The composition of the feed, regardless of the type include protein-containing products. The affordable source of vegetable proteins is legumes, but some of them contain carbohydrates and starch in large quantities and are hard to digest.
Concerns about the health of birds against the background of slowing down the process of food processing will disappear, if you look into the question and understand how to give peas to chickens. But more harm to birds is the rejection of legumes.
The benefits and harm of peas
The chemical composition, cost, impact on the body and nutritional value will help to understand whether it is possible to give chickens peas and what are the strengths and weaknesses of the feeding method.
The water soluble group is represented by group B vitamins. Of the fat-soluble vitamins in the pea are present: beta-carotene, A, K, E:
- Most of all in peas of vitamin K. Layers suffer from its deficiency more often. Lack of effect on reproductive function. The number of dead embryos is increasing.
- Chicken avitaminosis adversely affects the health of chicks. Significantly increases the risk of internal bleeding in day-old chicks.
- The lack of vitamins of group B also leads to impaired reproductive processes. In some cases, against the background of a decrease in general activity and associated health problems, the hen stops giving eggs.
In order to avoid such a development of events, products rich in vitamins of groups B and K are introduced into the diet of females. In the context of preventive measures to protect against avitaminosis, feathered peas are useful.
The introduction of peas is beneficial. The measure reduces the cost of feed by a few percent.
The nutritional value
Peas for laying hens are a source of proteins. A balanced grain ration is built on these organic substances: approximately 8–10% of this type of feed consists of protein-containing products. If they are not included in the feed, it will cause a lack of amino acids, and this is fraught with a violation of the normal functioning of the body.
Protein feed, the number of which increases dramatically during egg production, must necessarily contain peas or its substitutes.
One of the most popular sources of vegetable proteins is sunflower cake. In some cases, it accounts for up to 17% of the diet of adult poultry, but recently it was found that replacing this ingredient with peas helps reduce feed costs and increase egg production.
In the newly hatched nestlings, legumes cause problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, until the individual reaches 2 weeks of age, peas are not included in the diet.
In the future, it is necessary to take measures indirectly helping to speed up the process of digestion. To this end, the hens give sand. Small pebbles contribute to the grinding and grinding of incoming food. Technically, they act as teeth.
Pea feeding rules
Useful notes for farmers:
- Peas are given in 2 types: crushed and in the composition of wet mash. When using the second option, the peas are cooked separately from the rest of the cereals.
- You can not razvarivat pea. Puree to feed the chicken is not suitable.
- After cooking, the peas are either mixed with other ingredients, or served pure.
For the first time, steamed legumes are preferable. After several receptions of hens they transfer to dry mixes. When practicing the last feeding method, you need to remember the importance of crushing. Whole pea poultry is contraindicated.
At home, it is easy to make crushed cereal mixture with peas. More forces are taken away by a wet mash. To begin with, prepare the option on the water. If the birds like it, you can experiment with masses on yogurt, rich in animal proteins.
It is allowed to increase the share of peas due to sunflower meal. The option is suitable for feeding adults.
- Corn (45% of the total mass of feed),
- Peas (6%),
- Wheat (12%),
- Barley (12%),
- Sunflower meal (7%),
- Herbal flour (2%),
- Chalk (2%),
- Meat and bone meal for chickens (2%),
- Fish meal (2%).
Additional ingredients: salt (2 tsp).
Almost identical to the previous version.
A small difference is observed in the ratio of pea and sprat sunflower:
- Corn (45% by weight of feed),
- Pea (7%),
- Wheat (12%),
- Barley (12%),
- Sunflower meal (6%),
- Herbal flour (2%),
- Chalk (2%),
- Fish meal (6%),
- Soda (0.1%),
- Salt (0.3%).
The recipe is focused on layers, because the combination of chalk and shells strengthens the shell.
To protect the compound from death, it is necessary to reduce the risk of infection and poisoning through the diet.
