On the stepsons, as on the main stem, ovaries and fruits can also be formed, but they no longer possess varietal properties: their size is much smaller than real tomatoes, the taste is significantly different (most of them are tasteless), they deteriorate quickly. So in this case the rule “more shoots - more harvest” does not work. Despite the pinning is the breaking off of shoots, it does not bring any harm to the plants (provided that it is done in a timely manner).
Do I need to pinch tomatoes?
The answer to this question depends on the type of tomato chosen: tall indeterminants and determinants grown in one or two trunks are required to stick, and short-cut determinants can be not pinned. In the latter case, the climatic conditions in the region play an important role - they are not formed at all in warm areas, and 4 ... 5 trunks are left in colder ones. Such agrotechnical reception allows obtaining an earlier crop of tomatoes, however, its quantity may suffer from it.
For novice growers, it may seem that a branchy tomato bush with a well-developed green mass will produce more fruits, so they refuse to stick it. As a result, the green saping with health and strength, the sapling does not want to bear fruit at all, since all the forces were spent on building up foliage and stepchildren. The main goal of the gardener is to get a harvest, so you should not spare extra processes, but you need to systematically delete them ruthlessly.
When and how often to pinch?
Begin to remove stepchildren about 2 ... 2.5 weeks after planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. The first of them appears under the first flower branch. And from this moment, with a frequency of 1 ... 2 times a week, the inspection of bushes and their pasynkovane begins. The optimal length of the fattening processes in this case is 3 ... 5 cm. They should not be allowed to grow more than 5 cm in length, since they will have time to suck out a huge amount of nutrients from the plant. In rare cases, stepchildren can even appear on tomato seedlings. They need to be removed before planting.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse step by step
It is important to know the basics and methods of removing excess shoots: then all the useful parts of the plants will remain in place, and the tomato bushes will be properly formed and with official care will give high yields.
Below are considered the steps of pinching tomatoes, depending on the characteristics of their variety.
To tall, so-called, indeterminate, varieties include tomatoes, whose growth is unlimited. They can reach a height of more than 2 m. As mentioned above, all tall varieties of tomatoes must be stepson. This operation includes the following steps:
- Determination of the number of stems. Usually indeterminants, especially large-fruited, are grown in a greenhouse in one stem. If the variety provides for the cultivation of two stems and is able to withstand the next harvest, then it should leave one of the most powerful stepson, which is formed at the first fruitful branch. But one rule should be taken into account: the more fruits, the smaller their size.
- Removing lower stepsons. It is imperative to remove constantly appearing stepchildren under the lower leaves, they will not yield a crop, and the airing and passing of the sun's rays in the greenhouse worsen.
- Removal of stepsons as the plant grows. During the growing season of tomato bushes, stepchildren will constantly appear in the leaf axils. They need to break in time.
These varieties have a limited growth point. This means that such tomato bushes grow to a certain length, after which the stem growth stops, and all their energy goes to growing fruits. The height of medium-sized determinants is usually up to 1.5 ... 1.7 m, and short-growing - up to 80 cm.
Formation of a bush in two or more stems
Determinants with an average growth in the greenhouse are grown in two shoots. If you wish, you can start up the third one, leaving the stepson at the second fertile branch. A larger number of trunks for these varieties is not recommended, as yield suffers - fruits become smaller.
Low-growing bushes can be staked if necessary, leaving 4 to 5 stems. Some gardeners, instead of pinching, resort to pinching them. After two fruit brushes are fastened on the stepsons, they should be limited in growth by pinching.
Removing lower stepsons
In sredneroslyh varieties, these shoots need to be removed, but with shrubs come differently: either they are simply left, or they are slowly bent (so as not to break), carefully pinned to the ground and sprinkled on top of the ground. Pysynki root and give new bushes. This technique is good if little seedlings have been planted. New bushes in greenhouse conditions will quickly grow and give a harvest a little later uterine. Such a technique implies a looser landing pattern.
Removing emerging stepsons. As in the previous case, all the excess shoots are smashed out by the middle erectors, and in the undersized, sprawling ones they are left, as the excessive shaping will negatively affect their productivity.
There are a few simple general rules of stabbing, which will help a gardener painlessly for bushes to perform this operation:
- Most often, stepchildren break off so that a stump of 2..3 mm in length remains. With this removal of the shoots, the risk of their reappearance at the same places is reduced. It is necessary to graze tomatoes with particular care, taking care not to damage the stems, leaves, and adjacent shoots of the plants.
- If the tomato plantings in the greenhouse are neglected, the stepchildren can occur even on the leaves. In cases where the strawberry is held very rarely, the shoots should be removed gradually, as the plants will experience enormous stress and may even get sick.
- If, after all, the stepchildren managed to develop thick stems, and when they were removed, rather large wounds opened on the stalks of the tomatoes, then they should be immediately sprinkled with wood ash.
- Each time after the end of the formation, all the stepsons need to be collected from the greenhouse beds, thrown away or left to prepare anti-pest products according to popular methods for spraying other vegetables.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
In addition to staving in the greenhouse, they also conduct a number of activities to care for already grown seedlings.
