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Every gardener dreams of a beautiful garden with an abundance of fruit. Buying ready-made seedlings is expensive, besides you can run into a hoax. It is better to create a variety of varieties with their own hands. Let's find out what is grafting in plants, how to plant fruit trees in various ways, which equipment is useful in this and what role the weather plays.
What is a vaccine and what is it for?
A vaccination is a vegetative (seedless) method of plant reproduction, when one plant or part of it is engrafted onto another.
The part (stalk, bud or branch) that grafts and bears the varietal characteristics of the plant is called graft. And the basis on which the graft is engraved is the stock. They can serve as a young plant (wild or cultivated), and old, and even broken. The stock is responsible for the nutrition and growth of the tree, determines its frost resistance.
The main purpose of vaccination is to obtain a cultivated plant, since fruit trees do not transmit their varietal qualities through seeds. If you have quality wilderness nearby (seedlings), it is easier, more reliable and cheaper to plant your favorite varieties on them than to buy ready-made seedlings.
In order to save space several varieties can be grafted onto one trunk at once.
Vaccination will help save grade when damaged old tree.
So it is possible replace not liked variety for a better one.
And, of course, this way you can to increase the frost resistance of culture (for example, if an apricot is planted on a plum adapted to local conditions).
How to choose a stock?
- The main rule: the stock must be of the same type as the graft. The apple tree is well grafted onto the apple tree, the pear tree is onto the pear tree, the cherry tree is placed on the cherry tree and cherry, etc. -So use genetically similar material.
- The tree needs to choose healthy and strong.
- Graft and rootstock must be compatible in terms of growth.
- It is desirable that the fruits ripen at the same time. Cleverly selected varieties allow you to break this rule without losing the result, but this is the path of experienced gardeners.
- If you want to get a columnar apple, the stock must be appropriate.
- A tree grown from a seed, tall, has deep roots, durable and more resistant to adverse factors. While the clone stock (obtained by cutting) is low, it begins to bear fruit earlier and produces more marketable fruits.
Necessary tools and materials
The following tool is used for vaccination:
- Pruner - for cutting cuttings.
- Coping knife - to separate the bark.
- Garden saw - for cutting thick branches.
- Garden knife - for cutting thin branches. Some use regular stationery instead.
Along with the usual knife, an okulirovochny is used: it is equipped with a “bone” to separate the bark. In addition, there are combined knives - with two blades on the handle.
Some gardeners are advised to use several knives: one - for the cuts of the branch, the second - for the cuts, the third - for putting up the garden pitch.
Additionally, you may need a flat screwdriver (to make a wedge in place of the split).
Be sure to have on hand insulating tape or film and garden pitch (pitch).
The tool must be sharp, serviceable. It must be processed before each use. alcohol.
When can trees be planted?
Let's take a look at when to plant trees? Vaccinations are winter, spring and summer. Each season has its advantages.
Winter vaccination allows you to get varietal sapling-same year already next autumn.
Its main amenities:
- the gardener has more time
- works are carried out in a warm room
- survival rate - 97%.
Timing winter vaccinations fluctuate from December to mid-April. The main thing is to finish the work 2 weeks before planting the seedlings. Preparation begins in the fall: before the frosts, one-year or two-year-old shoots are dug (you can also use root shoots) with a stem thickness of at least 7 mm, cut off some of the roots and store them in a cellar. For the scion, one-year shoots are cut from the outer part of the crown, varieties are signed and also put in the cold. 2 days before vaccination they are transferred to a warm place.
Vaccination in spring It is considered the most physiological. It lasts from March to early June, during active sap flow on the stock. The graft can be harvested from the fall or cut right before the process. For successful accretion, it must “sleep”.
It is recommended to begin work when the daytime temperature rises to 10 degrees, and the nighttime temperature - to zero.
Summer vaccinations have their advantages:
- You can assess the condition of the overwintered stock and select the best trees.
- Cuttings do not require storage.
- There is a time to try again.
- The grafted twig tends to give more side branches, which is convenient for crown formation.
The optimal time for vaccination is August. In the summer they plant in cloudy, but dry weather. Leaves with cuttings need to be removed. It is also important what time to inoculate. In the heat (if it is not possible to wait it out), work is carried out before noon and after 16 hours.
How to harvest cuttings?
A stalk is not any twig, as it seems at first glance.
To create a good garden material you need to carefully choose:
- It is necessary to harvest cuttings from a fruit-bearing tree, which has shown good yield.
- An annual runaway with at least two buds is taken as a cutting (preferably, when there are 4-5).
- Foliage and bark should be healthy.
- Twigs are best suited from the outer south side of the crown, where there is better illumination.
- It is advisable to take material from the middle tier.
