Not everyone knows about the cultivation of eggplants in the open field in their garden and do not do it. This is because the vegetable is quite capricious and most often one has to be content with a rather poor harvest. Growing and caring for eggplant is generally similar to this process in tomatoes, but it has a number of qualitative differences. To get a good harvest of eggplant, it is necessary to observe the agrotechnical process of its cultivation, properly watering, feeding and processing, as well as some nuances.
Growing eggplant seedlings
Eggplant seedlings are best grown independently. The choice of tare for sowing is unambiguous - peat or cardboard pots. This is due to the fragile root system of the vegetable, which is easy to damage with the slightest movement. So, if possible, you should avoid picks.
Therefore, a peat pot is the perfect solution. But there are situations when it is impossible to do without a picking, and in this case it should be carried out as carefully and carefully as possible, for fear of damaging the roots.
After the seeds are planted, the container with them must be placed in a place where the temperature of 22-26 degrees will be provided, at which shoots appear quickly, after 2 weeks.
Often there is a recommendation after the sprouts appeared, the temperature of growing should be reduced to 15 degrees. Allegedly, this is necessary for the proper development of seedlings - during this period the root system will strengthen and develop. Otherwise, above-ground leaflets will be pulled out, which will take away nutrients from the roots. The mode of low temperature for seedlings should last about a week, then it is again raised to the initial level.
In general, this advice flows from one publication to another, but, in fact, such a regime is simply not feasible at home. We do not use such a balancing act. Try it if you want.
The duration of the cultivation of eggplant seedlings depends on whether the picks will be made or not. With a pick-free growing process, the process lasts 60-70 days, but if a picking is performed, then it is extended - up to 2.5 months. For ourselves, we determined the optimal time for planting at the end of February, and we are quite pleased with the results.
Just like that, without preliminary preparation, the seedlings are not planted in the ground. Before that, in a few days, it is necessary to carry out the so-called hardening of seedlings, - it should get used to the sun and air. To do this, several days seedlings carried out into the open air several times a day, for 10-15 minutes.
Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground
Before planting directly, it is necessary to prepare the soil and make the beds. It should be noted that eggplants prefer light and loose soils, they give the correct formation of the bush.
Another peculiarity of growing eggplants is their not love for shading (especially from the south). Garden beds must be selected in an open area, otherwise the bushes will only come to flowering in September.
When preparing the site intended for planting eggplants, if the land is poor, organic matter should be added. Based on our experience, making humus or garden compost is imperative.
The vegetable planting scheme is simple - 50 × 30 cm. Where 50 cm is the distance between the beds, and 30 is between each plant. The holes are dug deep. Before planting the plant, pour 1–3 liters of water into each well. If the bed is not filled with organic matter, then compost and ashes are added to the well.
Then seedlings are placed there, sprinkled with dry soil and mulched. The next watering is done only after 3 days. The absence of additional watering these days will ensure proper rooting of eggplant in the soil.
We provide the correct watering for eggplants.
Eggplant is a moisture-loving plant, so if it is not given enough water, it starts losing flowers and leaves at a speed, and then completely stops its development.
The key to a favorable development of the vegetable is regular watering. The soil should not dry out.
Another requirement for watering eggplant - water temperature, which should not be below 20 degrees. Therefore, we installed a raised barrel in the garden, in which the water heats up in a day. This is very convenient and useful for vegetable plants, because they come from subtropics.
Regular watering implies its implementation weekly if summer is moderately hot. If on the street passes for 30 degrees or there is a total absence of rain, then watering eggplant is worth it.
Also in the watering process itself is important - you should avoid getting water on the stems and leaves, try to irrigate directly under the plant root. We use drip irrigation for this.
Provide eggplant dressing
During the growth of eggplant, like any other vegetable, it requires feeding. They need to spend at least 3 times, and then looking at the state and development of the vegetable. We do not recommend making the first fertilizer earlier than 3 weeks after planting, otherwise the eggplant roots that are still weak in the soil will not be susceptible to the consumption of useful substances.