Tomatoes need frequent watering only a couple of weeks after planting them in the greenhouse. During the growing season, their number is reduced to 1 ... 2 times a week. When excessive watering begins to actively grow lateral shoots, leaves, and, of course, stepchildren. Water is supplied solely at the root - tomatoes do not like dropping on the leaves.
Formation of the bushes during the growing season. In addition to the pinching, the formation includes timely garter (wrapping around growing string around the twine) and limiting the growing point (for indeterminants). When the height of the bush reaches the trellis, pinch its top. At the same time over the last floral brush you need to leave two sheets that are necessary for its nutrition. Typically, the clipping is carried out in August. Pruning of diseased leaves also refers to the formation of a croak.
Of course, tomatoes during the whole season need fertilizers, but they must be balanced. Nitrogen is introduced only when the seedlings are planted in the hole and at the first feeding after planting. Then the need for it disappears. If the gardener continues to fertilize tomatoes with nitrogenous top dressing, the stepchildren will appear and grow even faster, and the fruits will be ground. Already with the appearance of ovaries under the tomatoes, potassium and phosphorus-containing water-soluble supplements are applied.
Gardener errors when stacking
Sometimes, when gardening and caring for tomatoes, the gardener can make mistakes that, as a result, will lead to undesirable problems: yield losses, diseases of the bushes, etc.
- Rare removal of stepsons. It is very important to keep frequency in pasynkovka. If you remove the long shoots once a month, then there is no benefit from this event - the shoots have already managed to pick up a large number of forces from the bush.
- Removing fruit branches instead of stepsons. Novice gardeners often confuse these types of shoots. When staving it is important to carefully look at the place of its growth: if it comes directly from the stem and there are ovaries on it, then it is a fruit branch, not a stepson.
- Use of dirty inventory. If garden shears are used when removing the stepsons, they should be wiped with a solution of potassium permanganate or another disinfectant after each bush has been treated (otherwise you can spread the disease throughout the greenhouse). Occupation is quite a chore, so it is faster and more efficient to cut off the shoots manually without any inventory.
- Overfeeding bushes. If plants have long been formed, and stepchildren continue to appear at the bottom of the stem, this means that tomatoes are getting too much nutrition. In this case, you need to balance the dressing or abandon them for a while.
From time to time the seedlings planted in the greenhouse tomatoes, gardener improves the ventilation and illumination of the bushes, and also directs all their strength to the ripening of fruits. As a result, the tomatoes will thank for a large and tasty harvest of good quality.
What do you need to stick the tomatoes
First, let's see why these manipulations are necessary for tomatoes. Removal of lateral shoots from the sinuses of the leaves of the plant (stepsons) is carried out so that these processes do not take the plant nutrients.
It is known that in young shoots they are concentrated in the greatest quantity. A gardener is interested in getting them to the maximum in flowers, and then in the fruits of the plant.
In addition, the procedure helps to form a shrub for a given number of stems, to lengthen the period of fruiting of the shrub, to get a bountiful harvest earlier than usual.
It is important to be able to distinguish the leaf from the stepson, in order to remove just the extra runaway. The pasture is located in the bosom of the leaf between its stem and the main stem.
If the stepson is not removed in time, it will grow, letting in the second-level stepchildren. It is necessary to remove shoots until they have reached a length of more than 5 cm.
Important!Not all tomatoes need to be staved. Low-growing varieties such cutting is optional. But in greenhouses it is recommended to grow hybrid and indeterminate tall plants, which require compulsory stading.
If the lateral processes are not removed in time, the tomato bush will grow exponentially. Then all the forces of the plant will go to the formation of green mass.
This prevents the development of new fruits, obscures the educated, does not allow them to ripen well. Fungal diseases can actively develop in bushes, as they are poorly ventilated and moisture stagnates in them. Masking helps to avoid these troubles, and also facilitates the care of them and the harvest.
When you need tomato pasynkovanie
So, it is obvious that growing tomatoes in greenhouses requires pruning of excess shoots. When to do it? As soon as you find additional sprouts in the leaf axils. They are most active in growth with the appearance of flower brushes.
The procedure is carried out in the morning hours, so that during the day when active metabolic processes take place in the plant, the wound is quickly healed. Moreover, it is at this time that the shoots are most easily broken off.
Important!Make sure that the plant juice does not fall on your hands. This is necessary not for the safety of the gardener, but for the safety of other plants. If one is sick, you can infect the rest.
Formation of bushes in one stem
This method involves the removal of all stepsons on the stem. Do not leave a chance and the so-called twins - stems, which appear when the main split. It is only important to leave all the floral brushes formed, even if they are at the bottom.
Did you know?So that the new stepson does not grow on the cleared place, a small part of the stem should be left from the former - up to 3 cm in length.
Graduates of agriculture strongly recommend using this type of bush formation for growing tomatoes in the greenhouse. But gardeners practitioners claim that yields are significantly reduced. Therefore, they prefer to grow tomatoes in two stalks.
