Cattle is one of the most enduring and unpretentious varieties of productive animals. Sick cows and bulls are quite rare. However, sometimes the health problems of these animals still arise. However, some diseases of the cattle, unfortunately, may be asymptomatic. For example, sometimes cows become infected with cysticercosis. This disease belongs to the group of helminths.
What is a parasite
Cysticercosis of cattle is called by larvae of the bovine tapeworm. At the same time, the animals themselves are only intermediate carriers of this parasite. Adult tapeworm develops already in the human body.
The larva of this parasite is called a cisteric and is a vial filled with a translucent gray liquid. To the bubble in such Finns is attached a head with four suckers, called a scolex. Dimensions The larva of a bovine tsepny is rather large - up to 15 mm in length and up to 10 mm in width.
How does the infection of animals
Cattle gets cysticercosis due to parasite eggs in its body. In humans, the bovine tapeworm is localized in the small intestine. The length of this worm can be impressive - up to 10 m or more. The last mature segments of the chain are 12-14 mm wide. From their main trunk in both directions depart branches, whose length is about 2 mm. Each of these processes contains about 172 thousand eggs. On the side, near the segments, there is a sexual opening.
Oncosphere is the larva germ with 3 pairs of hooks. As the parasite matures in the human body, the segments of the worm come off and are excreted with feces. In the environment, these formations can move independently over fairly long distances, shortening the wormlike pattern.
If an infected person does not comply with the standards of hygiene, for example, defecation is not in the toilet, but in the field or in the yard, segments of the chain are spreading in large numbers around the neighborhood, spreading eggs everywhere. In addition, public toilets with cesspools located outside are often the source of this contagion. Of course, worms may be present in the sewage of centralized sewer systems.
Infection of cows usually occurs on pasture when they swallow segments and eggs with grass. Also, cysticercosis cattle often becomes infected at watering. On pastures, animals are usually infected when wastewater is used to irrigate nearby fields.
The development of the parasite in the animal
The vitality of the chain of eggs can be maintained for up to several months in the external environment. Oncospheres hatch from the intestines of infected animals. Coming out of the egg, the embryos are immediately implanted through the mucous membrane into small vessels, and then they are carried by the bloodstream to the organs and tissues of a cow or a bull. The development of oncospheres in the cysteric occurs in the transverse cavity muscles. Most often worms in cattle are affected:
Also, the parasite can choose the heart, liver or brain of an intermediate carrier as its habitat. According to various sources, the viability in the body of cattle in the future, worms can last from several months to 4 years.
How does a person become infected
Cistericas of a bovine tsepnik usually get into the human body when they eat uncooked, unhealed or not cured meat. By 3.5–4 months old, cistericum in cattle tissues reaches a maximum value. From now on, infection becomes possible.
In the human body, the cisteric under the influence of bile turns the head out of the bladder to the outside and by means of suckers attaches to the intestinal mucosa. In the future, the parasite begins to grow and develop rapidly. Bovine chain in human body reaches sexual maturity by approximately 2.5-3 months. Subsequently, in the year alone, such a parasite releases into the environment about 51 million eggs.
The main symptoms of cattle
It is possible to determine that a cow or a bull is infected with the larvae of the chain-bearer only at the very early stage of the disease. The symptoms of cysticercosis in cattle during this period are:
increase in body temperature to 40 ° C
heart palpitations and breathing
soreness of the dorsal, chewing and other muscle groups,
enlarged inguinal and scapular lymph nodes.
When such symptoms are detected on a farm, a veterinarian’s departure is mandatory. Sometimes it happens that a few days after infection, the animal's temperature rises greatly. The next day, it drops to 34 ° C. In this case, about a day later, the bull or cow will die.
In most cases, however, about 8-10 days after infection, cattle begins to return to normal. By day 14, all external symptoms in animals disappear completely. By this time, the bulls and cows look completely healthy.
Veterinary and sanitary examination
Identify infection of animals with cysticercosis in the later stages is visually impossible. It is very difficult to diagnose this infection in the laboratory. During the life of cattle, various immunological methods are commonly used to detect the presence of parasites: intradermal allergy tests, RLA and RNGA. Most often, this veterinary-sanitary examination is carried out using the latest technology.
With high accuracy, it is possible to determine the presence of cisteric in tissues only after the slaughter of cattle. In this case, equipment such as UV lamps is commonly used for research. Under the action of ultraviolet radiation, the cisterica begin to glow cherry or red and become well visible.
