It is no secret - the yield of any crop is directly related to the quality of the land. Grapes are no exception. Culture fertilized for the season several times. Today let's talk in detail about autumn feeding. Fertilizing grapes in the fall, increases frost resistance, painless wintering, as a result of the vine is healthy, gives a bountiful harvest, increases resistance to parasites, fungi, and other unpleasant ailments. Now more.
Autumn feeding grapes
In the process of growth, the formation of fruits, the grapes over the summer thoroughly depletes the soil. To feed the earth with microelements, minerals, and useful substances during this period is important. In the fall, grapes require primarily potassium, phosphorus, magnesium. Organic is also needed. All fertilizers are made under the digging, potassium removes excess water from the grape cells, providing cold resistance to the plant.
Phosphorus strengthens the root mesh. Magnesium for immunity. The only condition is that nitrogen-containing additives should not be used during this period. The fact is, nitrogen, activates the growth of above-ground, basal shoots, in turn, the plant weakens in the cause of these circumstances, loses the ability to resist strong frosts.
- Compost (1m 2 bucket)
- Chicken, any bird droppings (liter jar per 1m 2)
- Manure (half a bucket on 1 m 2)
- Humus (one bucket per 1m 2)
- Peat - (10 kg. 1m 2)
Choose the dressing that is most accessible to you, apply for digging, dig in between the rows, with a spatula on the bayonet. Proportions indicated for heavily depleted soils.
Proportions of organic autumn grape fertilizers
The introduction of organic matter is calculated by soil type, it is necessary to take into account the structure, fertility, age of the vineyard, the climatic features of the region. More specifically, the proportions are:
Chernozem, fertile, light soil, one bucket of organic matter is enough, three meters square
In loam, alumina, soil of medium fertility two buckets for 3m 2
Sandstones, sandy loamy soil, depleted, barren land contribute a large amount of autumn organic matter, the proportions of which are described at the beginning of the article, i.e. bucket per square meter. (volume of buckets - 10 liters).
Dear gardeners, I hope you got an answer to the question - “How do you feed the grapes in the fall?” Grape fertilizer in the fall is a necessary thing, I repeat, the future harvest, frost resistance, and the immunity of the grapes depend on correct, timely introduction of nutrients. That's all, a bountiful harvest for all, all the best, goodbye!
Time to apply
There are several stages of the plant feeding. Each of them is carried out in due time, a certain composition is used. The grape diet is as follows:
- The very first fertilizer is usually carried out immediately after wintering. For it, you need to add 10 grams of a substance such as superphosphate, 10 grams of special ammonium nitrate and about 5 grams of potash salt in 10 liters of water. This is quite enough for fertilizing a single grape bush.
- Approximately a couple of weeks before the onset of flowering time, the grapes should be fed with exactly the same fertilizer.
- Before the very beginning of the ripening of the fruit, the soil under the plants must be fertilized with special preparations containing potassium and phosphorus. Nitrogen is not applied at this stage.
- In order to increase the resistance of grapes to low temperature, after harvesting it is worth holding an autumn plant fertilizing with potassium based products.
In the process of periodic fertilization of grapes in the springtime, you can use special liquid manure instead of mineral fertilizers. Per meter plot is enough to make a kilogram of the substance.
Top dressing in autumn time
In addition to the fertilizers listed above, the plant should be regularly fed in the autumn, observing the periodicity approximately once every three years. For this you need to use special dry fertilizers. Top dressing should be done with the help of such substances as:
The mixture is scattered over the surface of the area where the grapes are growing, and after that the soil must be carefully dig. This method of feeding is carried out in a year. If grapes grow on sandy soil, top-up of such a plan should be made every year.