Formation of bushes in two stalks
Forming two stalks on a bush, in addition to the main leave the first sprout that appeared at the bottom, the very first brush of the bush. This is the strongest sprout that will develop most actively. It will be possible to harvest no less abundant harvest from it than from the main stem of a bush.
All other stepchildren must be removed if it comes to the formation of tomatoes in two stems.
Formation in three stalks
This scheme assumes the presence of three fruiting stems on the bush.To do this, basically leave the sprout near the first flower brush, located at the very bottom of the plant. Then on the stem you need to find another strongest sprout.
As a rule, it is located next to the first, but there are exceptions. All other stepchildren must be removed.
Did you know?If there is a desire to harvest the first harvest early, select several bushes and leave one stalk with several brushes on them, pinching the top. The rest of the planting can be carried out the formation of tomatoes in two or three stems.
How to grape tomatoes of different varieties
The pinching process is different depending on the types of tomatoes. They are indeterminate, semi-determinant, determinant. But there are general rules by which the procedure is carried out for any type of tomato.
So, it is desirable to remove the processes by breaking them off, and not cutting them. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in the morning in dry weather, so that the place of breaking will quickly heal and the plant will not get sick. This should be done every week, removing all processes, regardless of their size.
If it's time to pinch, and the weather is overcast, disinfect with a 1% potassium permanganate solution after treating each plant. Primary treatment should be healthy bushes of the most valuable varieties. At last, the bushes are treated with stains and "yellowing" on the leaves and stems.
Did you know?When the bush is formed and the necessary number of brushes grows on it, it is necessary to carry out the last stage of pruning - pinch its top. This will not allow the plant to reach up and form new ovaries.
Used for the respective varieties of tomatoes, which must be formed into one stem. Such drastic measures are due to the nature of the growth of the bush - indeterminate tomatoes produce a lot of lateral processes.
Therefore, they remove all the shoots, leaving "penechki" about a centimeter. He will delay the formation of new stepchildren. In total, no more than a dozen shoots should remain on such a bush.
However, if you have a fairly large greenhouse, you can leave two stalks at the bush - the main and the first stepson (or the second). And on the secondary stem you need to leave no more than 4-5 brushes. After pruning such a bush must be mulched.
Semi-determinant sticks of tomatoes
Tomatoes of these varieties can reach a length of up to 180 cm. With a sparing planting, two or three stems can be left on them. The peculiarity of these varieties is that the pasynkovanny bush can be completed, that is, after removal of the lateral processes, the main stem stops growing.
Therefore, it is not necessary to put the seedling all the seedlings, if only semi-determinant tomatoes are growing in your greenhouse. Process some of them and, if the growth has not stopped, continue the procedure on the following. Those bushes that have stopped growing up can be formed into several stems.
How to pinch deterministic varieties
It is believed that the pinching of determinant tomatoes in a greenhouse is not necessary. These low-growing bushes do not grow much. In this case, it is important to adhere to the recommendations on the agricultural technology of a particular variety.
However, if you want to get an early harvest from them, it is necessary to carry out pasynkovanie. To do this, remove all the shoots, leaving only two or three inflorescences, then pinch the top.
In addition to the determinant tomatoes, superdeterminant ones are also isolated, the cultivation of which also requires the removal of lateral processes. it extremely low-growing varieties that bear fruit only on the first three to five inflorescences.
Therefore, it is important to remove all the rest, leaving one or three stems on the bush. With one stalk, the main shoot is left; with two, the first stepson is left with the exception of the main one; with three, the first and second ones are left. But in the latter case, there is a big risk of getting a lot of undisrupted fruits. Each of the stems should have no more than three inflorescences.
Tomatoes are quite capricious plants that require special temperature conditions, lighting mode, feeding, watering and the formation of bushes. The latter allows you to send all the plant nutrients to the fruit, without spending on unnecessary shoots.
There are several special strawing schemes for tomatoes that are suitable for one or another plant variety. Пользуются ими до начала августа, когда все мероприятия по удалению отростков заканчиваются, а верхушка куста прищипывается.
Это позволяет получить обильный и хорошо созревший урожай. Но имейте ввиду, если лето обильное на дожди и холодное, то даже пасынкование не спасет вас от скудного урожая.
What is pasynkovanie and why is it needed?
Paceniks are processes on the stems of tomatoes that grow from all the axils of the leaves. Shoots require constant nutrition, along with floral brushes and pouring juice, fruits. The butchers are superfluous shoots, they take nutrients to the detriment of crop formation.
The process of removing unwanted processes is called pasynkovaniem. After the procedure, the plant redirects all food to the creation and maturation of the crop. If not to make pasynkovanie, this will lead to a sharp decrease in the total yield, and the fruits will become small and not marketable. Due to the pinching, the duration of fruiting is prolonged, the yield increases, the tomatoes ripen faster.