When conducting carcass examinations, specialists usually check chewing muscles, heart and tongue. To a greater degree of cisterics in cattle, the front part of the body is affected. For inspection during the examination in the meat make transverse and longitudinal cuts.
If, when viewed with the use of UV lamps, it is revealed that 40 cm 2 of muscle mass in the carcass has more than 3 worms, meat and offal are discarded. Dispose of them in the usual way.
With a smaller number of parasites, meat can be decontaminated by heat treatment and subsequently eaten. Any operations related to the preparation of the product, in this case it is necessary to carry out under the supervision of a veterinarian. Departure of a specialist to the place of work in this case is a prerequisite.
How does the parasite behave in the body of cattle?
The disease-causing effect on cows and bulls of the embryo of the chain, therefore, is exerted mainly during the period of active migration. Traveling through the body of the animal, oncospheres primarily violate the integrity of the tissues. And this, in turn, often leads to inoculation of microflora.
May cause some harm to the livestock organism tisteriki and subsequently. Their metabolic products often cause toxicosis in cattle. Sometimes in sick animals on the allocation of worms also develop allergic reactions.
Grown up cisterica begin, among other things, also squeeze the surrounding muscle tissue. This, in turn, leads to the development of myositis. In places where there is a large accumulation of larvae in the tissues of animals, severe inflammation often begins.
The cysticrosis of cattle, which has been ill with cattle, subsequently develops immunity to this parasite. Scientists conducted experiments on artificial immunization of animals to this disease. As a result, experts have found that this method can be quite effective in preventing cysticercosis. It is quite possible that in the near future this method of preventing the development of this disease will begin to be introduced in farms that specialize in raising cattle.
Measures for the prevention of cattle cysticercosis
Since it is practically useless to treat cattle from this parasite, it is important for farms to conduct various kinds of measures in a timely manner to prevent their spread. Prevention of anti-chaining measures include:
in disadvantaged areas, the prohibition of domestic slaughter of cattle and the sale of meat without the permission of veterinarians,
marking slaughter bulls and heifers,
careful veterinary control over the condition of farms and slaughter sites.
Also, to prevent infection of the chain of animals and people in farms, it is necessary to conduct medical examinations of employees. At the same time, such procedures should be performed at least once a year, and even better - once a quarter.
In which regions the disease occurs
Cysticercosis is common, unfortunately, in all countries of the world. In addition to cattle, intermediate carriers of the chain larvae can be:
Most often, cysticercosis, cows are sick in the countries of Central Asia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. In Russia, this infection is common in Dagestan, Yakutia, Altai Territory and in the regions of the Non-Black Earth Region.
In addition, scientists have identified several strains of worms that cause cysticercosis of cattle and pigs. The forms of this helminth can differ according to the degree of survival, the duration of existence in the host organism, the place of localization. For example, in Ethiopia, in the body of cattle, cysterica accumulate mainly in the liver. In Russia, this phenomenon is quite rare.
Characteristics of the parasite and its distribution
The disease is found throughout the world. In Russia and the CIS countries, diseases are constantly recorded and invasions are detected. Cysticercosis is especially widespread in the southern regions, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. In these regions contributes to the spread of pathology, the customs of the people, the use of raw meat or insufficiently processed thermally, as well as low social culture.
Infection of cows usually occurs in the pasture period when eating grass, planted with eggs and segments of cysticerci. Infection of grazing meadows occurs when watering with sewage, pollution of water bodies and land with human excreta. A large role in the spread of the pathogen is played by farm personnel who neglect sanitation and disease prevention measures.
An adult, parasitic in the human intestine, reaches a length of 10 meters. The pathogen body is divided into segments (segments) with a length of 2 cm and a width of 1-1.5 cm. Each segment contains a uterus filled with eggs (up to 200 thousand).
Cows in the muscles (less often in the liver and brain) localized larval form. This is a small oval-shaped bubble (dimensions - 3-9 mm), with a head inside. the body of the larva is separated from the body of cattle with a capsule of connective tissue.
The disease proceeds with a mandatory change of owners. Adult worms are parasitic in the human intestine, releasing into the external environment with fecal masses segments and eggs. Infection of cattle occurs when eating contaminated grass or water.
In the digestive tract, eggs are converted into oncospheres carried by the blood flow to various organs, where they remain until maturity. Having formed an invasive form (within 3-5 months), parasites can persist in the body of a cow for up to 3 years.
