Oleander reaches 3-5 m in height when grown in a garden and up to 2 m indoors. The color of the bark is light gray, and the foliage is whorled, dark green. Flowers in diameter range from 3 to 5 cm, inflorescences have the shape of a half-nest of white, pink, dark red or beige color. There are terry varieties. The most common type is common oleander. Among the other representatives - fragrant, pink, Indian, white and pink.
Oleander, flower photo:
It is located in a wide subtropical strip, stretching from Portugal to China. In Russia and the CIS, oleander grows on the South Coast of the South Caucasus, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, the Caucasus, the Central Asian natural zone. In the northern parts of the globe, the plant is distributed as an indoor species.
Care in the home and outdoors
The flower is well acclimatized in greenhouses and winter gardens, but in apartment conditions, oleander requires very careful and reverent care.
The capricious oleander requires a cool temperature during the winter period and likes abundant lighting.
Can I keep at home?
At home, oleander can be grown, but it is recommended to maintain the required temperature - cool in winter and warm in summer, as well as give the plant a lot of light. Pruning crown allows you to adapt the flower to the size of your home.
Provide plant bright placewhere it will receive a lot of sunlight and fresh air. Best suited windows located on the south side. On the north side you need to use additional light sources.
In winter, oleander also requires bright light. Lamps placed at a distance of 0.7 m from the pot.
How to trim the oleander?
Need a flower in constant pruning due to the rapid growth. Not only cosmetic, but careful pruning is useful for him.
Flowers bloom exclusively on young shoots of the current year.
When flowering ends, you can trim the oleander and form a crown. Shoots are shortened by half, to give the opportunity to grow new. The plant quietly tolerates the cutting procedure.
The flower is watered almost all the time abundantly, except for the winter time.
In the summer it is recommended to pour water into the pan in order to keep moisture longer. On cloudy days and during the coolness of the pan, make sure that the pan is on the contrary dry.
Water preferably with distilled water, so that it is soft and warm - a few degrees above room temperature.
Growing oleander from seeds at home
In forming the flower pods there are seeds - they can be used for planting.
Sowing soil is prepared from a favorable substrate - turf soil and peat. Seeds need to be pressed to the ground, slightly pressing down. Do not fall asleep with the earth in any case - the seeds need the rays of the sun. Sprouts appear in the second month after sowing!
Prepare loamy heavy soil for planting oleander. Soil composition in equal shares, using peat, sand, humus and sod soil. The mixture can be replaced by purchased, pour sand into it.
Young oleanders need to be transplanted annually, and adults - every 3 years. Transplantation is performed after the roots are covered with an earthen clod. Favorable time - the end of spring - the beginning of summer. It is desirable to shorten old roots by treating the cut sites with charcoal.
Open field maintenanceOleander grows beautifully in the garden, flourishing magnificently with gorgeous flowers in yellow, white, pink, red colors.
The plant grows quickly on the sunny side, but is absolutely intolerant to the shadow.
Leaving will require minimal:
- shrub normally tolerates dry periods, if it is well watered. Overdoing is also impossible, and then the leaves will turn yellow,
- in the spring it is desirable to feed complex fertilizer,
- periodic crown formation by pruning will help give the plant the desired shape, as it is also useful for getting rid of damaged branches.
Cultivation of seeds in open ground
Remember that oleander seeds cannot survive for a long time. Sow them better immediately after ripeningso that sprouts appear as soon as possible. Soak the seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate before sowing. Sow in moist soil, sprinkle with a thin layer of earth. The soil mixture is prepared with the addition of peat and sand.
What if the oleander does not bloom?
If the plant is not cut, removing the tips of old shoots, it will not bloom, because flowers are formed only on young shoots.
More often engage in the formation of the crown for lush flowering shrubs.
Other causes may be a lack of moisture or nutrients. Water the plant in the right amount and do not forget to feed fertilizer, especially if the soil is infertile.
Why have oleander leaves become faded?
Most likely, the oleander lacks light. Shadow for him is extremely destructive, the processes of photosynthesis are disturbed. If it is not possible to transplant, try to increase the access of sunlight to the shrub.
See how flower growers solve problems with oleander in this video:
Lighting and temperature
Since in natural conditions oleander grows in a subtropical climate under direct sunlight, in order to grow oleander at home, it should be provided with abundant lighting. Suitable for placement on the south windows. In winter, in cloudy weather and when placed on the north windows, you need to take care of additional lighting with fluorescent lamps. Otherwise, the shrub will fold foliage.Maintain air temperature from + 20-27 ° С during the growing season and flowering (spring - summer), in September gradually lower the temperature to + 18 ° С and then to + 15 ° С. During the rest period (winter) of the plant, set the temperature within + 8-15 ° С. Since the beginning of spring, gradually raise it.