This technique is required almost all the variety of tomatoes, except for the standard. These varieties belong to the determinant type and do not form them at all, do not tie them up, do not stepchild. The main stem grows up to 50 cm and only 3 to 5 fruiting brushes are formed on it.
At removal it is difficult to distinguish the accruing new leaf from stepchildren. For novice gardeners this is a serious problem that you need to know, and on time to solve. The staffer always moves in the growth of the leaf sinus. Moreover, a new leaf bud grows first, and a little higher it starts to get under way in the growth of the stepson. In fact, they appear from one place. It turns out that when pinching, it is necessary to break off the top escape.
When and how often do you need to stick?
Approach this event approximately in 15-20 days after placement of seedling on a constant place. This usually coincides with the appearance of the stepson under the first brush. Further work on the pinching should be carried out continuously, for which the bushes are weekly inspected and break out the stepsons.
It is unacceptable that the stepsons to be removed grow longer than 5 cm in length. Otherwise, food will have time to spend on their growth. In addition, the grown stepson is difficult to remove without injuring the stem. And the wound surface on the stem can lead to fungal and bacterial diseases.
For timely tracking of the emergence of new stepsons, bushes should be carefully inspected weekly. An operation to remove the shoots is recommended in the morning so that by evening the wound surface can heal. Work should begin with the bushes that look healthy. Weak bushes and those that have a painful look, you need to pass at the end.
Formation in 1 stalk
As usual in 1 stem, the shaping is carried out on indeterminate tomatoes and those cultivated in protected soil. This is due to the fact that in the greenhouse adhere to austerity savings in space, the plants are planted tightly and excess branches thicken the bushes, preventing the penetration of light and ventilation. This can create a favorable environment for the occurrence of fungi.
When forming follow the following scheme:
- After the formation of the first brush, a stepchild will appear under it. It must be removed in time.
- At the same time, the lower leaves that grow under a single brush should be removed. This will significantly improve airflow from below.
- In the future, without regret, remove all shoots that occur on the stem, without affecting the brush. At the same time, depending on the height of the horizontal trellis, up to 40 brushes can form on 1 bush.
Formation in 2 stalks
Sometimes in a greenhouse, on determinant tomatoes, they resort to a method of forming 2 stems:
- in addition to the top of the stem, leave 1 of the thickest stepson, which grows under 1 brush,
- all other processes and leaves located below the stepson left are removed,
- formed during the growing season new stepchildren break off weekly.
As you have probably understood, with this type of formation, upward will grow up to the trellis 2 escapes from the bush. The brushes will be laid on both shoots and the harvest of fruits will be formed.
Formation in 3 stalks
Tomatoes, formed in 3 stalks, are rarely found on household plots. This scheme is very similar to the previous one, with the only difference being that apart from the main point of growth, not 1 fat stepson, but two are left.
The first, as already mentioned, is left under 1 floral brush, and the second stepchild can be grown under 2 or 3 brushes.
To improve the ventilation of such bushes, it is necessary to tear off all the leaves to the base of the first stepson left. In one pass, it is allowed to pluck no more than 3 leaves from a bush. If you remove more leaves, it can put the plant in a state of stress with a further weakening of the immune system and infection with diseases.
Features of the formation of different varieties of tomatoes
All the variety of tomato varieties is divided into 3 main types:
The first of these species is characterized by unlimited growth. Semi-determinant varieties can slow down growth when they like. As for the determinant varieties, they usually complete growth after laying 4 or 5 brushes.
Indeterminate Tomato Formation
Varieties of this type are characterized by a large growth force, their main stem can be 3 meters or more long. Such bushes will correctly form in 1 stalk. Such a formation involves breaking out the stepsons in the leaf axils as they grow. Old leaves of the lower tier before the first fruiting brush are also subject to removal.
Some vegetable growers form indeterminate tomatoes in 2 stalks, believing that this way you can get more yield. Such an approach may be suitable in greenhouses, where tomato bushes are not planted densely, have sufficient area for growth. At the same time they will receive enough light and will develop normally. The second stem is formed from a stepson, released under 1 brush.
Formation of semi-determinant varieties
When cultivating varieties of this type, you never know whether they will soon stop growing or will grow for some time. And any vegetable grower would like the bush to lay more brushes, since the total yield of fruits depends on it.
Therefore, as the main stem grows, when the stepsons are broken off, one developed escape is always left as a spare. If growth stops on the main stem, then continue to grow and plant new brushes will become a spare stem.
In the process of growth of the bush watching the main stem. If 7 or more well-developed brushes have formed on it, then the stem that was kept in stock can be removed so that it does not overgrow the bushes and consume precious food.
Formation of determinant varieties
These varieties are characterized by the fact that after the laying of 5 brushes, the bushes always stop growing. After that, all the food is redirected to the filling and ripening of tomatoes. In height determinant tomatoes can reach from 80 to 170 cm.
Varieties of this type, no more than 1 meter, can be grown without forming. But, if the goal is to harvest a super early harvest, then the bushes should be formed into 1 stem, leaving 4 brushes on the stem. The rest of the brush must be removed simultaneously with the stepsons.
