Crimson (Cercis) - a plant that belongs directly to the family of legumes. You can find species and varieties, which are both shrubs and beautiful deciduous trees that grow up to 15 m tall, at least. An interesting fact is that the bark at the base of the trunk is cracked, of a dark (brown) color. And the branches, at first, have a smooth surface with a slight red tint (young), and over time, it acquires an olive-gray color.
Purple is a flowering plant. The flowers have a very interesting irregular shape, and the petals are pink, red or purple. The flowers are collected in inflorescences that grow from the axils of the leaves. It is interesting that the flowers begin to appear before the leaves (in early spring) and bloom for a month, and then fruits appear, which are a flat bean (about 8-12 cm long) with seeds inside. And another fact: flowers can appear right on the trunk of a tree.
Varieties and types
Crimson Canadian - characterized as the most frost-resistant, it is certainly a plus, but at the same time, it is very picky about the composition of the soil and moisture. It has wide leaves (about 15-17 cm in diameter) and large flowers (diameter 10-12 mm) of light or purple-pink color.
On the basis of this species many varieties were bred. So, for example, varieties "Forest pansy"And"Ruby falls"Have a burgundy color of foliage, in addition, the so-called" weeping "branches are inherent in the second type.
Another not less popular grade "Pink pom poms, Which has double pink flowers.
Crimson Chinese - a species that occurs in the form of tall shrubs or trees up to 15 m high. The leaves of this species are more round. The flowers have a diameter of about 16-18 mm.
- Among the cultivated varieties can be noted "Shiroban"With white flowers,
- «Avondale»With its bright pink-purple tender buds.
Crimson Western - is a stunted appearance. Flowering begins in early May, with small pink flowers. A distinctive feature is that in the fall the leaves do not turn yellow, like in other species, but they turn red.
It is considered to be a frost-resistant plant, therefore it prefers a warm climate. If you try to grow in areas with cold winters, frosting may occur, which further affects flowering, in addition, decorativeness of this species is lost.
With proper care and comfortable conditions, it can reach ten meters in height, but it happens very slowly. For example, for the year it grows only by 1-1.5 m. During flowering pink-purple flowers can reach 20-25 mm in diameter.
Crimson Japanese - tall species of certsis, but only in natural habitats (these are forests of Japan and China), where it can reach 30–40 m in height. Due to its high resistance to frost, it can be grown in the northern regions of Russia, but the height, in this case, does not exceed 10-15 m.
Regarding care, drought should not be allowed. In especially hot summer days, it is necessary to control a sufficient amount of moisture. Does not tolerate purple and transplant. Therefore, it is better to plant only seedlings grown in separate containers (directly with a clod of earth).
Crimson planting and care in the open field
For landing it is necessary to choose a well-lit place, while protected from the cold north winds. Possible cultivation in the penumbra.
The soil should be fertile, well drained and with the presence of lime in it. In the case when the land on the site is too tight, it must be dug up with the addition of sand to it, which will allow it to a little fluff.
As for watering, certsis will thank for good moisturizing. But It is worth noting that for the first years of growth, watering should be abundant, and then moderate.
There is no need for additional feeding of the plant, all that purple is necessary for growth, it will be taken from the soil, therefore the land must be fertile.
Around the trunk should be a layer of mulch, which for the winter must be increased, and young trees and wrap at all.
Broom is also a representative of the legume family, grown during planting and care in the open field in central Russia. It has early and long flowering, but this requires proper care. All the necessary recommendations for growing this plant can be found in this article.
Autumn pruning is formative. By necessity, the branches are shortened by a third of the length, the newly emerged root shoots are also removed, as well as all the deformed branches and those that are knocked out of the overall picture. Simply put - we get the desired shape of the crown.
It is worth noting that due to the slow growth of the plant, formative pruning is carried out annually only the first 3-5 years of growth, and then almost stops. The only thing that is pruned is damaged branches, the so-called sanitary pruning.
In the case of planting next to the purple of other plants, it must be remembered that its root system develops in such a way that at first it goes deeper by about a meter, and then it diverges to the sides along a horizontal plane. For this reason, you should not place any other plants in close proximity to the tree.
Cercis growing from seed
Cercis can be propagated vegetatively using cuttings, or seeds.