- Do not give herbs treated against parasites. In this form, peas for birds will pose a serious threat.
- Then make a menu for 2-3 days.
- During work rely on the nutritional value and composition of ingredients.
- Grain crops (about 60–70% of the feed mixture).
- Source of protein (10%).
- Source of fat (3-5%).
- Premix (2%).
The remaining positions are distributed between additives:
- Salt (recommended daily dosage: 0.3 g),
- A piece of chalk.
Power frequency depends on the purpose. If the birds were taken for fattening, the poultry houses appeal the rule "around the clock full feeders." When egg production is in priority, the feed is given a certain number of times and always at the same time. The frequency of feeding an adult individual: 2 times a day.
The frequency of feeding in the first days of life: 5-6 times a day. Then the chicks are transferred to 3-4 meals a day. Regime observed month.
The main landmark is diversity.
Begin with animals and soft feed, not forgetting to feed the grain of 1-2 species. Beans are added later. It is necessary to consider the schedule of introduction. Thus, wheat is allowed from the second day of life, but there is no consensus as to whether it is possible to give chickens peas and for how long. Some poultry farmers recommend pouring on the 10th day, others advise to wait up to 2-3 weeks.
Occur due to violations of zoohygienic regime and improper diet. Sick birds consume poisoned herbs and unbalanced feed. Therefore, the digestive system suffers more often: vomiting, severe thirst, diarrhea.
- Gastroenteritis. With this disease, the scallop changes color, the temperature rises, appetite worsens and green diarrhea appears.
- Dyspepsia. The disease is most dangerous for chickens. To protect chicks from adversity, do not need to give peas to newly hatched birds. This leads to indigestion. In diseased individuals, the stomach becomes hard, and undigested food comes out with feces.
- Vitamin deficiency. With a lack of D, the Layer is noticeably lagging behind in growth, it is tormented by the fragility of bones. Difficult gait and throwing of the head indicate a lack of vitamins of group B, and the slow blood clotting and ruffled plumage - of vitamin K.
Against the background of eating infected food, colibacteriosis and pasteurrelosis develop.
Symptoms of colibacillosis:
- Decreased appetite
- Intense thirst
- Change in stool consistency,
- Feathers around the anus are smeared in waste products,
- Blue beak
- Breathing problems.
Symptoms of pasteurellosis (acute form):
- Diarrhea green with blood or mucus,
- Refusal of food
- Blue ear and comb.
Signs of Chronic Pasteurellosis:
- Nasal congestion,
- Sedentary dog pose
- Swelling of the crest, earrings,
- Deformation of the wings and legs.
Infection occurs in different ways, not only when used feed mixture. Pulloz, affecting the food system, is transmitted by airborne droplets. A sick bird loses interest in food, there are problems with breathing.
If you do not take action in a timely manner, the disease will become chronic. Forecasts in this case are unfavorable: the hen will die from exhaustion.
To prevent this from happening, an infected bird is separated from healthy individuals and given an antibiotic (neomycin or biomitsin).
Because of the "accidental" feed, the threat of invasions increases.
Sources of infection:
- Earthworms, slugs,
- Dirty water,
- Untimely cleaning house and aviary.
Ways of penetration of parasites into the body of a bird:
- Transovarial (through laying eggs).
- Oral (by mouth).
- Transmissible (through the bite of the carrier).
Oral administration of nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes is more frequent.
Feeding chickens at home
For a start, it is worth figuring out whether it is possible to give chickens a certain type of feed, for this it is necessary to determine the purpose of poultry. Here are the basic rules you need to know when preparing food:
- When growing poultry for meat, it is necessary to include mineral additives, mixed fodder and the so-called “mash”, which is a ground grain mixture, supplemented with vegetables, greens and root vegetables. It is worth noting that the share of the “mash” should be equal to the share of the whole grain given out or even slightly exceed it.
