RCD, then the automatic control panel.
For internal wiring, you can purchase cable channels made of plastic, it is convenient and aesthetic. For the line leading to the heaters, you need a cable with a large cross section, for example, 0.75 square meters. mm (based on single-phase voltage) is suitable for a device with a capacity of more than 2 kW.
The wire leads in the walls are carried out in a metal case. It remains to install the desired number of outlets. Do not forget about street lighting.
The best option for heating will be an electric convector, given the electricity carried out. For heating a small room enough device with a capacity of 1.5 kW. It is advisable not to save on the device, cheap convectors are usually made of thin steel, which, when heated, produces a crackling sound. Electric convectors High-quality device does not create noise and works without interruption. Installing wood heating is not entirely relevant, since wood costs more than electricity bills.
In addition, it is necessary to upholster the space around the furnace with iron sheets, to conduct a chimney, which also needs to be insulated, for example, with basalt fiber with fireproof properties, and these are additional costs.
Since the shed plans to still be used in future plans, the water supply will not be superfluous. Both pipes - plumbing and sewage - are brought through the floor. Trenches for laying pipes dig in advance in accordance with the plan. How it looks, look at the picture. We advise you to read about how to independently install a septic tank, air conditioning system, water heater, sewage system, as well as how to make water from the well.
For finishing wooden dog houses it is logical to use the wall paneling. Manufacturers today offer durable and durable cladding materials:
- trim from imitation timber - it is not difficult to assemble, has grooves-latches, the material is moisture resistant (16-18% moisture content of the material),
- lining - it is distinguished by excellent quality, the moisture content of the material is 15%, equipped with grooves, a smooth surface, assembled vertically,
- dried lining - budget option, performed from conifers (spruce, pine),
- block house - the lining imitating a round log looks expensive and beautiful.
For work, depending on the material, you may need:
- circular saw / jigsaw / wood saw (which is available),
- screwdriver and screws,
- staples or tongs,
- planks made of wood
It will be useful for you to read about how to choose a saw, screwdriver, jigsaw, electric saw and chainsaw.
Collect lining boards both vertically and horizontally.
Conduct work in this order:
- Install the crate of thin strips, it will provide air circulation.
- The protective film is fixed on the slats with an overlap of up to 15 cm with a stapler.
- Next, for additional insulation stuffed plate OSB.
- The last stage is the installation of the wall paneling.
For interior decoration will need the same tools as for the exterior. Additionally, you will need insulation for walls - basalt wool. Did you know?Mineral wool appeared due to the observation of English industrialist Edward Perry. He noticed that thin fibrous filaments were formed from splashes of molten slag. In 1871, the first production of this heater was launched in Germany.
- plate OSB - moisture resistant, with protection against ignition,
- Chipboard (laminated) - it is not subject to influence of temperatures, has a big color palette,
- MDF - isolates noise, absorbs heat, ideal for covering the bathroom.
Internal lining is performed according to the following scheme:
- The crate is stuffed and basalt wool plates are inserted into its grooves.
- Top is packed with a protective film.
- Then stuffed plates of finishing material.
- The final stage - plinth, around the perimeter of the ceiling, the corners of the walls, the floor, it will hide the joints of the plates and further strengthen them. If there is a desire to glue the wallpaper and lay linoleum on the floor, then the plinths are packed after these works.
It will be useful for you to read about how to properly glue the baseboard, how to put the plastic window sill yourself, how to install blinds on the windows, how to put the socket and the switch, how to lay the tile on the floor and on the wall in the bathroom, how to install the sink on the countertop, how to do it yourself to make a wooden floor warm, how to lay a warm floor under the laminate, linoleum and tile.
Variants of buildings: By itself, the shed is a temporary phenomenon, but if you carefully and carefully approach its construction, the result will be a habitable, equipped with the necessary communications, a warm building. How to know in which case it can be useful.
The building has a compact size, where the side length usually does not exceed 3-6 m. The height inside the room allows even people of high stature (2.3-2.5 m) to move freely. The shape of the shed is basically rectangular. So it is more convenient to zone the space, systematize the principle of placement of inventory and tools.
The most diverse material is used for manufacturing, most often these are the remains of capital construction: wood, decking, metal sheets, wall paneling, wooden boards.The design includes the following elements:
- door (one or more),
- windows (deaf or with hinged opening),
- a porch with a canopy (may be absent).
The design is carried out exclusively taking into account individual needs and wishes, therefore the unity of style and architectural design is not observed.
Requirements to the installation site
The change house is a mobile design which can be dismantled or completely transported to another place with the help of special equipment. Therefore, when choosing a place, close proximity to the road and the possibility of unloading and loading operations are taken into account. If the move is not planned, this fact is not taken into account.
Another important point is the proximity of the utility room to the garden / garden in case the inventory is stored in the room. It is very convenient to immediately put in place the available tools after use. It is better to install the door so that it is visible from the windows of the house or the main entrance to the courtyard. It still scares those who at night are not averse to profit from someone else's property.Also it is necessary to provide the possibility of uninterrupted connection of the power line. If the building is placed in the far corner of the site, it is quite inconvenient to pull the wiring through the entire yard.
The basis under a change house
The change house represents the easily built construction to which the capital base is not required. But it’s wrong to install a structure right over the ground Therefore, there are several options for mounting the base.
The first is a cabin on wheels. This design provided the manufacturer to be able to install a back room on any type of soil. In addition, it is convenient to transport it in the event of a change of place, just pick up as a trailer to the car.The second option is the cinder block elements. I install them around the perimeter of the shed. The advantage of this method lies in the speed of installation, and the disadvantage is the dirt, which in the case of heavy rains is formed on the site and together with the legs entered into the room. Such a foundation is ideal if a concrete slab (or several) is pre-laid on the ground. Then the gap between the concrete and the bottom of the house will be ventilated, which will prevent premature corrosion of the metal or rotting of the wood.
The third option is a mound of crushed stone of a small fraction. Layer for filling will require at least 20-25 cm, which, after filling, is evenly distributed along the selected perimeter and compacted. Torrential rains will not create problems, as water will seep into the ground through the pebbles. But in dry weather, such a foundation will create dust when walking.The fourth option is to arrange a lightweight strip foundation. It will be convenient in the case when the trailer is installed in a certain place for permanent use without moving. A trench depth of 30–40 cm will be sufficient, and a width of 25–30 cm. It is recommended to lower the form of bonded reinforcement into the formwork on difficult soils, then the base will last for many years.
Stages of installation shed their own hands
1. Plan the site for construction.
2. Digging a trench and adding a pad of sand and rubble. Compaction using tamping.
3. Installation of formwork and armored belt. Pouring concrete. Sucks at least 1-2 weeks.
4. Surface treatment of the foundation with bitumen mastic for waterproofing.
5. Installation of the frame walls and roof.
6. Sheathing the walls from the outside.7. Crate roofing. Laying roofing.
8. Installation of the floor of boards or wooden boards.
9. Installation of windows / doors and accessories.
10. Arrangement of a canopy at the entrance and porch.
When using wooden elements, they must first be treated with an antiseptic and fire retardant. This will increase the resistance of the material to a moist environment, prevent the process of decay and increase resistance to fire.
Before operation, it will only be necessary to hang the shelves, and install cabinets to store all the necessary things in the household.