Seed method involves two methods. Seeds are collected in the fall and then undergo a stratification procedure throughout the winter. To do this, the seedlings are soaked in boiling water for a day (if the container with water does not keep the temperature well, then it must be wrapped).
The swollen seeds are taken out of the water, dried a little on a paper towel and then placed in a sealed bag and sent to the refrigerator for a month. This procedure is repeated three times. In the spring, seeds are sown in the ground only if the air temperature has warmed to 15-20 ° C.
The second method is simpler: the seeds are sown in the ground in the spring, so they undergo a natural hardening process, but germination occurs only next spring.
Cercis propagation by cuttings
Grafting is a no less successful method of breeding purple. Preparation of cuttings begins in the fall, when parts of the shoots about 20 cm long with two or three internodes are cut and are dropped in a container with sand, which from time to time needs to be slightly moisturized.
In the spring you can plant cuttings in open ground. Pits of 10–12 cm in depth are prepared, a fresh cut is made on the handle, which is processed by a growth stimulator and placed in the ground at an angle of 45 °. After that, you need to water and zamulchirovat place around the landing.
Diseases and pests
Cercis is a fairly disease-resistant plant. Shrubs can freeze in cold regions, so they need to be covered. Trees are covered with a thicker layer of mulch in order to protect the root system. But the freezing of the branches after winter is not a big problem, since it will be enough just to remove the damaged areas, and the tree / shrub itself will recover. Most importantly, the roots are not affected.
The most famous pest attacking purple is aphidwhich clings to young shoots and sucks the juice. As a result, we have sluggish leaves and drooping branches.
In the spring, it is necessary to whiten the trunk, as well as, as a preventive measure against anthracnose, to conduct treatment (spraying, before flowering) with a weak, one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Cercis: a brief description of the plant
Cercis can reach a height of up to 18-20 m. A perennial plant, lives up to 70 years. On the trunk and large shoots of the bark has a brown-black color with cracks. Young branches - gray or brown-olive color. Annual shoots are smooth to the touch, reddish hues.
The foliage is egg-shaped, characterized by veins with a relief structure and smooth edges. On the branches they are fixed with scapes, spirally, alternately. The leaves are light green, but closer to the summer darken a little. Before the leaves appear at their base and in the cortex, buds of pink color appear, from which the inflorescences develop. Cercis blooms for about 30 days, until the foliage fully opens. Flowers are grouped in brushes or bunches, they do not have the correct form.
After the culture has blossomed, pods form on the shrub (length - up to 10 cm), each of which contains up to 5-7 beans. They are flat, oval-shaped, with a glossy shine.
Site selection and soil for cercis
It is quite simple to create good conditions for growing cercis.
Despite the fact that the best option for placing purple is light partial shade, he is able to adapt to the bright sun. Additional lighting will be especially useful to the culture in the cold season.
The main requirements of cercis to the ground - good drainage, friability and the presence of lime. But the plant can grow on most soils in the middle zone. Only with very clayey soil you can add a little sand, thus improving drainage.
Growing Cercis from Seeds
When growing tsertsisa you can apply the seed method of reproduction.
Since the beans are covered with a sufficiently hard shell and it is difficult to pierce the sprout, first the seeds are scalded, kept for 30 minutes in a weak solution of sulfuric acid or scarified (damage the surface of the bean with a needle, emery paper, rubbed with sand, etc.).
Before winter, the fruits are sown in the garden to a depth of several centimeters, covered with lapnik branches, peat or fallen leaves to insulate.
The first few years, seedlings grow in the garden slowly, and in the first year of life the upper part will die. New shoots that appeared in the spring, will also die. Only in the third year the branches will get stronger and reach up to 20 cm in height.
After the development of the root system will begin to actively grow skeletal branches.
Reproduction of certsis cuttingsA sturdy sprout of a 2-3 year old purple one needs to be cut in the fall so that it has several healthy buds left.
Stalk does not need to handle. It is immediately dropped in a new place. Cercis with such a landing is placed at an angle at a depth of 12-15 cm.
Even before the onset of cold weather, the plant has time to take root. Therefore, even if the ground part freezes, the rhizome will eventually give another sprout.
How to care for certsis
Judah tree does not need special care, but you need to remember that:
- although the culture can withstand drought, it is still worth watering it on hot summer days (several buckets of water per plant),
- in the spring (best of all in May) the plant should be fertilized with organic fertilizer (for example, dilute 1-1.5 cups of slurry in a bucket of water and place it under a bush).