It is no secret that eggplant is susceptible to organic fertilizers, so it is best to fertilize them. Feeding options:
- Liquid manure (1 liter of liquid per 10 liters of water).
- Avian droppings (1 liter of infusion per 20 liters of water).
- Infusion of nettle (insist about a week, then filter and again diluted with water in a ratio of ½, respectively).
- Ready-made fertilizers based on mullein, humates, Flora-S, Stimix (used according to the instructions).
Also, from the moment eggplant begins to form fruits, we recommend sprinkling the soil near the root of the bush with ashes.
Mechanical processing of eggplant in the period of growth and development
Processing eggplant throughout the growth and development is the regular loosening of the soil and weed control. The first contributes to the best warming of the soil, and therefore, the best growth of the fruit, because it is the most thermophilic plant of its family. As a rule, the amount of loosening depends on the ambient temperature and climate, but on average it is about 5 times per season.
The depth of loosening between the rows should be still palpable: 10-12 centimeters. Although at the very first loosening it is not worth much zeal, 8 cm is enough, otherwise you can inadvertently damage the still fragile root system. But it should be noted that the quality of the soil also affects the depth of loosening: if it is dense, then the depth can be reduced in each case by 2 cm.
But again, it all depends on the conditions of your site and the selected agricultural techniques. We have long forgotten about all kinds of loosening; we exclusively use soil mulching. The flat cutter is increasingly hanging in its place, although we sharpen it regularly.
Forming eggplant bushes
The formation of bushes is one of the most important positions in agricultural technology, which affects the number and size of the crop. When forming, one should be guided by the basic principles, but do not overdo them - after all, each plant can develop along its own path.
In general, they distinguish formation by varieties: for medium and large-growth and for undersized.
For the first (medium and large) leave the three strongest stalk. Garter stalks begin only after the plant has stepped over a height of 30 cm. When tying, you should remember that the eggplant is still growing and developing, so you should not tie it tightly, leaving space. All other, unnecessary side shoots are removed.
With secondary shoots do exactly the same. The emergence of new shoots must be monitored - and if possible, immediately cut them off. However, in the midst of summer, some strong shoots can be left behind - besides the fact that they will play an additional function of a certain reduction in growth, they will also bring some amount of harvest if the autumn is warm.
As for low-growing varieties of eggplant, then leave one stalk and 2 strong shoots. Further, all that is below the fork of the plant - and the shoots and leaves are removed. Only fruiting shoots are left above.
Also one of the key moments of the formation of the bush is its thinning. Too thick "crown" plant is contraindicated. Firstly, the fruits do not receive enough light for their full development, and secondly, the thickening may eventually lead to the appearance of gray rot, which can ruin the entire crop.
Removing leaves will help to air the plantings. Therefore, it is simply necessary to remove unnecessary vegetation. This applies, without fail, to the first 2 leaves at the tips of each of the stems, all the yellow and diseased leaves, and further on the situation.
To prevent the appearance of gray rot, it is necessary to nip minor flowers, which will be late to appear, and removal of the leaf ring on the vegetable itself. These measures are especially necessary in rainy time, and if the weather is dry, then the petal ring will not cause concern.
To protect plants from the Colorado potato beetle from the edge of the beds, we always plant bush beans, it copes well with the role of repeller. Yes, and soil soil from the heat.
When the end of the season comes, pinch the tops of the eggplant, leaving only a few (5) ovaries, which presumably can bear fruit before the first frost. All emerging flowers are also removed. Here, perhaps, all the features of growing eggplant in the open field.
Organic fertilizer for little blue
After the harvest, the remains of plants and weeds remain in the beds. They are put in a hole, left to rot until spring. Two-year-old compost is used for soil mixture for seedlings, it will not have time to be overfilled in a year, the heat generated can destroy seedlings.