- If chickens are raised as hens, and the main goal is to increase egg production, then whole grains should be included in the diet to a greater extent. The number of "mash" should be a small part.
- An important factor is the number of daily feedings. For laying hens it is necessary to give food no more than twice a day, but when growing chickens for meat - 3-4 times a day. This is especially true of broilers, because food in such quantities contributes to weight gain.
- If it is impossible to provide access to greenery, it is important to additionally provide the bird with fresh grass and greenery from the garden.
Feeding chickens at home
note! The closest attention is required to laying hens, since in the case of overfeeding or underfeeding, egg production decreases and problems with the functioning of the liver and legs appear.
The benefits and harm of bread
The first question that arises is whether it is possible to feed the chickens with bread, which one and how often, because the most controversial opinions can be heard on this issue.
It is known that the stomach of poultry cannot fully digest bakery products, especially if the question concerns fresh products. This is due to the fact that such products, when ingested, become limp and swell, thereby causing disturbances in the digestive system.
Feeding Chickens with Bread
In order to give the hens a bread product, you must first prepare it:
- it is possible to replace harmful white bread with stale black, only necessarily without mold and hard crust,
- bread must be stored in the form of crackers,
- before serving the finished crackers, they need to be soaked a little, and then - mixed with the germinated grain and supplemented with the resulting composition “mash”,
- this feed must be given to the bird within two hours, as a longer period will cause fermentation,
- It is also sometimes possible to offer poultry black or white kvass bread, but do not overuse it too much.
Interesting to know! There are situations that require the inclusion in the diet of white bread. This is necessary for roosters who are prepared for slaughter. It is believed that chicken meat after that becomes more tasty and tender.
Fish contains a lot of calcium, so sometimes it needs to be included in the diet of poultry. In this case, you should pay attention to the following nuances:
- you can not give salted fish
- before serving, you will need to boil the product until the bones soften,
- enough to include in the diet 2 times a week, since more frequent use will lead to dehydration and delayed bowel movements,
- It is advisable to mix fish with other food, as the bird often refuses such a product.
For feeding birds fit and leftovers from the table, such as head, tails and bones.
Feeding chickens with fish
Potatoes are a fairly common household product. And there will be a question about whether it is possible to feed the laying hens raw or boiled potatoes. This boiled vegetable is useful for chickens, as their bodies have the ability to digest the product well. Boiling potatoes is necessary because the skin of a green vegetable contains a dangerous substance called solanine, which is destroyed during heat treatment.
Potatoes begin to be introduced gradually into the diet of 15-day-old chicks. Daily begin to give 100 g of boiled product.
Important! You can not feed poultry potato peel, because for the digestive system is very hard food.
Brought is a vegetable that can be dangerous for chickens, therefore, it is necessary to introduce it into the diet with extreme caution. This is due to the following features:
- for chickens, beets are a strong laxative and can cause diarrhea in excess of quantities,
- the vegetable turns the cloaca red and often causes pecking and cannibalism in the herd, so it is advisable to give the fodder-like beet.
Also it is necessary to introduce beet tops into the diet, which contains a number of necessary elements for the bird's organism.
Feeding beetroot chickens
Consider what kind of grain crops and cereals should be given to chickens:
- Wheat is very important for the bird, because it provides it with enough energy. How much will it need? For laying hens it will be required per day not less than 220 kcal. Completely this volume can provide rice (100 g). But, as is known, such croup is rather expensive. Therefore, 30-40% of it must be replaced with chopped corn.
- Barley is always used for household feeding. But chickens are not very willing to use it, because it has a harsh texture.
- Oats include a large amount of protein. But it also contains fiber, which requires a lot of energy to digest, so you should not be zealous with the addition of this product to the feed.
- Legumes contain a large amount of oils, so it is very important to include them in the daily diet of chickens, but in small quantities. In the feed added sunflower seeds, meal, cake, lupine and soy.