Prevention and protection against diseases and pests
Cercis is extremely rarely affected by diseases and pests.
Only occasionally can a shrub attack aphid. It is removed with appropriate chemicals (for example, Konfidor, Aktara, Karate, Fas), processing according to the instructions. This method of control is more effective for young plants. In adult specimens, the affected branches are most often simply cut off.
Cracks on the shoots and trunk may appear from the strong and prolonged frost. To avoid this, you need to properly prepare the plant for the winter.
Young purple, or Judah tree, in climatic conditions of middle latitudes requires shelter for the winter.
Before wintering, the branches of the shrub are neatly tied together; the plant is covered with burlap or spandbond in several layers, including the base of the trunk; the shelter is fixed. Take him with the arrival of winter. The soil under the plant can be mulled sawdust, foliage, peat.
Use in garden design
Judah tree when used in garden design retains a decorative look all year round. In the spring, gardeners can enjoy lush flowering plants for a month, then foliage, and in winter pods with beans delight the eye. A successful solution will be a single planting culture. So she gets enough light and nutrients from the soil to show itself in all its beauty. Cercis also looks great in compositions with coniferous shrubs (juniper, thuja, dwarf species of pine and spruce).
If a purple alley is planted, a distance of at least 0.8–1.0 m should be left between specimens. With further growth, they will not interfere with each other. The plant organically looks in gardens in east style.
The hedge of the Judah tree is distinguished by its density and attractive appearance, but we must remember that the plant grows slowly, and therefore it is necessary not to overdo it with curly pruning.
In general, cercis will not cause much trouble in growing and will become a real decoration of the garden. In all seasons, he will attract the views of the household, your guests and just passers-by.
Cercis belongs to the legume family, grows in the form of trees and shrubs. The homeland of the plant is the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East. It grows in rocky areas with dry weather and bright sunshine. In a temperate climate requires care and shelter for the winter.
Shrubs usually grow from 6 to 12 m, trees from 7 to 17 m, there are dwarfs and giants, it depends on the growing conditions.
The bark is dark with a crimson hue; young annual branches are often purple in color. In old trees and bushes, the bark acquires a gray-olive color.
The roots are fibrous, powerful, strongly expand. Up to 10 m in width and up to 2.5 in depth.
The leaves are large up to 15 cm, resemble a heart shape with a rounded end, the veins on the leaves are in the form of a fan. Leaf color is light green, underneath shades of red, purple color. At Cercis, leaves grow like a spiral.
The flowers are incredibly beautiful, pink-crimson with shades of purple, located not only on the branches, but also on the trunk of bushes or trees. The flowers grow in small bundles of 3–6 pieces, have an irregular shape, similar to a small butterfly or a moth. Calyx in the form of an open bell, with a rim up to 1.5–2 cm. It has 5 divergent petals of bright pink color and some violet. They begin to bloom in April-May and bloom until the leaves bloom for 1.5–2 months.
Fruits ripen in the fall in the form of flat pods, similar to the fruits of acacia. In the pod 5-7 beans.
Types and grades of Zerzis
Cercis, unlike the others, has up to 10 species. The most popular varieties include:
- Canadian - this species is most resistant to cold, so it is recommended to plant it in temperate climates, unlike other species. It grows up to 17 m in height. There are 2 varieties: with white and pink flowers.
- Chinese - in a temperate climate, this species freezes. Very thermophilic, suitable for growing in greenhouses. It grows up to 14 m and blooms profusely.
- European (stupon-beetle) - the most decorative look, different flowering splendor and a period of 1-2 weeks. It reaches a height of up to 12 m. The leaves turn yellow in autumn, some with a pinkish tinge. Grown in a temperate climate, but requires good shelter, as it does not tolerate long frosty and windy weather.
- Western, like Chinese, is very thermophilic, so growing in a temperate climate is very difficult, or rather not possible, for it will suit the coast of Crimea, the Caucasus, the Krasnodar Territory. Most often found in the form of bushes with glossy, bright green leaves, when they bloom, have a purple hue.
- Kidney-shaped grows to 10 m in the form of spreading bushes and trees. It differs from other species in the shape of flowers, which are collected on a short leg and lowered down. Very thermophilic, grown in regions with a warm, mild climate.
