Soviet heavy breed stands out for its size and massiveness, unwittingly attracting the attention of people. They carry loads of several tons on their backs. These strong horses are also used to transport heavy laden carts. They have many virtues, so heavyweights are considered unique. They are large in size and have endurance, which allowed them to become laureates of the honorary title of “horses of the heroic strength”, their character is distinguished by vigor, and their movements are graceful.
Soviet heavyweight - a unique breed of horses
History of origin
The first heavy horses appeared in the 18th century in Western European countries, later they were bred in Russia. One of the most popular heavy-duty breeds in the country is the Soviet heavy truck, which glorified Russian horse breeders. These horses, having a large and powerful build, were brought out of Brabancons during the Soviet era, which were brought from Belgium in the late 19th century. Local working mares were crossed with Belgian draft carriers, resulting in an unusual breed of Soviet horses.
Kislovsky D.A. and Antsin I.A., professor and livestock specialist, many works were carried out concerning the development and improvement of the breed. The long selection and clever approach of the Soviet horse breeders made it possible to significantly improve the existing characteristics of horses, which had developed muscles and strong bones, but their constitution was dry. Modern horses have become more unpretentious to the conditions of detention and feed.
The main purpose of raising heavy trucks was the need for rural farmers in horses who could be hardy in work and had the ability to carry heavy loads.
In the middle of the 20th century, the breed was improved from stallions that were grown in domestic stud farms. Approved the Soviet heavy breed, meeting the necessary requirements, in 1952. The "progenitors" of unique horses are less harmonious, large and sedentary. The mares of the new breed had a high coefficient of milk production.
Soviet heavy truck was originally intended for agricultural work.
The Soviet heavy horse is distinguished by its size and large growth.
- Growth in withers comes to 170 cm.
- Weigh up to a ton.
- It has a chest, differing in width and massiveness, and a muscular neck.
- Medium and proportional head.
- Developed cheeks.
- Wide nostrils.
- Medium, sometimes sagging, ears.
- Short or medium neck, turning into a low withers.
- It has a soft back, allowing the use of a horse under the saddle.
- The presence of a wide and flat waist, forked slightly drooping croup helps the horse to hold heavy loads.
- Strong hooves have the correct shape and are located on dry and muscular legs.
- Color - red, red-chalaya, sometimes - bay or bay-chalaya.
- Brushes on the limbs moderately overgrown.
- Most pomp and density of the mane and tail.
- Character - energetic and good-natured.
Soviet heavy truck possesses mostly bay or red suit
- The Soviet heavy draft may be distinguished by the following incorrect setting of the legs: saberiness, clubfoot and other defects that do not negatively affect abilities, but they are avoided when they are engaged in breeding horses.
- The peculiarity of the breed is considered to be smallish hips, large hocks, elongated shoulder blades, shortened headstock and wide metacarpals.
Distinguishing characteristics of productivity
Soviet heavyweight is an early breed of horses, characterized by high productivity. Appreciated:
- Early maturity and high growth rate.
- Seen fast growth and weight gain in foals - yearlings have a weight of more than half a ton. At the age of 2 and a half years, they are already used for hard work, and after reaching five years they take part in special types of competitions.
- Representatives of the breed have long-term breeding. In some queens, offsprings appear even after they reach the age of 20.
- The advantages of horses is also in the fact that they can be fed with cheap bulky food.
- Remarkable working qualities.
- For their content any conditions are suitable.
- Mares have a very high milk production.
Soviet heavyweight at the age of 1 year weighs about half a ton
Types of heavy trucks
Two domestic stud farms were engaged in breeding the Pochinok and Mordov breeds, as a result of which two natural types were distinguished with their own differences.
- The horses of the Pochinok horse farm have a pronounced heavy breed - massiveness, large long legs, the body is slightly lengthened.
- Horses, bred on Mordovskoye, retained the qualities of suffolian horses, which have compact and dry bones.
The difficulties that have befallen heavy people in our modern times
Nowadays, when the equipment and automation that agriculture uses, horse labor was supplanted, the number of purebred animals began to decline, a decrease in demand and demand for the use of highly productive mares was observed. But in a number of European countries, the demand for Soviet heavy trucks has even increased markedly.
Our stallions and mares take part in international competitions, they are used to improve the heavy breeds.
The elite-class breeding stock today is focused on three stud farms:
- Pochinkovsky (Nizhny Novgorod region),
- Ichalkovsky (Republic of Mordovia),
- Perevozovsky (Nizhny Novgorod region).
The Soviet heavy draft is divorced at these enterprises clean along different lines. Therefore, within the breed today two types have been formed. In the Nizhny Novgorod region is supported by the traditional massive type, derived from purebred Brabancon.
In Mordovia, not only Brabants were used for crossing, but also an English Suffolk horse. Soviet heavyweights of the Ichalkovsky plant are more compact and leaner.
Working qualities of any horse are better manifested with competent feeding and care. When violations of the rules of the animals can not replenish energy reserves and lose weight, and the growth of muscle and bone tissue of the young is disturbed.
The approximate daily ration of an adult heavy horse stallion should include:
- oats - 4 kg
- barley - 3 kg,
- bran - 1 kg,
- cake - 1 kg,
- salt - 40 - 45 g,
- premixes - 100 g
Supplement the diet with mixed grass hay, dried grass. You can add raw carrots and sugar beets. Good effect on the motor function of the intestinal molasses.
Horses have a relatively small stomach, so it is necessary to organize fractional feeding for them. The daily feed volume is divided into 4 - 8 receptions.
The progress of the breed was stopped by the crisis. The stock stock of soviet heavy horses has sharply decreased, conditions of keeping, veterinary service and feeding have worsened. By the early 2000s, the stud farms were close to disaster. Out of 150 queens, only 70 remained in the repair, 30 out of 50 managed to be kept at the Ichalkovsky plant.
Today, market conditions are more favorable. The demand for Soviet heavy trucks is gradually increasing. The best horses regularly participate in international exhibitions: for example, in the annual fair-conference Equiros.
At the same Pochinkovsky plant it turns out to fully realize the young. Stallions are allowed for sale, and fillies are left, gradually increasing the breeding stock. There is every chance to rectify the situation.
The Soviet draft horse breed without exaggeration can be considered our national treasure. The intensification of agriculture, about which so much is said, can contribute to the preservation and development of stud farms. After all, individual production processes still require the use of this strong and intelligent animal.