What other cereals and grains can be included in the diet of poultry? Not bad fit buckwheat, pearl barley, millet. But do not abuse them. Their share in the total diet should be no more than 10%.
Grain feeding chickens
Root vegetables and vegetables
Root vegetables include many useful components that are of high value to chickens. It is advisable to include them in the diet in raw form, so as not to waste their useful part.
Before chopping, any root vegetable must be washed to remove all the dirt that may harm the bird.
Carrots containing vitamin A and carotene, affecting chicken growth, are most often included in the diet.
Additional Information! The cabbage will take great pleasure to the hens, both regular and fodder. This is especially true of the winter period, when this vegetable is practically the only source of vitamins. You can also offer them sauerkraut or fermented cabbage.
You can supplement the composition of any "mash" radish, turnip or radish, but it is worth first chop the roots. Perfectly and their tops.
Onions enhance the immunity of birds and is the most important source of vitamin C. The bulb can be given to both adult chickens and very small chickens. Onions before serving must be minced, but green - you can chop a little with a knife.
Crops such as eggplants and tomatoes can be safely used to feed poultry, but in small quantities. In no case can not feed animals with green vegetables of this type, because their skin contains the same corned beef, which will harm the body. The tops of these plants also can not be given to chickens.
Note! Cucumbers are an excellent feeding for chickens. They are able to peck even whole vegetables. Not bad also enter into the diet zucchini and pumpkin.
Berries and fruits
For laying hens, fruits and berries are a wonderful vitamin supplement, thanks to which egg yolks acquire a rich, bright color.
You can give the following fruits:
- apples and pears
- tropical fruits (pulp of oranges and other citrus fruits), bananas and banana peel,
- watermelons and melons
- strawberries and raspberries,
- grapes and currants,
- gooseberry and cherry
note! Chickens, of course, love to eat delicious berries, but excessive consumption can lead to negative consequences, because the bones contain a poison of strong action.
Greens are very important to include in the daily diet of laying hens. It is useful to give the following types of greens:
- pea stalks,
- horse sorrel
- onion feathers,
- dill and parsley.
Additional Information! In order to provide poultry with vitamins in winter, plants such as nettle, alfalfa and clover are dried. In the period of lack of vitamins, chickens eat dry grass with pleasure.
The shell of each egg is a dense shell, containing a large amount of calcium. So is it possible to give eggs to the hens? In view of the useful composition of the shell of eggs, I would like to replenish the vitamin composition of animals with this product, but is it possible for its chickens? The answer is - you can. Очень полезно давать яичную скорлупу, но только в том случае, если она подготовлена правильно.This is due to the fact that the substance contains a large amount of calcium.
Before you put the shell in the feed, it must be well washed and calcined in an oven (temperature 100 ° C), and then crushed to a flour-like state.
What else is required to include in feed for chickens
When growing chickens in an incubator, they should receive only nutritionally balanced feed. Consider all the necessary components in the daily feed:
- Proteins, especially vegetable (meal, cake, sunflower products).
- Fats (sunflower oil, oats, corn).
- Cellulose (glucose, sucrose, starch contained in sweet foods, and cereals).
- Vitamin complex, especially B, A, D (fish oil, fresh herb, baker's yeast, silage).
- Mineral substances (ash, gravel, lime, soft meat flour).
As additional components it is worth giving:
- curd, whey, kefir,
- meat and fish waste,
- some lard,
Feeding Chickens with Fresh Grass
Consider what foods you need to eliminate or reduce to a minimum in the diet of poultry and the reasons for this:
- too many vegetables will cause indigestion,
- low quality fish oil will add bad odor to future eggs,
- baking leads to negative consequences and even death,
- peel from vegetables and fruits due to its rigidity is poorly digested by the digestive system,
- too much salt.
Why do chickens eat foam and is it harmful to eggs?
As you know, chickens do not belong to intelligent animals and can use useless, and even harmful substances. This also applies to foam plastic, to which birds often have free access, because the material is used to insulate household structures.