- The cyst grows to 12 m, it is distinguished by the darker color of the leaves, which are lowered to the ground.
- Griffith Tsertsis is more common in the form of low bushes up to 5 m. In temperate climates it freezes, adapts well to cultivation in the southern regions.
- Qin - bushes with a height of 2 to 7 m, grown only in areas with a mild climate, leaves from green to brown, with inflorescences that grow on last year's shoots.
The most popular varieties include:
- Pink Charm.
- Forest Pansy.
- Texas White.
- Pink Bad.
- Silver Cloud.
- Perple Lift.
Zercis has not only decorative properties, but it is used in the form of seasoning. The wood is very pliable, from it create carpentry. And also used in traditional medicine, although in official medicine has not received distribution and is not included in the reference books of medicinal plants.
Growing and breeding conditions in a temperate continental climate.
For cultivation in a temperate continental climate, only 2 species are suitable - Cercis Canadian and European, but require a dense and warm, winter shelter. The most suitable soil is alkaline or any other. Then you need to add more lime to it and fertilize it with fertilizer containing lime. Высаживают в солнечных местах, на возвышенности, чтобы излишняя вода (осадки) стекали, так как это растение не любит залитых почв.
Размножение происходит 4 способами:
- Семенами. Их собирают осенью с вызревших сухих стручков, которые начинают открываться, перед первыми заморозками. The whole winter is kept in the refrigerator, and in the spring they are scalded with boiling water so that the seed coat becomes softer and allows the germ to break through (the beans are stratified). Planted in soil with good drainage and add lime. The first 2 years the culture grows slowly, then the root system gains strength. The plant very quickly adds 1-2 meters in a season.
- Cuttings. Cut cuttings obliquely with 2-3 buds. It is better to prepare the cuttings in the fall and maintain until the next spring in a greenhouse or in a flower pot in room conditions. The pot is suitable deep, as the root system expands greatly. In the spring they are planted in open ground, when the air temperature will be at least 18 ° C, and the threat of frost will be minimal.
- Layering. If the branches are low, they are bent to the soil and sprinkled, wrapped in polyethylene. They wrap the branch with polyethylene at the level of the kidneys, fill in the soil and pour it over with a root formation stimulator. So leave until the roots appear, then cut the branch and planted in open ground.
- Radical shoots. Often near the adult tree of 5-6 years, basal processes with their own root system grow, which must be planted in the same year so that the roots do not penetrate too deeply.
It is important to cover the young shoots for the winter so that they do not freeze out, since the young saplings are very sensitive to temperature changes and winds.
Selection of seedlings and stages of planting in open ground
Choosing a seedling is half the success in growing Zerzis. Purchases are made in specialized nurseries, botanical gardens, or from gardeners who are engaged in professional cultivation of plants, so that they can give a guarantee of the purchased plant species.
Pay attention to the condition of the bark and leaves, buds, roots - must be intact, without mechanical and other damage, without the presence of pests and diseases. It is better to buy saplings in spring or autumn, refrain from buying in summer and in winter, such plants get worse and adapt.
Stages of planting seedlings in open ground:
- Prepare the soil, water for 1-2 days with a solution of manganese or any other fungicide.
- Dig a hole, the width and depth should be 4-5 times the volume of the roots. At the bottom lay a layer of drainage 10-15 cm (expanded clay, stones, broken brick, sand, gravel).
- The next layer spread fertilizer with lime (manure, droppings, compost). On a bucket of manure 0.5 kg of lime.
- A layer of peat is laid on the fertilizer and a sapling is planted.
- If a plant with an earthy clod, then planted without treatment within a week. If the seedling has an open root system, then before planting it is placed in a bucket with a solution of manganese for 30–40 minutes, pulled out and allowed to drain for 20 minutes. Then it is lowered for 1-2 hours into a solution with a growth and root formation stimulator. Pull out and carry out landing in an open ground.
- The soil is pressed down and sprinkled with sawdust, ash, peat on top, watered with warm water.
Planted seedlings bloom for 3-5 years, subject to careful care and a chance to survive the winter without damage and frostbite.
Caring for a plant consists of several stages:
- Watering. Drainage. Based on the area of distribution with dry weather, Tsercis does not like strong watering and heavy rain. With heavy rains it is important to make additional trenches from the tree with drainage. Watering is done 1-2 times a month. When dry and hot weather without rains increase to 3-4 times a month, using a small amount of warm water with fertilizer.