Sawdust rots for at least 3 years. The larger they are, the longer the process of decay. Cooked sawdust can serve as biohumus, they are added to the soil mixture for seedlings. Such an additive takes nitrogen from the soil.
Compost is also made from foliage fallen from the trees. It is rotting like herbal compost.
Dumped cow dung is used clean without litter. In the mixed mullein with urea after rotting, more nitrogen remains than in pure manure. Humus is used for two years; undigested plant seeds germinate in fresh and seedlings die.
Worms feed on humus or compost, the product of processing worms is a good raw material for fertilizing blue ones. For the process fit one-year organic.
The remains of plants, herbs burn and get useful fertilizer. Vegetable ash serves to maintain fertility in the ground. It contains all the elements needed for eggplant. Ash serves as a growth stimulator when soaking seed material, neutralizes soil acidity.
Three components - phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, form the basis of all mineral additives. The lack of these elements leads not only to a weak crop, but also to its death.
With a lack of nitrogen, the blue slows growth, stops growing. Types: urea, nitroammofosk, calcium, sodium nitrate, ammophos.
Phosphorus is introduced at high soil moisture. More often double concentration of superphosphate is used. On acidic soils, phosphate rock is used, which boosts eggplant immunity, thereby increasing resistance to disease.
Potassium fertilizers enhance the exchange in the cells, accelerate photosynthesis. Organic acids are formed, vegetables more easily tolerate a lack of moisture. Potassium sulfate is added with potassium deficiency in plants. Potassium salt is used on an industrial scale.
Complex fertilizers consist of two or more mineral components. There are combined, complex, mixed. Nitrofoski belong to the difficult-mixed fertilizers. Bring them before sowing in the pits when planting seedlings.
Fertilizer application methods
Options for adding feedings:
- The main feed occurs before sowing seeds. Organics and minerals are added to the soil during digging the garden in the autumn.
- During the planting of seedlings or seeds, a small dose of complex fertilizers, superphosphate or ammophos is applied. Additives during planting are designed to provide eggplant with nutrients in the first days of life, for further strengthening and growth of bushes. The rate of 2-10% of the total dose.
- During the growing season - after planting, most of the fertilizers are applied with water during irrigation.
There is root and foliar feeding. For the blue apply the root method of fertilizer, it is superficial and subsoil. For vegetables, fertilizers are applied to the soil under the root. Use soluble nitrogen fertilizers, potassium and phosphorus.
Food for eggplant seedlings
Seedlings are fertilized 2-3 times with root dressings. Fertilizers introduced into the soil quickly suck the roots of blue ones. Need a certain dosage, so as not to burn the root system of plants.
The first time make complex additives after germination - in 7-9 days. For the initial feeding, water-soluble fertilizers with trace elements are used. On the label of the purchased product the proportions of the preparation of the aqueous solution are indicated. At the initial stage of growing seedlings need nitrogen and potassium, in the future will need phosphorus. Water seedlings better in the morning at the root. If, however, the solution gets on the leaves, they are washed with water. They use Foxamid, Luxe preparations or prepare a mixture: 40 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water.
The basic rules of the first feed:
- seedlings watered for 12-14 hours before making the solution,
- the drug is dissolved without residue in warm water 23-25 degrees,
- means, appropriate dosage, watered the soil, make sure that moisture does not fall on the leaves,
- the dose of solution for one seedling is indicated in the instructions, the average value is 50 ml.
The second time the seedlings receive fertilizer 12-14 days after the pick. Juveniles have 2-3 leaves by this time. They make dry complex fertilizers “Kemira wagon”, “Kornevin”, “Ideal”. Dilute with water - a teaspoonful of the substance 5 liters of liquid. You can use liquid additives - for 1 liter of water one cap. Potassium nitrate is diluted in water - 5 g will need 15 g of the product. In addition to mineral substances, organic matter is used - cows 1:10 are bred or 1:15 bird droppings.