- The cross section of the ideal cutting 6 - 7 mm (as in a simple pencil).
- Spring buds on the cuttings must sleep.
- If you are going to vaccinate in the summer, it is better to cut the graft on the day of vaccination and use it within 3 hours.
- In winter, cuttings must be checked for viability. Make a small cross section: if the green layer under the bark, the cutting is alive.
There are several ways of vaccination:
- Vaccination for the bark.
- Vaccination in the cut.
- Graft Splitting
Selection depends on tree size, climate and season.
This method is used with a significant difference in the thickness of the stock and scion. The timing of vaccination - from the beginning to the active stage of sap flow.
The stock is clipped under the stump. As a scion, sleeping or awakening cuttings are used, cut to 2 - 3 buds. The lower part of them must be cut at an acute angle to get a cut 2.5 - 3 cm long. An incision of the same length is made on the stump, then the bark is carefully separated with a special knife, after which the graft is inserted. The place of accretion is tied up and processed by garden pitch.
For a better survival rate on the handle, a horizontal incision is made along with the oblique - the so-called saddle, with which the graft “sits” on the stump.
In total, 2–3 shoots can be “planted” on a stump.
Video instructions are below.
Produced in stock of any thickness. Used mainly to update the crown of the old tree. In this way, you can inoculate in winter, spring and summer.
A slit narrowed downward is cut from the side of the tree, where a cut into 2 buds is wedged in and cut from two sides along a slanting graft. After that, the plant is tied and treated with garden pitch.
More in the video below.
Used for trees with rough bark or damaged by unsuccessful vaccinations. The easiest and best way for a newbie. In the split, vaccinate before the start of sap flow.
The stock is cut down under the stump and cleaned with a garden knife. Then a slot is made in it and a temporary wedge is inserted. Graft is a branch with 5 buds, cut from two sides at an angle and inserted into the slot, after which the wedge is removed. If the stock is much thicker, insert a handle on each side. The plant can not be tied, because it creates a natural clip. At the end of the process with garden pitch all open spaces. Details shown in the video.
Winter seasonMost often at this time of year, fruit trees are planted. They do it in the period from December to April, but it is worth remembering that the work must be completed half a month before disembarking.
From the middle of autumn it is worth starting the preparatory work: you need to dig out seedling or clonal stocks, which are not more than 2 years old. Dug trees must have a well-developed root system. As for the upper part of the rootstocks, they must be cut by 20−30 cm
Vaccination for fruit trees: expediency
First you need to understand what vaccination is. This is one way to propagate a plant. With its help, you can bring your own variety of fruit tree, combining one species with another. You do not need to spend a lot of money on the purchase of new seedlings, just find a few cuttings or processes. Grafting a new bud or sapling of a tree is a kind of engraftment on another plant. You can graft different types and varieties of trees. All properties and qualities of the crop are preserved, and in many cases become even better than they were.
The use of vaccinations has proven its worth. So, with the help of such a procedure, it is possible to renew old fruit trees, which will start to yield in 3-4 years. The quality of new fruits will improve several times. Not only professionals in large nurseries plant trees, more and more often gardeners independently master this technique.
They inoculate only when the quality of the tree and its fruits begins to deteriorate every year. Only then the procedure will help to quickly update the tree or replace it with another grade. It has been proven by scientists that several varieties and species can be grafted on the same tree at the same time. There are several common types of grafting for fruit trees.
Types of vaccinations
Types of grafting fruit trees are selected individually for the characteristics of the tree and climatic weather conditions. It is necessary to tell about the main methods of inoculation, which can cope with any gardener. There are many options, but the following deserve attention:
- Budding. This type of vaccination is done with a kidney. This method is used only in the spring. To make such an inoculation, an incision is made on the handle and on the tree itself. Then apply the stalk to the place of the cut and gently primatyvayut. Basically, this procedure is done with young plants.
- Copulation. This type is done with a cutting. In this way, a young stalk and a tree trunk are connected and firmly connected to each other. Such a connection should be a continuation of the trunk. This method of vaccination can be done at any time of the year. It is important to observe one condition - the cutting must be at least a year.
- In the split. Terms of grafting fruit trees in this case have no boundaries. This method is used for a long time. Even our great-grandmothers used it. The only condition here is that the branch to which the cutting is to be grafted must be 2 times larger in diameter. The vaccination is done as follows: on the branch of the plant they make an even and smooth cut and right in the center they apply splitting no more than 5 cm deep, but not less than 4 cm. Then a cutting is inserted into the gap formed and fastened tightly.
When to plant fruit trees
Terms of grafting fruit trees play a significant role in this matter. The most favorable time for such procedures is spring and summer. But for the operation itself to choose a cloudy day without rain. You can vaccinate at any time of the day. The long-term experience of many agronomists shows that grafting of fruit trees in the spring is of the highest quality and most successful.