- Top dressing is a very important component in successful cultivation of Cercis in temperate climates. Fertilizers are applied 4 times during the spring and autumn season. The first time at the stage of formation of flower buds is a complex fertilizer, which will include phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and nitrogen. The second time - at the stage of flowering, in the month of May. For the third time in mid-summer limestone and bio-fertilizers are added to the soil. The fourth time feed complex fertilizer.
- Pruning and crown formation. Formative pruning is carried out for 5-7 years of life of the seedling. In spring or autumn, sanitary pruning of damaged branches, diseased or disturbed by pests growing in the wrong direction, and basal growth are carried out. Often after planting, Cercis grows wild, creating unnecessary growth, which must be cut off, depending on the growth, on the site.
- Removal of weeds and loosening the soil is carried out as needed. Loosening is important after heavy rains and during dry weather when cracks appear in the soil. Weeds are vectors of pests and certain diseases, so they are removed as soon as they sprout.
- Prevention of diseases and pests. Cercis is very sensitive to external influences. Therefore requires careful inspection and care. And in the event of diseases and pests of their urgent destruction.
Cercis grows heavily, especially the root system, so it should be planted 4-5 meters farther than other garden plants so that the roots do not interfere with others. The most suitable neighbors for Zerzis:
- conifers (spruce, pine, juniper, fir),
- garden flowers: majors, marigolds, asters, snowdrops, cobs, decorative beans, wisteria.
Use in landscape design
To create avenues from Zerzis, a large area will be required and their landing at a distance of 2-3 m from each other. Often gardeners use them in single landings on the south side of the garden. The tree creates shade and allows other shade-loving plants to grow safely.
Apply in the formation of a fence or form in the form of garden bonsai. At any time of the year, Zercis has a beautiful decorative appearance, in spring due to bright colors, in summer - abundant green foliage, in autumn - bright colors of yellow, red, burgundy leaves, in winter - to fallen bean pods.
Thanks to the efforts of breeders, gardeners, amateurs and enthusiasts, it became possible to cultivate Tsercis of Canada and Europe in Volgograd and Saratov, which successfully hibernate, bloom, bear fruit and multiply. In Moscow Region and in Moscow, they also grow and winter well, but not all of them bloom. In the southern regions for them a favorable climate, often bloom on Easter. And also do not require shelter for the winter.
The plant is extremely thermophilic, so only selected types of shrubs can be grown on the garden plot: bud-shaped, Canadian and western.
The characteristic features of the plant are as follows:
- Ordinary round leaves with solid edges have a base in the form of a heart. They have small stipules that are almost imperceptible, as they quickly fall off.
- Flowers of the plant have an irregular shape, they are arranged in bunches in the form of bright inflorescences.
- The cup of inflorescence has the form of a wide bell.
- Usually in one flower 5 petals. They have either pink or purple color.
- The plant has flat fruits - beans.
- Cercis ends flowering when the leaves begin to bloom.
Growing cercis is not an easy task. Be patient to properly treat a demanding plant.
The shrub prefers sunny spots and drained soil. Also, the plant is bad for strong winds. In its natural habitat, it can be suppressed by almost any plant, therefore it is better to grow cercis in a separate area. Put it in the fall. Use the following guidelines for planting seedlings:
- Seedlings obliquely located in the holes. Do not worry if the shoots that have already come up, do not stand frost. When frosts end, the plant will give new shoots.
- The holes are dug up to the size of the roots and watered abundantly. After placing the roots in the soil, the pits are covered with earth and moistened again. Do not change the "place of residence" of the plant, if it has already sprouted more than 50 cm into the soil.
- The plant takes root on any soil, but if your task is to achieve bright shades of flowers, choose a sour soil.
Cercis is propagated by seeds. Sow them for the winter, after which the soil is warmed.
Care for cercis is in the rules:
- Watering only during periods of prolonged lack of rain.
- Fertilizing with organic fertilizers every spring, best in May.
- To form a crown, the plant can be pruned while it is at a young age.
With proper care, the shrub will not die, but for this it is important to strictly follow the above rules. Choose only cold-resistant species, otherwise the plant will die immediately after planting in the ground.