A person becomes infected by eating meat that has not undergone proper heat treatment (without deep freezing, roasting with blood, and samples of raw minced meat). Less commonly, the penetration of parasites occurs when consuming the liver, brain and other organs. Having fixed itself to the wall of the intestine with its suckers, the worm quickly grows (2-3 months) and begins to intensively release eggs (up to a billion per year).
Symptoms usually appear during the migration of larvae from the intestines to the organs of the cow. Mechanical injury to the mucous membranes, blood vessels, toxic effects of metabolic products, infection by secondary infection and allergic effects lead to indigestion, tremors, and oppression. Further development of parasites in the muscle tissue leads to its deformation, replacement with connective fibers and inflammatory processes. Cows have cramps, muscle tremors, paralysis.
Clinical manifestation is characteristic of a highly invasive form and in the case of a depleted condition of cattle. The disease is accompanied by worsening of cardiac activity (decompensation, possibly myocardial damage): arrhythmia, slow pulse, weak vascular fullness, congestive edema. Calves are stale, experiencing painful breathing and contraction of the peritoneum, paralysis and fever. A low degree of infection is rarely accompanied by clear signs.
Laboratory diagnosis and examination
Symptoms of cysticercosis are rather vague and do not give an accurate picture of the cause of the disease, moreover, they are extremely rare. Now effective methods of immunological diagnostics with high reliability of results are used. To identify during the lifetime of infection with cestodosis, allergic subcutaneous samples are used; serum diagnosis by indirect hemagglutination is used.
To prevent the possibility of infection of people, cattle carcasses must be subjected to veterinary examination. For this, two parallel cuts are made on the masticatory muscles and the heart. Detection of parasites at this stage requires additional study of the muscles (incisions of the neck muscles) and selective study of the internal organs.
The effectiveness of the study is enhanced by the use of ultraviolet lamps. The light of this spectrum causes the larvae of the parasite to glow cherry color. Diagnosis is carried out in a dark room, the duration of work should not exceed 2 hours.
In addition to the larvae themselves, it is possible to identify characteristic changes in the tissues of cattle. Hemorrhages the size of millet grain are found on the muscles, spleen, and peritoneum. The chronic course of the disease leads to dystrophy of the muscles, their acquisition of a gray tint.
At the moment there is no effective treatment to destroy the pathogen. Praziquantel and its forms have some effect. A series of experiments showed the destruction of larval forms using mebendazole at a dosage of 50 mg / kg. The tool is given with food every day for a duration of 10 days. The method allows to prevent the further development of immature parasite forms.
Therapy can cause a complication. With the massive death of parasites localized in the muscle fibers, intoxication and inflammation develops.
Prevention and control measures
To eliminate cysticercosis, it is necessary to break the development cycle of the parasite. It is especially important to prevent human infection. To this end, all carcasses are subject to veterinary and sanitary inspection:
- excision of masticatory muscles, heart, neck, gluteal and scapular muscles,
- Carcasses with the number of pathogens (including the dead) are more than 3 per 40 square centimeters (a matchbox) are disposed of,
- meat from animals with up to 3 larvae is disinfected by heat treatment (boiling, freezing) or salting,
- internal organs destroy anyway.
It is necessary to exclude a house slaughter or carcasses must be shown to a veterinary specialist. For slaughtering, it is preferable to use meat processing plants.
It is important to observe personal hygiene - the use of sanitary facilities. Washing hands, regular deworming and feces will reduce the risk of infection of cows. On a national scale, it is important to monitor wastewater so that all impurities are decontaminated and filtered before they are used, both for the needs of the population and for agricultural purposes.
Cysticercosis (Finnoz) cattle is caused by the larval stage - cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) of the bovine chain (Taeniarhynchus saginatus) from this family. Taeniidae. Cysticercosis of cattle and human teniarinhoz are more common in the republics of Central Asia, the Caucasus, in the southern and eastern regions of Siberia. The economic damage consists of the same losses as with cysticercosis of pigs, but they are several times more.
Causative agent The bovine chain structure resembles a pork tapeworm, differs from it in large body size (up to 10 m length), unaided scolex, two-lobed ovary and a large number of lateral branches extending from the longitudinal trunk of the uterus (18-32), and a huge number of eggs in the mature segment (up to 175,000). Eggs and oncospheres of bovine and pork tapeworms have the same structure.