Nutrients for Grape Growth
For effective grape growth requires the use of special substances. There are many of them and each is characterized by its advantages, features, as well as the characteristic positive effect on plant growth. Among them are such important means as:
- Preparations containing nitrogen, which will contribute to the growth of green mass. Component is best to make strictly in early spring, at a time when there is an active growth of shoots and leaves are formed. Add substance at the end of the season is strictly contraindicated, since the active growth of the shoots will not allow the fruit to develop,
- Grapes should be fertilized with a substance that contains phosphorus, especially during flowering. This substance will help develop better inflorescences, also helps to form ovaries and berries. The most optimal phosphorus-containing agent is superphosphate,
- Autumn grapes need to be fertilized with potassium. This method of feeding is able to ensure the earliest possible maturation of shoots and berries. This substance increases the resistance of the plant to low temperature,
- Copper is able to provide the plant with resistance not only to low temperature, but also to drought,
- Boric acid is used to increase the sugar content of fruits. Such a substance is the perfect stimulant for germination of pollen,
- Zinc is also an important trace element that is able to increase the overall fertility of the berries.
In addition to all the above components, grapes still need such important substances as magnesium, iron, sulfur and calcium.
Simultaneously with the root dressing should be carried out and foliar. This is guaranteed to increase the overall yield of grapes, as well as the resistance of the bushes to various diseases. Competently carried out foliar feeding should be carried out using special solutions of macro-and micronutrient fertilizers. You can buy them cheaply in a specialized store.
All types of fertilizer should be applied on windless days, in the morning or evening. This way you can avoid burning leaves. To make the leaves absorb all the useful components better, it is enough to add three spoons of sugar to the solution. If you follow all the rules for fertilizer application, it is the only way to grow healthy grape bushes and get a bountiful harvest with tasty fruits.
Video about grape fertilizer
For foliar fertilizing, you can use solutions of micro-or macro-fertilizers, which are easy to find on sale in a large assortment. Suitable also water infusion of ash, mixed with fermented herbal infusion of herbs.
Spraying the foliage should be on windless days in the morning or evening, or in the daytime in cloudy weather, so that the plants do not get burned under the sun, because the solution remains on the leaves in the form of small droplets. For best absorption of trace elements can be added to the nutrient solution 3 tbsp. Sahara.
Reference Information. A few words about the terminology used by the growers
When the grapes are planted, of course, nutrients are added. So, the reserve will last for 3-4 years, no more. By this time, the grapes are formed and begins to bear fruit, the need to strengthen the grape bush increases. Those fertilizers that are made further depending on the time of their addition, and the amount of the substance used are divided into basic and feeding.
• BASIC - organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers are applied comprehensively once in 2-3 years, or in the fall, or at the beginning of spring.
• SUPPLIES - small compared with the main fertilizer doses are made to tighten the nutritional conditions of the grape bush annually.
Fans of growing grapes, according to the type of fertilizer, divide the feeding into two types - root and foliar.
It is also interesting to read about the fertilizer grapes in autumn
Root feeding implies the introduction of fertility vitamins under the roots of grapes. Fertilizers brought under the bush, contribute to the improvement of the circular circulation of life-giving elements. The result will not make you wait, as early as next year the grapes will delight with their excellent harvest. Carry out root feed in the autumn period in several ways.
It is worth remembering that the root top dressing is brought in only with irrigation in a pit, the depth of which is equal to the main depth, where the main roots are located. Then the plant is watered again. Fertilizers are applied clearly, as described in the instructions. And beginners in the grape business need to adhere to certain recommendations of more experienced gardeners.
For root feeding use such types of fertilizers, as:
Organic root dressing
One of the most effective ways of root feeding is the introduction of humus, manure or compost into the ground. Such a procedure should be carried out once every 3 years. Humus is put in pre-cooked holes between the rows.
You can make any organic fertilization. Wines and grapes, and winemaking waste, and manure, and compost. Sometimes organic matter is mixed with fertilizers containing phosphorus or complete phosphorus and potassium. To improve the quality of added tomasshlak, phosphate flour. The only disadvantage of such dressing is that manure and other organic materials give a start to the active growth of weeds, which, in turn, need timely removal.