If such a procedure needs to be carried out on a cherry or plum, then this can be done immediately with the onset of spring. Such trees are not afraid of frosts and cold snaps. Apple and pear love heat, so graft them when the temperature stabilizes.
Begin to plant trees with the advent of the first buds. It is allowed to grow cuttings in the summer, but only where the climate is warm and dry. Many summer residents begin such manipulations on the lunar calendar. It is possible to find all the detailed information about favorable days for this.
In the fall, trees are planted infrequently, this is due to the fact that the low temperature does not allow the cuttings to settle well on the tree. If you still need to plant a tree only in the fall, then it should be done in early September. It used to be thought that winter was also not the right time to vaccinate, but recent experiments prove the opposite.
Winter vaccination as a new step in the field of grafting trees
Terms of grafting fruit trees were previously strictly limited to spring and summer. Now the situation has changed dramatically. Many gardeners try to plant a tree in winter. And, oddly enough, they are achieving quite good results in this matter. Fruit trees such as plum, plum, cherry, apple or pear are capable of producing high-quality planting material during this period. Winter vaccination gives the same high further crop, like many others, and the percentage of seedling survival is close to 100. Such a vaccination has the main advantage - a new cutting grows in a short period of time.
Procurement of cuttings
It is important to properly prepare cuttings for grafting fruit trees. In order to succeed in the future, they must be pure-quality. It is better if they are obtained from the mother plant, on which phytosanitary selection has been made many times. The thickness of the cutting should be at least a pencil, and its length - about 40-50 cm. If the trees are where there are severe frosts, then cuttings are favorably cut in late autumn or early winter.
If the time of grafting of fruit trees is chosen, they should be properly maintained until this point. Sometimes it happens that it is difficult to make it, the material disappears. Cherry and plum are considered the most capricious in storage. The best temperature for them should be from -2 to -4 degrees.
Storage also depends on the territory and climate features. If the area is rich in snow, the cuttings are instilled with a thin layer of earth and snow is covered with about 70 cm above. If the area with constant thaws and snow is not enough, in this case, all the cuttings are tied in a bundle and covered with raw sawdust. Then spread on the frost and keep them until the formation of a crust of ice about 15 cm thick. Then the cuttings are shifted to a place near the house, sprinkled with dry sawdust and stored until spring.
Many gardeners store cuttings in the basement or cellar. This method is suitable for all types of trees, except cherries and plums. They are very damp, then they will not give a harvest for a long time. Such storage contributes to the early development of buds on the cuttings. Leaves are formed prematurely, because such material will hardly grow on the tree in the future. After storage, the bark can dry out a lot, then before grafting, they are soaked in water for a couple of days and cleaned in a cool place.
We have disassembled the types of grafts of fruit trees, now we will pay attention to the tools with which we perform such an operation.
To spring or summer grafting of fruit trees was easy, you need to prepare the right tools. They should be well sharpened. So, the following devices are needed:
- Garden knife.
- Saw or hacksaw.
- Material for strapping.
- Garden var.
All of these tools for grafting fruit trees can be found in every garden. For example, a garden knife is needed for a high-quality cut of the tree. With the help of a pruner you can quickly cut the stalk. Saw or hacksaw is easy to cut thick and extra branches. Banding and garden var are necessary to bond the tree and the cutting to each other. Ladder required for high plantings. Do not forget that the tool for grafting fruit trees is sharp, so when working with it you need to follow safety rules.
Trees after vaccination
As soon as the time of grafting of fruit trees has arrived and the procedure has been successfully carried out, it is necessary to wait until the cutting begins to grow. At this time it is necessary to monitor rodents and aphids and start fighting with them in time. Do not deprive such trees abundant irrigation and fertilizer. If several cuttings were planted on a branch, then only one will be left. It happens that the cuttings are blown away by a strong wind, then they are strengthened with small arcs made of flexible branches. As soon as a year has passed after vaccination, new shoots are shortened in length by 1 /3 and form a branch.
Tree graft compatibility
Tree compatibility is important for vaccination. Many gardeners do not know what to plant a pear, plum or apple stalk. To achieve the best result, you need to combine similar with similar. Only in this case, the cuttings will take root at 100%. Но у некоторых выходит привить грушу на яблоню и получать довольно необычный урожай. Также важно правильно подобрать сроки прививок плодовых деревьев, это тоже будет являться гарантией качественно выращенных плодов.
Having dealt with all types of vaccinations and the tools with which they are made, you can update the fruit trees with your own hands. As it turned out, grafting fruit trees in the spring is the most effective. The result will not be long in coming - amazing and tasty fruits will delight you and your loved ones.