C. bovis is a bubble filled with a translucent liquid, from 5 to 9 mm in length and 3-6 mm in width, there is one scolex inside the bubble.
Life cycle. The definitive owner of a bull chain is only human, and the intermediate owner is cattle, as well as buffalo, zebu, and yaki. Mature segments of bovine tapeworm fall into the external environment along with human excrement, and can also crawl out of the anus. If a person in the intestine of which one or several bovine tsepny is, does not use the latrine, but pollutes the vegetable garden, yard, pasture, barn with feces, then after drying the excrement of eggs and oncospheres of cestodes disperse in the external environment, falling on the grass, dry food and water .
Крупный рогатый скот заражается цистицеркозом при заглатывании с кормом или водой яиц или онкосфер бычьего цепня, из которых формируются цистицерки в поперечнополосатой мускулатуре животного. Через 3,5-4 мес. они достигают величины горошины и способны заразить человека. When eating raw, poorly boiled or undercooked beef containing viable cysticercus, a human infection with teniarinhoz occurs. In the human intestine, the flax begins to grow, reaching sexual maturity after 2.5-3 months. One bullish tapeworm for the year releases into the external environment about 2.5 thousand segments containing over 400 million eggs.
Clinical signs. In the initial stage of the disease in cattle, an increase in body temperature to 40-41 ° is noted. weakness, poor appetite, sometimes diarrhea, stopping after a few days. Later, the atony of the precursors, the pain of the chewing, dorsal and abdominal muscles, an increase in the pre-limb and inguinal lymph nodes, rapid breathing and palpitations are observed. After 8-12 days, the clinical symptoms disappear and the animals appear healthy.
Pathological changes. In the case of the death of an animal from acute cysticercosis in a affected muscle, mesentery, peritoneum and spleen, a large number of point hemorrhages and small cysticerci are found. In chronic form of finnoza, skeletal muscles of gray, gelatinous and degenerated (reborn).
Epizootology, diagnosis and control measures almost the same as with cysts of swine.
In recent years, a luminescent method has been proposed for the diagnosis of cattle cysticercosis (V.S. Shekhovtsov), which makes it possible to detect a greater number of cysticerci than with a visual veterinary expert examination of carcasses. This method is based on the ability of bovine cysticerci under the action of ultraviolet rays to fluoresce in the dark bright red color. For these purposes, a small-sized illuminator (luminescope) is used, in which a mercury-quartz lamp serves as a source of ultraviolet rays (radiation starts 5-7 minutes after the device is turned on in the electrical network).
In the darkened room of the meat processing plant, beef heads are illuminated with a luminous lamp, especially cuts of the masticatory muscles, as well as the heart. In addition, the cysticercus can be found in minced meat, frozen to - 10, -20 °, as well as in cooked (up to 70 min) and roasted (up to 15 min) meat.
In a number of regions, territories and republics of the country, they successfully carry out health-improving measures to combat cysticercosis of cattle and human teniarinhoz. Infections of people and animals with these diseases are sharply reduced in the Kirov region and in the Ukrainian SSR.
Features of the disease and the causes of its development
The main source of cysticercosis is cysticercus, which is an oval-shaped bubble with a grayish tint. Inside the bubble is filled with liquid, and on its surface there is one head with four suckers.
The parasite develops with the participation of several hosts: definitive (man) and intermediate (domestic animals). In humans, the sexually mature form of the chain can exist for many years and grow to 9-10 meters without causing any signs of anxiety.
The main reason for the development of the chain in the human body is the eating of raw or insufficiently roasted cattle meat, in which live cysticerci are present. Once inside the intestine, the larva attaches to its walls and the development process of the tapeworm begins, without any symptoms of the disease.
This larva reaches its full maturity after 2-3 months and it is from this point that it begins to produce mature segments filled with eggs. Mature segments of the parasite’s eggs enter the external environment along with human feces. The preservation of the invasive properties of eggs released is observed for 18 months.
The main and only intermediate host of the chain is cattle.. Infection of animals occurs as a result of ingestion of eggs and mature segments of the chain along with feed and water, which enter the intestine of the cattle and their development begins, and the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in different ways. Cysticercosis affects the neck, chest, chewing and intercostal muscles in cattle, as well as the muscles of the tongue and heart. This can happen for the following reasons:
- vagrancy animals,
- Contact of cattle with livestock workers and their families who are infected with chains,
- lack of public toilets,
- Pasture fertilizers are not neutralized by domestic water or human faeces.