Watering and spraying
In the spring and summer, the oleander needs abundant and frequent (as soon as the topsoil dries out) watering. On particularly hot days it is permissible to leave water in the pan. Spray the plant is not necessary.
In winter, the roots of the shrub poorly absorb moisture, so you should water it a couple of days after the top substrate ball dries. If the air is overdried due to heating, then it is necessary to spray the oleander, otherwise the tips of the leaves will dry out.
Fertilizer and pruningFertilizer is applied every 2 weeks from mid-spring until the end of summer. Use alternately organic and complex fertilizers for flowering plants. Feed up on cool, cloudy days half an hour after watering. In autumn and winter they do not fertilize.
Since the flowers are formed only on the shoots of annuals, it is worth knowing how and when to trim the oleander at home. Pruning spend after shrub faded (usually in the second half of the summer). Branches should be cut in half or even 2/3 of the length.
Soil selection and transplanting
The soil for oleander must be drained, loamy (
6 pH). It is better that the substrate consisted of sand, peat, humus, leaf and sod land in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1: 2. You can add horn chips.
It is worth replanting in the late spring - early summer. Young plants are transplanted every year in small containers. Mature - as the earth is covered with earthy coma (every 2-3 years). Before the oleander is transplanted, its roots are greatly shortened, the sections are treated with charcoal, and the earthen breast is slightly reduced. When the plant becomes too large to transplant, you can simply replace the topsoil with a new one.
As already mentioned, the oleander winters at a temperature no higher than + 15 ° C, but needs good lighting. If the plant does not receive enough light, then it may not bloom in the summer, or even completely reset the foliage. Watering should be reduced, but spraying with warm water is allowed at low humidity. Fertilizers do not contribute.
Precautions in the care of the bushSince oleander juice contains cardiac glycosides, it is a poisonous plant, and it is very important not to neglect safety when it comes in contact with it. Do not let the juice on the mucous membranes, opening wounds, eyes. After leaving or any contact with the plant, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water. Use gloves when transplanting and trimming. It is also dangerous to stay close to a flowering shrub for a long time, and even more so to spend the night with him in the same room: you can not only earn a headache, but also get poisoned by the smell. It is better not to start an oleander in a house where there are children.
If you decide to use this method of reproduction of oleander, then make on the branch 2 circular incisions at a distance of 2-3 mm and remove the ring of the skin. Place the rooting in wet sand or a container of water. After the roots appear, carefully separate the layers from the mother plant and plant them in the soil.Since this shrub has low germination, it is necessary to plant oleander seeds immediately after harvest. The seed is pretreated: soaked for 30 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then for an hour in a growth stimulator. Seeds are sown superficially in moist soil containing sand, vermiculite and charcoal. Tanks are stored in a warm place (+ 32-35 ° C).
After the seedlings germinate, they need to be illuminated with fluorescent lamps, provide increased soil moisture and from time to time be aired. When the first 2-3 leaves appear, the seedlings begin to adapt to the conditions in which adult plants contain, after the appearance of 4-5 leaves, they swoop into separate pots. Since the propagation of seeds by varietal characteristics are not transmitted, this method is not popular.
Healing properties of oleander
Oleander is a medicinal plant, because its leaves and flowers contain a number of active, potent substances - flavonoids, cornerin, digitalin, oleandrin, ursolic acid and saponin carobin. They are used in the manufacture of drugs used in the treatment of circulatory failure І and ІІ degree, arrhythmia, to lower blood pressure, improve liver function, enhance immunity.
Possible pests of oleander ordinary and methods of dealing with them
Oleander is most often affected by the red spider mite, mealybug, and shieldweed.The most dangerous of the oleander pests is the spider mite. A thin cobweb testifies to the defeat of the plant by it, the leaves appear to become marble, turn yellow and fall. To combat this pest, it is necessary to remove all the leaves affected by the tick, wipe the rest with a soap solution or alcohol-containing liquid and put the oleander under a hot shower (+ 50 ° C). In severe cases, a 0.15% solution of special chemicals, such as Aktellika, is used.
If you see a specific wax coating on the leaves that looks like a fine powder, the foliage turns yellow and falls off, and on the flowers honeydew, the oleander is harmed by a mealybug. To get rid of it, you need to wipe the damaged parts of the plant with alcohol or kerosene or remove them. For the struggle, you can also use the natural enemy of the mealy worm - the ladybird. To combat the severe form of the lesion, chemical treatment is carried out.
Sticky discharge on oleander is a sign of damage to his shield. The leaves turn yellow, covered with a sweet substance. To get rid of this insect, the same methods are used as for the fight against mealybugs (except for ladybirds).
Oleander is a poisonous, but healing and very beautiful subtropical plant. You can easily grow it in your apartment if you follow all the above tips on how to care for, multiply and protect oleander. Do not forget about precautionary measures, and this bush will give you only positive emotions.