Polyfoam is a building material that includes chemicals in its composition, so when it enters the stomach it can damage the entire digestive system. And the chickens are curious creatures and peck at everything that comes their way. Given that such a building material has an interesting shape, it is not surprising that it attracts birds.
Important! It is necessary to try to exclude access to the foam, because often its use leads to the death of the bird.
Tips and tricks from experienced poultry farmers
- For any laying hen the most important thing is a balanced diet by the hour.
- In winter, you need to take care of the additional lighting device. Turn it on in the evening and off in the morning.
- During the molting period, adults turn into small peeling birds. In order to ensure accelerated recovery, it is necessary to organize hourly feeding.
Of course, chickens can eat any food. But it is important to remember about the health of poultry, because the proposed food should not only be heterogeneous, but also useful. In this case, the hens will carry eggs regularly, and the meat birds will delight you with delicious and juicy chicken.
Stories of our readers!
"The additive has approached all animals - birds, pigs and cows. It does not have a pronounced taste or smell. When added to the feed imperceptible, the animals eat normally.
The composition is natural, so it’s not scary to give animals. In addition to the components that accelerate growth and weight gain, increasing productivity, there is a vitamin-mineral complex. Very happy! "
Feeding during the molting period
In the fall, laying hens take place. It significantly weakens the body and the owner’s task is to help the bird survive this difficult period as easily as possible:
- Food at this time requires not as abundant as in the midst of egg-laying, but the food is made more saturated with vitamins.
- It is useful for the laying hens to give animal feed (at home, it is boiled meat trimming, cottage cheese, fish meal or boiled river fish, scrolled in a meat grinder), it is good to knead the mash on kefir or whey.
- Feed sulfur is additionally introduced into the diet, 1 g per head per day, this will accelerate the growth of a new feather.
- A lot of sulfur is contained in cabbage leaves, it is useful to bring them into the feed of crushed hens. All of this will somehow affect how quickly the laying hens will be able to lay eggs.
- Flaxseed or oil speeds up the molting of laying hens.
- Mineral food - shell, chalk, lime must be in a separate bowl.
- Industrial or industrial feed for laying hens is a mixture of grains and various additives balanced in vitamins, trace elements and nutrients.
- Recipe of feed for laying hens is developed by specialists for each group of poultry (chickens, grown young stock, laying hens) and differs in composition.
- For convenience, the feed is numbered. For example, the inscription on the label PC -1 means that this is a complete feed for laying hens at the age of 20–43 weeks, and PC 1–3 is already intended for layers over 44 weeks old and has a slightly different composition.
- To buy feed for laying hens should be only from the official representatives of the manufacturer. For example, one of the largest producers of compound feeds, the Purina firm, offers high-quality feed for all types of farm animals and poultry, including laying hens. Store ready feed for laying hens in a dry cool place, in a closed container, not more than 3 months.
- Industrial feed for laying hens belongs to professional feed and is ideal for farmers and large farms that place high demands on the egg production of chickens.
Preparation of domestic feed for laying hens
The technology of preparing domestic feed for laying hens is not very complicated and allows the use of inexpensive components and those components that are available. The main thing is to properly observe the ratio of all necessary components in the feed.
An example of the composition of the diet for laying hens at the age of 22-47 weeks in%:
The diet of chickens should contain a sufficient number of components important for health in strictly defined proportions:
- Proteins are the basis for building avian cells and forming eggs. Chicken food must contain vegetable proteins - products of processing of sunflower, soybean and legumes (meal, cake). The required amount of animal proteins can provide bone meal, earthworms, shellfish, incubation, meat and fish production.
- Fat is an essential component of the diet, providing a supply of vital energy of chickens. In laying hens, half of the fat is deposited under the skin, and the other is used in egg formation. The main sources of fat are corn, sunflower oil, oats.