3-4 leaves should be left above the upper brush and pinch the growth point. After completing such manipulations, you can harvest the ripe tomatoes 15 days earlier than usual.
Low determinant shrubs can grow in 4 and even 5 stems. You can get by with pinching instead of pinching. After the formation of two fruit-brushes on the left-standing steps, pinch their tops.
Determinant plants of medium height in protected ground can be grown in 2 stalks. Some growers let the third stem. However, it is not recommended to leave more than 3 stems, because the fruits become small.
Masking: his conduct and features
The root system of tomatoes evenly distributes nutrients throughout the plant. The more a shrub grows, the more substances go to the nutrition of green tops, rather than flowering and fruit growth. To reduce the consumption of food for greens, and to send substances to the development of fruits it is necessary to carry out the hatching of the bush.
Gotting is the removal of additional shoots that the plant produces to grow a bush. Also, this operation is called the formation of the bush, because this process determines the number of main branches of the plant.
The stepson is formed in the leaf bosom, growing between it and the main stem of the plant. In order not to grow new shoots, they must be properly removed. Formation should be carried out throughout the season, at a time when the shoot grows no more than 5 cm.
Important! Remove stepchildren, breaking them out not upwards, but away from you so that the sap of the plant doesn’t fall into your hands. This reduces the risk of infecting healthy tomatoes after stabbing a patient.
To conduct the formation of tomato bushes in a polycarbonate greenhouse correctly in the morning: at this time of day the tomato stalks are soft and break better. To remove stepchildren should be by breaking off hands, and not cut them, so as not to damage the rest of the plant with scissors or a knife. If you do decide to cut off the stepchildren with cutting tools, note:
- the blade should be as sharp as possible so that the cutting does not resemble cutting,
- removal should be a sharp and precise movement, so as not to harm the stem,
- Pasynking tools must be disinfected after each bush has been treated.
Driving pattern of indeterminate and determinant varieties of tomatoes
For tall (indeterminant) varieties of tomatoes, a 1 stem formation scheme is recommended. When to begin stepping tomatoes in a greenhouse depends on how quickly the plant develops. It is customary to combine this process with tying up tomatoes to supports. With good care, the first stepsons appear when the 6-8th leaf has developed - approximately 9 days after landing. And from each leaf sinus begins to grow a young shoot.
The indeterminate type of tomatoes, unlike undersized ones, does not limit growth with the appearance of inflorescences and bears fruit throughout the season. When staving increases the amount of the crop.
The most common varieties of indeterminate tomatoes are:
If tomatoes do not bloom as much as you want, you can safely cut the lower ovary. The first fruit grows slower and poured harder. After release, the plant will throw out much more new fruits.
When strawling tomatoes in a greenhouse with a determinative type of a bush, a two or three stem formation scheme is used. This means that, before you form the entire bush, you must leave 1 or 2 main stepson on it. Afterwards, fruitful brushes are formed on them: the left processes grow into additional stems. All other shoots are removed. After the appearance of the inflorescences and new leaves on each of the additional branches, the stems are pinched.
When forming a bush in 2 stems, 5 - 8 inflorescences are left on the plant. In this case, the fruits will ripen in time, and they will develop a greater number. For the formation of a bush in 3 stalks, it is necessary to initially plant tomatoes in 30 cm increments. Shrubs will not close each other, and the amount of harvested crops will increase.
Such determinant varieties of tomatoes are planted in the greenhouse:
Tip! To get large tomatoes from determinant varieties, you should cut a few unripe fruits from each of the brushes. The remaining tomatoes on the brush immediately begin to grow and may increase by 2 times.
In order to improve the ventilation of determinant bushes, as well as speed up the ripening of tomatoes, it is necessary, in addition to stepsons, to remove the lower leaves. It is necessary to tear off all sheets to the first branch. You should not remove at the same time more than 3 sheets from 1 plant to prevent deformation of the fruit.
Pasoning hybrid varieties of tomatoes
Hybrids that have a superdeterminant type of shrub, stepson in a special way. Hence the question: “How can we tear off the stepsons of hybrid varieties of tomatoes in a greenhouse?”. A feature is that if you remove all the additional shoots to the first fruit cluster, then in the future they can not stepchild.
Some of the hybrid varieties that have a determinant type of growth, such as Verlico, are best formed into one stem, until tomatoes throw out 3 fruitful brushes. Then one of the strongest stepsons is left and an additional stem is formed from it.
There are also semi-determinant hybrids of tomatoes. Such varieties are not cultivated (do not end their growth), as determinant, after the ejection of the first fruit cluster. Their peculiarity is that they can stop growing at any moment. Nevertheless, they are well suited for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses. It is better to grow them in 2 stalks.
How to distinguish the stepson from the fruit brush of a tomato
Care must be carried out with great care and attention. Instead of an unwanted shoot, there is a risk that the flowering brush from the plant will be removed, which will lead to a decrease in tomato yield. In order to avoid mistakes, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the process to be removed.