Extra root feeding of grapes by mineral fertilizer
Excellent results give:
3. Potassium salt
It must be remembered that the solution of the superphosphate prepared in a day, and then it is drained. Also the solutions consisting of micro and micro fertilizers are suitable. An excellent option is the ash, which is diluted in water. Manganese is also used for foliar application of life-giving fertilizing. All the leaves are sprinkled with its solution.
Food with potassium salts is used to increase the chances of the grapes for a mild winter, resistance to cold, and the berries become sweeter. Lack of salt affects the color of the leaves, they become paler, the edges of them begin to die off.
Inorganic foliar fertilization
For sprinkling of grape leaves use:
1. Inorganic salts
3. Ammonium sulfate
To replenish iron reserves in foliar feeding, solutions are used either inorganic saltsor iron chelate. To replenish iron reserves, gardeners use a little trick: under the roots of the grapes they bury rusty nails, which, when they rot, will secrete iron. It is available and free.
For spraying grapes ammonium sulfate solution is used, which is done in this ratio: ten liters of water per ten grams of fertilizer.
Foliar nutrition with micronutrient fertilizers
Winegrowers recommend using zinc and copper.
Effective will be the use of solutions of zinc (sulfate or zinc oxide) or boron. Foliar nutrition leads to increased yields, increases the number of fruit buds.
Another type of foliar fertilizer that helps young shoots of grapes to endure severe frosts is spraying with a solution of copper. He also easily tolerates summer drought.
An excellent time for foliar feeding is the beginning of autumn, the first half of September, as soon as the crop is harvested. At this time the weather is still sunny, there is no summer heat, and the rainy season has not begun.
Features feeding grapes
As everyone knows, grapes will grow better, and they grow on fertile soil. Only with official care can one expect good yields from him. But after the growing season, from the beginning of the formation of buds to harvest, even the most fertile soils are depleted. Earth loses its properties, it needs to be fed with micro and macro elements.
Grapes are fed with different elements, each of which is important, because they live it, help grow and develop. But in different periods, different fertilizers should be applied. Here, for example, nitrogen is introduced in the spring and summer, phosphorus - in the spring.
Grape bushes need a vitamin supplement, such substances as:
5. Boric acid.
Grape needs nitrogen fertilizer in the spring, half of the annual rate is applied, during the summer - the fourth part, but in August, nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be stopped. Thanks to him, leaves and shoots are actively beginning to grow. Gardeners use urea and ammonium nitrate.
Thanks phosphorusIt is recommended to bring before the flowering period, the quality and quantity of ovaries are improved, they ripen evenly.
But with the onset of autumn, all experienced gardeners insist on making potash fertilizers as feeding. The grapes tolerate frosts and cold more easily; next season it accelerates the time of ripening of grapes.
To the berries sang faster and tasted more sweet, boric acid is added as a top dressing.
In addition to the potash fertilizer, the plant in the autumn season also feeds copper. It raises the chances of grapes for wintering, the plant can tolerate low temperatures. In summer, copper helps protect shoots from drought.
Before starting work on the introduction of root and foliar top dressing, you should visually inspect the plant, and according to its external condition and time of year, add the valuable elements to the grapes.
How to make feeding
Well, what could be easier than feeding? At first glance, nothing complicated, but there are a number of rules and features that should be followed. Root dressing entered into the wellsthat dig half a meter from a bush, about 40 centimeters deep. It is there that fertilizers fall asleep, and sprinkle them with a layer of earth.
Top dressing cannot be brought in the top layer of soil. The plant, in this case, will not receive the vitamins of fertility that are so necessary for it, and all efforts will be in vain. For productive results, top dressing is brought right under the roots, to where most of the moisture is collected. In this case, root top dressing is not thorough. Feed change with the introduction of basic fertilizers.
If your goal is to collect high-quality and high yield, then the feeding of grapes will be the basis for the care of the plant, which in no case