Named after the Indian river Brahmaputra, giant chickens, with a calm character, aristocratic appearance and high productivity, have long been the favorites of poultry farmers all over the world. The article describes the breed of chickens Brahma with a photo.
Breed brought the Americans. Conquered by the giant size brought in the middle of the 19th century from India, Asian downy birds, American farmers crossed gray Cochinmen with fighting Malay and Chittagongs.
The breed was named gray chittagong. Her presentation took place in 1850 at the agricultural exhibition in Boston. But, the name did not stick. And as a gift to the Queen of England in 1852, the Boston poultry farmer Barnham presented this bird with the name of an ermine chicken of the brahmaputra breed, now known as brahma.
With the light hand of Queen Victoria, the breed spread throughout Europe.
In Russia, according to the results of a survey of the Petrovsky Agricultural Academy, conducted in the early twentieth century, the breed was listed in the top five most common birds on farmsteads. Orpingtons, Cochinquins, faerolis, Plymouths, and American Brahms were in favor.
External characteristic of the breed
The appearance of chickens brahma (braminka, brahmins) in the catalogs is described according to standard features:
- Color different color. The plumage is silvery-white, gray, brown, partridge, black.
- There are colored varieties: yellow, blue, striped, white and blue and red Colombian colors, black or blue with white splashes (birch), fawn.
- Pooh ashen, plentiful. Feathers are soft, adjacent to the body, not loose. Roosters must have a contrast gate. Tail in the form of a fan, lush.
- Leather yellow shade.
- Head small size. The forehead is wide. Three-row pod-shaped (pea-shaped) comb without clearly distinguished teeth.
- Constitution dense, fleshy. Chest, back, abdomen, wide ass. High landing body. Differs from related kokhinkhinov higher tail lift, thin bones. Chickens are more rounded and have shorter legs than roosters.
- Wings developed. Legs powerful, long, fully feathered, including external and middle toes. Fingers and tarsus are strong, yellow, greyish in dark frames.
- Length neck medium, with a bulk mane at the top, with a slight bend.
- Beak yellow, strong.
- Eyes orange, bright, deep-lying. Brow arc high, overhanging.
- Earrings and earlobes red, small, medium long. Skin fold (bridle) on the neck under the beak.
Initially referred to the meat direction. Now positioned as a decorative and meat. The decline in the breeding qualities of the breed was due to mixing with other species (Cochinquans, Asian species), closely related breeding, and a preference for productive decorative qualities. Brahmin meat is considered the most tender, dietary, quality among all meat breeds and crosses. With the wrong selection of food, additives, meat coarsens, deteriorating its taste.
Currently divorced mainly on individual farms, in small farms, amateur collectors, with their reviews can be found below. For modern poultry farms of no interest.
For meat breed is considered average. Brahmins carry 100-120 eggs per year, weighing about 50-65 g. The shell is strong, various shades of brown-brown, cream-colored. In winter, the number of eggs does not fall. Young chickens of early hatching become laying birds after 9 months.
The daily optimal amount of feed for the formation of eggs weighing 60 g - 110-150 g. The average cost of feed per egg - 30-40 kopecks.
Golden brown plumage, the edge of the neck and tail are black. In roosters, the mane is darker than the main color. Easily tolerates a cold climate.
Colombian silver gray color. Tail tail feathers, wing wings, gates on the neck of a rich black and green color. The middle feather on the fingers and metatarsus has black stripes. In chickens on the belt white feathers, roosters flaunt black. Comb, face, earlobes bright red. Due to the lush plumage of the trunk, legs and neck, the beautiful appearance, smooth face, large eyes and beak have an extremely decorative look.
Most birds are gray with a white, silver head. White feathers on the neck with black edging, sickle-shaped on the body, gray to black, parallel to the contour, stripes. The structure of plumage is friable, abundant. Roosters have silver-gray head, mane and neck silver-white with black central stripe. On the legs hawk shred - lush feathers on the legs. The main plumage is greenish black. The skin is white with pink. Paws are yellow. Brown eyes with a reddish tinge. The distinctive feature is a short curved beak, yellow with black stripes. Straight, small tail.