The main differences from the stepson fruitful brush:
- The most important difference between the stepson and the fruitful brush is that on it, even on the smallest one, sheets are immediately visible. And on the brush visible beginnings of flowering,
- The ovary brush does not grow out of the leaf bosom, it begins to branch off directly from the stem of the plant.
Tomato bush formation: photo
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Indeed, pasynkovanie able to increase the yield of tomatoes and its quality: the fruits are larger. Without removing the stepsons, the bushes produce a lot of unnecessary greenery, which the plant takes away from the plant, and strongly shade the already tied fruits, preventing them from ripening. And in August, in unheated greenhouses, flowers should also be removed, since they will not have time to give fruit.
Leaf or stepson?
How to distinguish the sheet from the stepson? For those who are just starting to grow tomatoes, this is not an idle question. The stepson always grows out of the leaf bosom, that is, the leaf first grows, and the lateral shoot, the stepson, begins to stretch above.
In fact, they grow from one point. Thus, it is necessary to break off not the lower, but the upper sprout.
In the photo below you can see how the stepson tomatoes in the greenhouse correctly:
Start off need when the first stepson will be formed under the first flower brush. Do not allow him to grow more than 5 cm, otherwise he will have time to pick up the precious food. In addition, the grown-up stepchild is difficult to remove without damaging the stem, and this can cause bush disease. In order not to miss its appearance, tomatoes should be regularly inspected.
Masking is best done in the morning with good ventilation and natural light. The weather should be warm and dry. Always start with the strongest and healthiest bushes.
Weak bushes or suspected of any defeat leave in the end. The optimal frequency of removal of stepsons is 1 time in 7-10 days.
How to pinch?
It is undesirable to use a tool for removing side shoots. This can trigger tomato viral diseases. Masking is done only by hand. For many, the question arises: how to tear off stepchildren from a tomato in a greenhouse?
Having seized the sprout from above with two fingers, you just need to pinch it. Be sure to leave a stump up to 3 cm long, then at this point a new stepson will not appear. In no case can not pull the stepson down, trying to tear him. So you can tear off part of the stem and cause great harm to the plant.
Formation of indeterminate varieties
Such varieties always form in 1 stalk. Many gardeners prefer to form 2 stems to increase their yield. But this is everyone's choice.
Indeterminate formation in two stalks it is justified in large greenhouses, where tomato bushes can be planted at a greater distance from each other, so that they get enough light.
The second stem is formed from a stepson growing under the first flowering brush, and no more than 4-5 flowering brushes are left on it. The remaining shoots are removed.
Masking of tomatoes in the greenhouse: what is this procedure
Tomatoes - a very specific plant. When the tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground, it begins to grow rapidly.
Many gardeners are faced with such a situation: a large and lush shrub grows from small seedlings. Especially often this happens in a greenhouse, where a favorable microclimate and comfortable air temperature are constantly maintained.
Inexperienced gardeners are happy that the vegetables in the greenhouse are so grow actively and wait from a big bush big harvest.
However, when it comes time to harvest, it turns out that there are almost no fruits on the bushes, one tops. Если и висит несколько плодов, то они маленькие и неправильной формы. Обычно в таких случаях садовод начинает искать возможные причины неурожая. Чаще всего причина кроется на поверхности. Дело не в том, что помидоры мало поливали или плохо подкармливали. Причина неурожая – в том, что огородник вовремя не провел пасынкование.What is pasynkovanie? To graze is to remove the stepchild from the plant.
The side shoots are called side shoots, which, if they are not removed, expand and take energy from the plant, hindering its normal development. If you look closely at the tomato bush, which has not yet been sacrificed, you can see that a side shoot is located just above each full leaf. If it is conditional to imagine that each piece is the “son” of a tomato bush, then each such side shoot is a “stepson”. This is an alien element that needs to be removed in a timely manner. Gotting contributes to the proper formation of a tomato bush. Pacenki significantly harm the development of the plant, because:
- The plant spends its energy not to bloom and bear fruit, but to develop lateral shoots,
- Pacenki take away all the nutrients
- If the stepchildren are not removed, a bush is formed incorrectly at the tomato,
- Pasynki slow down the development, flowering and fruiting tomato bush.
Pasynkovka tomatoes in the greenhouse: what is it for
Masking greenhouse tomatoes - One of the most important activities for the care of tomatoes. To put greenhouse tomatoes in time is very important. For those tomatoes that are grown under film, this procedure is much more important than for tomatoes that grow in open ground. In the greenhouse, due to the comfortable temperature of the air, the plant develops much more intensively.
Accordingly, the stepsons grow very quickly. The main thing is not to miss this moment and time every bit of a bit to put the shovel. Passing tomatoes is a rather monotonous and painstaking work that requires manual dexterity and skill. But it is necessary to perform this work because:
- Gotting increases yields,
- In time pasynkovannyh plants are usually large and juicy fruits,
- The treated tomato bushes look beautiful and neat, while the bushes with overgrown stepchildren have a “neglected” look,
- When there are no overgrown side shoots on a bush, it is much more convenient for a gardener to visually inspect a plant: inspect the condition of flowers and fruits, identify signs of viral and bacterial infections (for example, phytophtoras), and also collect dangerous pests - Colorado beetles (they willingly eat not only potatoes, but also tomatoes).