After two weeks, fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus are doubled. You can use a mixture of fertilizers - on a bucket of water Foxamide 25 g, 10 g of superphosphate. In the greenhouse for seedlings use 9 liters of water: 15 g of superphosphate, 5 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of potassium sulfate. For the development of the root system suitable "breadwinner" or "Agricola - forte."
Artificial top dressing can accumulate in the soil. You can use natural supplements that make the product environmentally friendly. They are purchased in stores (Bioton, Biohumus, Healthy Garden) or prepared on their own:
- Banana peel tincture is rich in potassium: 3 pieces pour 2 liters of boiling water and leave for 3 days.
- Nettles are cut, poured with water, left to ferment for 4 days, the strained solution is diluted with water 1: 2.
- Boil potato peel, cool, water the seedlings. Starch has a beneficial effect on young.
- The eggshell is crushed (10 eggs), placed in 3 liters of water, infused for 5 days.
Eggplant fertilizer after planting in open ground
For the entire growing season, vegetables are fed 4-5 times. On depleted land, the amount of irrigation with nutrients doubled. To strengthen the roots of seedlings in the open ground, it should take 12-15 days. Prior to this, it makes no sense to fertilize the soil, the rhizome of seedlings is weak, it is not able to absorb nutrients from the soil.
- The first time after sowing seeds after 3 weeks or 2 weeks after planting the seedlings: a solution of manure (1:10) with a glass of ash - 4-5 liters per square earth. You can use complex fertilizers.
- The second 20 days after the first: for 9-10 liters of liquid, 25 g of potassium salt, 60 g of superphosphate and urea, 25 g. Use phosphorous fertilizers.
- During flowering: liquid manure and herbal tincture. The grass is crushed, poured water (per 1 kg of raw material 20 liters of water), 2 tablespoons of ash, 2 kg of mullein. All mixed, for one planting specimen use a liter of mixture. If it is not enough flowers, irrigate bushes with boric acid (for 1 l of water 1 g of acid). At this stage, need phosphorus and potassium.
During the formation of the fruit several options for feeding:
- take bird droppings 5 kg, pour 50 liters of water, make a glass of nitrophoska, mixed composition is settled for 5 days, again mixed, per square. meter - 2 liters of solution,
- urea 1 spoon per 10 liters of liquid,
- preparations Effect, Agricola - Vegeta, solution (one spoon per a bucket of water) per meter of earth 1 l of the mixture,
- 9 liters of warm liquid 3 small spoons of yeast, 2 tbsp. l sugar, defend 2 hours, add 50 liters of water.
Blue fertilizer with different soil composition
To eggplant successfully developed, take into account the peculiarities of the soil on the plot.
- Clay soil - apply calcium and sodium nitrate, azofosku.
- Повышенная кислотность – добавляют в грунт на квадрат 250 г золы или 500 г извести, делают за 3 недели до внесения удобрений.
- Песчаная земля – добавление в грунт органики. Навоз, птичий помет, компост, биогумус – подойдет любой вариант.
- Болотистая почва насыщена азотом, для процесса распада азота синенькие поливают раствором коровяка. Нужны фосфор, калий, дозировку увеличивают в 4 раза.
- Суглинистая, супесчаная земля с нейтральной средой – внесение удобрений по общепринятым нормам.
Watering nutrients spend in the morning or evening.
During the cultivation of eggplant seedlings you need to spend 3-5 root dressings. This will strengthen the root system and the shoots in general and will avoid many problems, such as falling seedlings, its yellowing and others.
It should be taken into account where you are going to grow eggplants: in unprotected soil or in a greenhouse. From this choice will depend on the composition of mixtures for the preparation of dressings.
How to feed eggplant seedlings for growth: step by step instructions
there is two important feeding stages young plants: before and after picking.