Under the influence of gastric juice, the egg shells dissolve and the embryo leaves them. His six hooks help him penetrate the intestinal mucosa, blood vessels, and interfibrillar tissue of the striated muscles.
The main place of development of the oncosphere are muscles, but there are cases when they affect the lungs, liver, brain and adipose tissue. The process of complete transformation of the oncosphere into a cistern takes about 6 months, and the duration of its life in the cattle muscle tissue ranges from 7 to 10 months.
Symptoms of cysticercosis
With a minor infection cysticercosis occurs without any pronounced symptoms, and with severe infection, the following signs of the disease are noted:
- a sharp rise in body temperature in cattle,
- loss of appetite and refusal of food,
- digestive problems, diarrhea,
- pressure on the rennet and the net makes cattle restless,
- pale and dry mucous membranes,
- anxiety animals,
- cardiac abnormalities
- muscle soreness.
In rare cases, the main symptoms may be accompanied by edema, pruritus and ascites, and with localization of cysticerci in the eyes and brain, blindness and problems with coordination of movements are noted..
After 5-8 days, the symptoms begin to subside, and by 12-14 days all the symptoms disappear completely and the animal looks outwardly completely healthy. Sometimes a sick animal about a week after the parasite has entered the body, there is a sharp drop in temperature from 40 to 34 degrees, and the next day the animal is dead.
In the cattle, which had been ill with this stage of the disease, no further clinical symptoms of cysticercosis were detected and their appearance did not cause any anxiety.
Diagnosis of the disease
The main way to diagnose the disease is the post-mortem method, that is, studies of carcasses are carried out after the slaughter of an animal. To do this, conduct a thorough examination of the chewing and intercostal muscles, as well as the entire body and muscles of the tongue to detect cysticerci.
In some cases, the disease can be diagnosed during an animal disease, drawing attention to the symptoms of cysticercosis. In this case, a careful examination of the cattle of the tongue and the mucous membrane of the mouth can reveal the helminths located on their surface.
Treatment and prevention of cysticercosis
Treatment of cattle from cysticercosis is not enough developed, and the main emphasis is on the prevention of the disease. One of the effective drugs is considered “Dronzit”, but its use for the treatment of animals requires the investment of large funds and takes a lot of time from the veterinarian.
In order to prevent the spread of cysticercosis, a complex of preventive measures is provided, which includes:
- Slaughter must only be done at specially equipped slaughterhouses or slaughter houses
- once a quarterly survey of employees for the presence of tenioz,
- on the territory of complexes, farms and collective farms there should be a serviceable bathroom,
- carrying out technical utilization of carcasses and by-products in cases when more than three cysticercus are detected on muscle cuts,
- permanent veterinary and sanitary control of farms and farms where cattle are kept.
Invasion is a fairly common phenomenon that occurs in Russia and neighboring countries. One of the common ways of cysticercosis infection is the use of wastewater for irrigating pastures and forage crops, which leads to the spread of the pathogen eggs. In addition, the human factor plays an important role, when the source of the spread of the invasion becomes poorly performed examination of meat, and it gets into human food.
This problem is particularly relevant for residents of the North, for whom raw meat is the main type of product. The causative agents of cysticercosis also affect deer, and at the same time they reach the invasive stage when they enter the brain of an animal. This means that a person becomes infected only if he eats raw deer brain.
Failure by workers of sanitary standards on farms leads to the fact that eggs of cestodes of fodder for animals and places of housing are infected with cestodes. All this further leads to the infection of large livestock.
What is it and how dangerous
This is a parasitic disease caused by cysticercus - a bull chain at the larva stage. The causative agent is a vial with a scolex (a head with four suckers), filled with turbid liquid. Such a “ball” is covered with villi and differs in rather large sizes (up to 8–9 mm in length and 5–6 in width).
The harmful larva affects the muscles - the muscles of the skeletal group, heart and tongue, as well as internal chewing. The danger lies in the fact that with a weakened immune system may be affected adipose tissue and liver, brain and lungs.
How is the infection of animals and who is the carrier
Cysticerci can be ingested with water and food in which eggs or mature chains are present. The “catalyst” is gastric juice, softening their shells and accelerating the release of embryos (oncospheres).
The infection pattern is traditional and simple, but cysticercosis is impossible without human interventionbecause it is in his organism that the pathogen reaches the stage of maturity. Scientifically, people are definitive owners of this parasite, while animals themselves are intermediate.