Passy need to properly. For the procedure, it is best to choose a clear, sunny day so that the gardener can see the side shoots well. This procedure requires care and good vision, so if you need to wear glasses. However, you should not hold this event under the scorching midday sun, the best time to work is about ten in the morning or five to six in the evening. After completion of the procedure, it is necessary to water the tomatoes, and after a while to feed them. This will help the plant to recuperate, as stading is still a stress on the plant.
Masking tomatoes in a greenhouse: a sequence of actions
Pashing must be done as follows:
- You must enter the greenhouse and conduct a visual inspection of the plants,
- According to the results of the inspection, it should be determined which bushes need to be staved and which others can wait. If the stepson is still quite small, is just being formed, it is better not to touch it so as not to damage the full-fledged tomato leaves,
- Then one hand carefully pick up a tomato bush, and with the other hand gently pinch the stepson with two fingers. Sometimes this procedure is also called “pinching”
- Pasynki need to pinch, not pull down. If you pull the side shoot down with a sharp movement, it will not come off, but full leaves will come off. One awkward movement can ruin a healthy tomato bush,
Many gardeners simply throw out ragged stepchildren. But they can be used in business. First, many gardeners prepare infusions for spraying garden plants from pests and diseases from stepchildren, diluted with water. Secondly, the stepchildren can be attributed to a compost pile, so that the humus, which is useful and necessary in the economy, is gradually formed from them. And finally, thirdly, when it comes to greenhouse tomatoes, stepchildren are best placed on the ground in the greenhouse. When they begin to decompose in a confined space, they will emit carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide), and this gas is very necessary for plants. Absorbing it, they convert this gas into oxygen.
You can not delay with staking. When the side shoots noticeably grow in length, the procedure has lost all meaning. Long stepchildren can no longer pinch. If you try to remove them, you can easily touch the full leaves. If tomatoes are pasynkovany, you can already not worry about the harvest. Of course, if all other care activities are carried out regularly and correctly.
When compiling a personal calendar of gardening works, a gardener must necessarily include a pasynkovanie tomato. This procedure is not tied to any particular month. It all depends on when the seedlings were planted in the greenhouse, as well as the growth rate of the tomato. Each time the pasynkovaniya may vary.
Adding an article to a new collection
The process of strawing tomatoes is fairly simple, although it has its own subtleties. The main task of the cottager is to understand which tomatoes need to be staked and which ones will manage without it. You can decide on this in practice, but you can also carefully study the theory.
What is pasynkovanie? This is the removal of lateral shoots formed in the axils of the leaves. In their habitat, tomatoes are perennial plants, and they spend the first 3-4 months building up green mass and root system, and only then start flowering. They have a long warm period in stock, and the ovaries gradually grow on each shoot, so there is no need to stepon to them.
Under the conditions of our short summer, we simply do not have the right to allow tomato bushes such a luxury — they will be lush, green and, at best, barely have time to bloom until the cold, and you shouldn’t even dream of ripe fruits. Therefore, in the course is the formation of a bush with a pinching and pinching.
How to remove stepchildren
It would seem that there is nothing difficult in cutting out or breaking out the stepchildren, but many gardeners cannot cope with this task and are defeated in a “green war” from year to year. The main rule of the fighter with the stepsons is that it should be done on time, that is, no later than they will be more than 4-5 cm in length. At this moment, they are still thin, they do not pull forces from the mother plant, and they are easy to remove by hand or using scissors.
The first pasynkovaniya carried out two weeks after the transplanting in the ground, and then repeated regularly, every 10-14 days. This allows you to track the growing stepchildren in a timely manner and prevent the bush from thickening.
Do not break out the stepson completely, leave a "stump" 2 cm high - in this case, the new appendix will not appear much longer in this place.
Depending on the variety, tomatoes branch and form differently. The bushes of indeterminate (tall) varieties are most susceptible to proliferation - they can turn into a real tree, without fruitcuts, from which you, alas, cannot wait. Such tomatoes need not only to pinch, but also to pinch, that is, to limit the growth of the central stem.
To make pasynkovanie as easy as possible for you and for the bush, pour tomatoes in the evening, and in the morning, before direct sunlight hits the leaves, proceed to remove excess greens.
Masking tomatoes in the open ground
For growing in the open ground, most summer residents choose low-growing varieties of tomatoes, because they are easier to form and tie up. These varieties can not be completely deprived of all stepsons - this will lead to a halt in the growth of the bush.
These tomatoes are left to continue to sprout - the stem that grows under the first flower brush. And they leave him not once, but repeatedly, allowing stepchildren to replace each other and bear fruit.