Before picking, complex fertilizers, organic matter, and also fertilizers containing potassium and nitrogen are applied. Top dressing of seedlings begins immediately after the appearance of the first shoots.
They are introduced in liquid form, watering seedlings at the root. The ingestion of the nutrient mixture on young leaves can cause significant damage to the plant, so if the fertilizer gets on the foliage, it should be washed with warm water. Therefore, such procedures most often carried out in the early morningwhen the sun is not as active as during the day, because it is impossible to keep track of every drop.
How to feed eggplant seedlings after picking? For this use complex dry fertilizers, such as "Ideal" or "Kemira wagon." They are diluted in water, usually take one teaspoon per five liters of water, pouring the young seedlings under the root with this solution, avoiding contact with the leaves.
There is another option: it is a liquid fertilizer, to prepare the solution you will need one cap per one-half liter of water, it should be watered in the same way as with dry fertilizers. After 12-16 days, the amount of fertilizer will need to be doubled.
It is also necessary to change their composition, it is desirable that the composition of the fertilizer was phosphorus and potassium. Before this period, you should not carry out top dressing, salt shock may occur in eggplant seedlings, and this will negatively affect the condition of the seedlings.
In addition to artificial dressings, the most widely used are natural feeding.
They have several advantages over chemical agents. First, they do not accumulate in the soil.
That is, the next year will not require special treatment of the soil, if you want to plant something else. Secondly, it is the ecological purity of the product. To do this, use as a ready-mix, and cooked yourself.
Feeding eggplant seedlings at home. The most popular among the ready ones are “Bioton”, “Biohumus” and the “Healthy Garden” biocomplex. Also, nutritional mixtures can be prepared at home. For example, banana peel infusion perfect not only for eggplants, but also for other solanaceous crops.
It is prepared as follows: 3-4 banana peels are poured with boiling water about 1.5-2 liters and infused for 2-3 days. Similar infusion saturate the soil with potassium.
There is another option feeding and you can cook it yourself. This will require a weak old tea brew in the amount of three liters and a shell of ten chicken eggs, which must be ground, mixed and insisted for 3-5 days. Then you can water the young shoots of eggplant.
To prevent the disease as a black leg water should be only in the morningcloudy weather is ideal. This feeding will give a full range of vitamins and minerals to your seedlings, as well as strengthen resistance when attacked by pests.
Some Aquarium owners use drained water to fertilize seedlings.
The use of such water is explained by the fact that it contains waste products of fish and aquatic plants, which has a beneficial effect on the state of the plants.
Such fertilizing will help not only to increase the growth of seedlings, but also to avoid a number of difficulties in growing seedlings, which literally await inexperienced gardeners at every step.
The first feeding eggplant seedlings
it very important stage in the development of seedlings and it should be carried out according to all the rules, the further development of the shoots will depend on it. There are several options than to fertilize eggplant seedlings for the first time, they are all good in their own way.
One of the most popular ways of feeding eggplant seedlings is based on application of potassium nitrate. This requires 30 grams of the substance diluted in 10 liters of water. This variant of feeding is universalIt is suitable for open ground and greenhouses.
The second way is fertilizer "Kemira-Lux". At 10 liters of water you need 20-30 grams of fertilizer, as well as the first method of feeding, it is well suited for outdoor and greenhouse shelters.
And the last option is also a mixture of fertilizers. It is used for feeding young seedlings in greenhouse shelters. One 5 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15 grams of superphosphate and 10 grams of potassium sulphate per 10 liters of water.
These are the most common and proven methods of first feeding eggplant seedlings.
The main and fundamental difference between mixtures for greenhouses and unprotected soil is that mixtures for unprotected land have a great effect.
They help future eggplants to resist diseases and parasites, and can also increase resistance to temperature changes.
Feeding eggplant seedlings is a difficult thing and only an experienced gardener can handle it. But if you are new to this business, you should not refuse, you will succeed. Good luck and great harvest!