The larvae enter the human body along with the food (most often the uncooked meat of the affected cattle). The chain may not cause any reactions in people, being inside for many years and sometimes growing up to 10 m.
Signs of disease
The cunning of finnoza is that with a low degree of invasion (infection), the state of health of the cattle does not inspire fear - the symptoms are practically not manifested.
But an imposing cysticerci colony will surely “give out” itself, bringing the matter to an acute form. It can last for two weeks - the first 5-6 days the course of the disease is particularly clear, after which the characteristic signs disappear. Among them are:
- a sharp decrease in appetite or a complete rejection of feed,
- increased body temperature
- anxiety animals, they become very excited,
- frequent diarrhea,
- dry mucous membranes, which at the same time also fade,
- “Malfunctions” in the work of the heart, frequent dyspnea indicate this; when moving to pasture, usually an active cow can stop many times,
- muscle pain
- painful reaction to palpation in the net and rennet area.
If the disease occurs in an acute or chronic form with background complications, the structure of the affected areas is invariably disrupted. When cutting up dead animals, characteristic “traces” of the larvae are found on such organs and tissues:
- numerous point hemorrhages,
- the presence of small cysticerciuses
- an increase in the mesentery, the lymphatic ligament itself in the section has an unnaturally juicy tint,
- discoloration of skeletal muscles (they turn gray), on which deposits in the form of light gray oncospheres can be found.
Making an accurate diagnosis is a problem even for experienced veterinarians.
The fact is that some symptoms (for example, loss of appetite or anxiety) are considered indirect and can "lead" to a completely different disease. Yes, and manual techniques like probing with particular accuracy do not differ - of course, the sick animal will respond with a roar, but it will not be possible to localize the center of infection in this way.
- Rnga (indirect hemagglutination). This method is used in the study of blood syrup. The collected material in a volume of 5-7 ml is placed in a sterile tube, and then put in a tablet with red blood cells. If a precipitate forms, it is a sure sign that the parasite is in the body. The reaction of the NGA is considered the most accurate of the used analyzes.
- RLA (latexagglutination). Blood syrovotoka warms up, then add a latex suspension, making several single inclusions of other drugs. After the plates with the collection material are “scrolled” on the shooter, a conclusion is made. The presence in the statement of marks “++” or “++++” indicates that the larvae are actively developing.
- Intradermal allergy test. The drug tuberculin is injected into the middle part of the neck or the tail-tail fold (calves - into the shoulder blade). The dose depends on the age, the norm for adult livestock is 0.2 ml, while young animals up to one year old need 0.15 ml. In healthy animals, 12–20 hours after the injection, edema appears, which increases in 2–3 days. In the delayed reaction (48 hours), another injection is given, the results of which bring complete clarity.
Larvae become visible when a fluorescent lamp is scanned through a dark room. Parasites are highlighted in red or burgundy. When viewing frozen meat, the effect will be the same, but the cysticercus will die by that time. Boiled meat ceases to "shine" after 1.5 hours of heat treatment.
Is treatment possible
The treatment of cattle diseases such as cysticercosis is complicated due to the specific action of the pathogen.
Prescribing drugs requires considerable experience from the veterinarian. Strong antihistamines are no good here. - their action causes a massive death of parasites, but at the same time intoxication and inflammation are triggered in the “stuffed” muscle fibers.
Praziquantel-based mebendazole and Dronzit formulations are used.. The first drug is added to the feed at the rate of 50 mg / kg. Reception course - 10 days. As for "Droncyt", then its dose is determined only by the doctor who examined the animal (it is desirable to have on hand the results of tests). It is not surprising that an important role is assigned to prevention, which can eliminate all these difficulties.
It includes a whole range of measures. Required are the following events:
- slaughtering cattle only in slaughterhouses that have all the necessary equipment with mandatory inspection of carcasses,
- when more than three larvae are found, control cuts are made,
- as necessary - technical disposal of infected carcasses.
- Arrangement of "latrines" closed.
- Maintain cleanliness in the stall or on the farm.
- Grazing in clean areas, remote from open drainage pits and channels.
- No contact with stray animals.
- For large farms, periodic animal verifications and professional examination of staff are mandatory.
- Finally, thorough processing of meat before eating. Careful roasting or cooking will not give the parasite a chance to walk along the “food-person-animal” chain.