- Carbohydrates - substances that are useful for the normal functioning of the muscles and almost all internal organs. Chicken mixes should include sucrose, fiber, starch. Most of these products provide roots, and fiber comes along with the grain.
Grain contains essential amino acids, starch, sucrose and pentosans
It looks like bone meal
A variety of food for chickens
It is not that difficult to organize high-quality and varied food in such an omnivorous feathered as chickens. One of the main rules is to maximize the use of waste, which will always be found in any rural farmstead:
- juicy food from the garden and vegetable garden. Both adults and young individuals eat with appetite the tops of beets and carrots, cabbage and corn, fruits (including the carcass), crushed apple, plum, pear, apricot wastes,
- potato peelings, as well as rotten, green, small, shriveled tubers unsuitable for human consumption,
- waste of meat and fish, including heads, tails, offal (after heat treatment). Crushed bones contribute greatly to productivity,
It is impossible to feed moldy bread to chickens - this can cause poisoning. Fresh bakery products also need to be eliminated: they swell and stick together in the stomach.
The cake contains fiber and raw proteins
Rules for the preparation of feed
To maximize the preservation of vitamins and minerals, you must follow the rules for processing feed. If you cook in accordance with the recipe, it will be better absorbed and more eagerly eaten by pets.
- Boil the potatoes, drain all the water (after cooking, the poisonous substances from the sprouts and green skin remain in the liquid), then knead well and add bone meal.
- Potatoes, carrots, beets, radishes, etc. (all root vegetables) can be given raw. Grate fresh pulp or grind in any other way, add to the mash.
Green fodder consists of carrot and beet tops, apples, pears and plums, cabbage leaves
In the wheat germ becomes more amino acids and vitamins.
Increase the content of vitamin B allows yeast feed. For each kilogram of the mash they add 5-10 g of fresh yeast and mix well.
Wild food and methods for their preparation
The best time for harvesting meadow grasses is spring and summer. It was during this period that clover, quinoa, alfalfa, chicken millet, shchiritsa, chin, manna, horse sorrel are especially rich in useful substances. Mow the grass and put in small rolls for drying (preferably in the shade, because vitamins are destroyed in the sun). Hay is ready when it starts to rustle.
Harvested hay should not be stored on the field in haystacks, but in sheds or under sheds
In addition to herbs, pine needles and spruce are added to birds' food (it is best to collect it from November to March), as well as seeds, foliage and berries of wild trees - ash, beech, birch, linden, ash, chestnut and shrubs - viburnum, wild rose, hawthorn elderberry. In late autumn and winter with a lack of greens, the additive from crushed wild plants becomes an excellent tool for good nutrition.
Key feeding hygiene rules
- the feed should only be fresh (wet mixes are cooked at one time),
- It is not recommended to add dry grain to the mash, since chickens peck at it, choosing from the total mass, and trampling the rest,
- after serving boiled food, feeders need to be cleaned and washed out,
- for the distribution of greenery, it is best to build a feeder with walls of a large-mesh net through which chickens will take out food (this way they will scatter less and tread food),
- All animal waste must be heat treated and tested for the absence of sharp bones.
The feeding place of chickens must be clean and free of garbage.
To grind food in the muscular stomach birds need gravel. If it is not in a separate feeder for a month or more, chickens may stop absorbing up to 20% of food, become ill with cuticle (rejection of the surface of the muscular stomach) and die.
It is impossible to replace gravel with fine-grained sand, because it irritates the intestinal mucosa of birds, and in large doses can cause inflammation.
During the breeding period, the diet of the rooster varies slightly.
Consider as an example the dietary rates for meat-fowl chickens Such breeds are considered to be universal, more unpretentious and easy to care for; therefore, they are most often grown in farms and household plots. The percentage of food for meat-laying chickens is almost the same as that of egg chicks, but the amount of food per head is slightly higher (up to 15-18%).
The table below gives the daily amount of food per adult chicken weighing 2, 6 kg, depending on the time of year (in grams per head).