If you grow cherry tomatoes in open ground, then you should not forget about the formation of bushes. Even small fruits on them happen so much that the stem depleted by stepchildren can easily break. Indeterminantnye varieties of cherry need to pasyonovat, form 1-2 stems and pinch. Determinants can only be pinched, and semi-determinant ones can be formed compactly, in 2–3 stalks, but still need to be pinch and pinch.
Indeterminate Tomatoes - These are plants with unlimited growth, the height of which without pinching the tops can reach 2 m or more. Have determinant tomato buds are formed at the tips of the shoots, so they stop growing after tying a certain number of inflorescences (the height of the bushes in such plants usually does not exceed 110 cm).
Dog stocking tomatoes
Often, sellers of seeds or seedlings tend to lure the buyer with varieties that are supposedly not necessary to stepchild. Standard varieties of tomatoes (and we are talking about them) really do not stepchildren in our usual sense, because the plant is formed into several stems, and a full-fledged crop ripens on each of them.
If you are looking for varieties of tomatoes that do not need to stick, then pay attention to Watercolor, Alaska, Watermelon, Red Fang, Krakowiak, Vityaz, Lord, White Pouring 241, Betta, Boney MM, Gavrosh, Rocket, Nevsky, Dwarf, Oak, Snowdrop, Red Hat, Buyan, Ladies Fingers, Pitl
And yet, there are stepchildren on them, even though they appear much later than flower stalks, and they do not compete so much in the struggle for food. Initially, all the lower stepchildren (4-5 pieces) are left on such a bush, which makes the bush round and dense, while those that appear above and thicken the crown are ruthlessly removed even in the embryo state (3-4 cm).
Masking of large-fruited tomatoes
Large-fruited varieties of tomatoes rarely hit the crop, but with the correct formation of the bush can cause the admiration of your family or the respect of neighbors. It is known that the largest fruits with varietal characteristics grow on the first brushes, and grow smaller above. The same applies to the fruits on the side stems - they are not larger than chicken eggs and rarely mature.
The largest fruits are formed on the lower ovaries.
Therefore, storing large-fruited tomatoes is a necessary procedure. Particular attention should be paid to those processes that appear just below the brushes - they delay all food and prevent the fruits from developing and ripening. In the process of pinching, you can also remove the upper brushes, leaving no more than 5-7 pieces on the bush. This will reduce the number of tomatoes received, but will increase their quality.
As you can see, in most cases, tomato cutting is not a whim of summer residents, but an agrotechnical necessity. Passionate in a timely manner, and the tomatoes will certainly thank you for a bountiful harvest.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse: precautions
In no case can you use a pruner, pruner, garden shears, a knife or other garden tools to remove side shoots.
You can only work with your hands. If an inexperienced gardener will cut off his stepchildren with scissors or a shears, the resulting scars will lead to the development of viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Particularly high risk of such diseases in the greenhouse, because round-the-clock heat and high humidity are ideal conditions for the reproduction of bacteria and fungi.
It is not uncommon for a plant to become ill with late blight after pruning the stepsons with the help of garden shears. Scourge and tomato fruits turn black and rot. Phytophthora affects the root system of the plant.
It is necessary to act very carefully so as not to accidentally pinch normal leaves together with the stepsons. If an inexperienced gardener accidentally squeezed with his fingers not a stepson, but a leaf, it should be carefully straightened. In no case can you exert physical efforts when staving, side shoots need to be removed with light, imperceptible movements. Pinch should be sharp, but not strong. When properly tweaked, the stepson easily detaches from the trunk. In no case can not bend and crush the stem of a plant, otherwise you can cause irreparable damage to tomatoes. For those who are going to pass the tomatoes for the first time, it is advisable to watch a training step-by-step video on the Internet or see how experienced gardeners work.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse: practical advice
Proper development of tomatoes depends on staining, so the importance of this procedure cannot be underestimated. A gardener must understand that tomatoes, whose stepchildren were not removed on time, cannot fully bear fruit.
In order not to miss the right moment for this important procedure, it is necessary to go into the greenhouse every day and inspect the bushes of tomatoes. Usually stepchildren form very quickly.
As soon as a real sheet appears, the stepson will certainly come out behind it. If tomatoes are regularly fed organic and mineral fertilizers, stepchildren develop much faster. The more fertile the soil, the faster the stepchildren grow. Also, the rate of formation of stepsons depends on the grade. Some varieties of tomato stepsons practically does not happen. However, for most varieties characteristic intensive formation of lateral shoots. But the goal of any gardener is not to get lush tops, but quality fruits. Therefore, pasynkovanie is of great importance.
Removing the side shoots from the stem of a tomato, or so-called pasynkovanie, helps to increase the yield and form a beautiful, healthy bush of tomatoes. This procedure requires skill, and therefore the first time something may not work. However, you should not be upset. The main thing is to act neatly and do not harm the plant by careless actions. In general, staving is a simple procedure, and its meaning is clear to any gardener. Tomatoes will certainly respond to care and give a great harvest.