Appreciated for good preservation. Survives up to 68% of chickens, up to 83% of adult individuals. Dark brams are nice hens. Undemanding conditions feed, get along with other breeds.
Chickens of all colors are very attractive, which confirms their photos. Today, this breed is increasingly becoming an ornament of the monastery. Elegant and calm birds look presentable and solid.
External characteristics of Brahma chickens make it easy to distinguish them from other poultry. They are characterized by:
- beautiful posture
- large fleshy body
- wide chest and belly
- small scallops in cocks in the form of a pod without clearly distinguishable teeth,
- red-orange eyes,
- fully feathered legs
- yellow skin
- strong short beak of yellow color
- red earrings and earlobes,
- colorful plumage
- hens reach a weight of 3.5-4 kg, roosters 4.5-5 kg.
Tips for feeding chickens
To achieve a beautiful plumage of chickens, their healthy appearance and tasty, not hard meat, it is important to choose a balanced diet. Here are some tips on how to feed the Brahma birds correctly:
- When keeping poultry it is recommended to organize three meals a day. Birds should be fed at the same time every day.
- It is recommended to adhere to the following feeding pattern: morning - grain food, lunch - wet mash with the addition of water or broth, greens, evening - grain food.
- The diet should contain the following components: grain, bran, vegetables, fish meal, chalk, salt. The basis of the menu should be cereals.
- An approximate daily ration may look as follows: grain - 50-55 g, wet mash - 30 g, boiled potatoes - 100 g, hay flour - 10 g, chalk - 3 g, bone meal - 2 g, salt - 0.5 g In winter, the amount of feed needs to be slightly increased (based on the needs of the bird).
- In the chicken coop and on the walk, you should put a separate vessel in which to put river sand or small gravel. These elements are necessary for the good functioning of the digestive tract of birds.
- The daily rate of feed should contain 15 g of protein, 4 g of fat and 50 g of carbohydrates.
- It is important to change the menu periodically so that the feed is not boring.
- Constant access for birds should be a drinking bowl with fresh water at room temperature.
- To stimulate chickens to motor activity, you need to pour 10% of the daily feed on the floor.
- Mineral supplements with calcium in the composition should be placed in a separate trough.
Maintenance and care
To successfully contain Brahma chickens will not require any special conditions. They have enough equipped chicken coop and a place for walking. Basic requirements for maintenance and care:
- Fluff plumage and shaggy legs allow birds to easily survive low temperatures and live in an unheated hen house.
- In a chicken coop, birds should be kept at the rate of 2-3 individuals per 1 square meter. m square. Overcrowding threatens with frequent infections.
- In a room where birds live, cleanliness and dryness should be maintained, and regular litter changing and disinfection should be carried out, including feeders and drinkers.
- The coop must be equipped with a good ventilation system. If this is not possible, then the room should have at least one window.
- The recommended day length is 14 hours. In winter, the room should be put extra light.
- In the coop should be present such mandatory elements: feeders, drinkers, nests, bedding, perches. It is worth noting that, due to the large weight, the Brahms chickens have a hard time climbing the perches, so for them you need to lay a high-quality bedding in a thick layer.
- In the open-air cage for each individual should be 1 square. m square.
- In the aviary must be trough and drinkers. A canopy is desirable.
Hens of Brahma breed: reviews
There are poultry farmers who deal with the bird seriously and keep only large chickens, as if supporting the meat trend in this breed, but very few of them. As a rule, the modern Brahma is 3-4 kg of roosters and chickens a little less. Once upon a time, Brahma was taken from an amateur by this breed, and he brought a bird from abroad, roosters of 6 kg each. 4.5 kg each.