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Spruce Engelmana description

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Fir-tree of Engelman Glauca (Picea engelmani Glauca) -

Description: highly decorative coniferous tree, rather narrow crown shape. Height of an adult plant: 15 - 20 m., Diameter of krone: 4,5 - 6 m. Krone - cone-shaped, dense, without a clear horizontal tiering of branches. Needles - 1 - 2 cm long, not very prickly, blue or gray-blue. Cones - a cylindrical shape, 3 - 6 cm long, light brown (in the ripened state).

Winter hardiness zone: 2. The plant is very cold resistant.

Illumination requirements: grows best and most decoratively looks in full sun, makes light penumbra.

Soil requirements: prefers drained, slightly moistened (without stagnant water), fertile soil.

Using: recommended for planting in gardens, parks, squares. Looks great with a single landing on lawns or as part of landscape compositions. From the firs of this variety it is possible to create alleys.

Features agrotehnika: in the hot season, a young plant needs periodic moderate watering and sprinkling over the crown. An adult plant is already more drought tolerant. Young spruce can be fed fertilizer for conifers.

El Engelman ‘Glauca’ is recommended for use in single, group and alley plantings on the lawn.

What do we know about ate?

Spruce, bearing the name of the famous German naturalist Theodor Engelmann, originally from North America, where she is found on the territory of the forest belt of the Rocky Mountains, at an altitude of up to 3.5 thousand meters above sea level.

Spruce grows in nature in pure or mixed forests, but not with deciduous trees, but with other evergreen coniferous conifers - fir, zsugoy, pines, spruces of other species.

In Europe and Russia, decorative blue spruce has been cultivated since the 19th century, and can live up to 500 years or more.

Adult spruce reaches 50 meters in height, the trunk grows up to 90 cm in diameter. Her crown is lush, conical, with gentle branches. The bark, like all members of this family - scaly, thin, red-brown color.

The needles are not too long - up to 2-2.5 cm, tetrahedral. Cones up to 7 cm long, cylindrical, light brown. Ripen by the beginning of autumn, and then seeds can be extracted from them.

The tree is highly frost resistant, able to survive the winter with a temperature drop to -45 degrees.

Agrotechnology

Spruce undemanding to climatic conditions and soil. It grows well on calcareous soils with sufficient moisture, but will take root on a dry hillside.

In the shade of buildings, it is better not to plant a tree, but to find a more spacious and lighted place for it. In the hole for planting should arrange the drainage system, then pour a little fertile land, establish a seedling and cover with soil mixture of leaf and sod land, sand and peat. The root neck should be at ground level. Planted trees at a distance of 3-3.5 meters, so that in the adult form, they do not interfere with each other. The soil around the roots sprinkled with a small layer of peat.

It is not difficult to care for the fir, the main thing is for it to take root in a new place. After planting, it is fed with a nitroammofosca at the rate of 100-150 grams per plant. As for irrigation - they are held once a week, but in a dry summer you will have to water more often.

The crown needs to be sprayed with water, washing away the dust and refreshing the needles. From time to time the ground next to the spruce is loosened without removing the mulching layer of peat.

Only young saplings with a height of less than 1-1.5 meters are prepared for winter. To do this, set shields on the north side, wrap branches with agrofibre in several layers, and sprinkle the roots with leaves or spruce leaves.

Engelman spruce grows slowly, the increase is 20-30 cm per year. At this time, the crown is formed by pinching the dominant shoots, and shortening the side shoots.

Spruce, especially young plants, must be protected from spider mites, spruce aphids, spruce moths, fusarium, stem and root rot, rust of cones, necrosis of the bark.

Spruce Engelman sorta

Glauka, Sizaya (“Glauca’) Tree 20–40 m tall, with a dense cone-shaped crown, without a clear horizontal tiering of the branches. The needles are less prickly, more flexible and less distant than those of the spruce barbed, bluish-blue, especially clear coloring appears in early spring. In winter, the needles are not so attractive, but still decorative. Growing fast. Hardy Propagated by seeds, cuttings, grafting. Cultivated since 1874. Very common in gardens abroad. Recommended for single, group and alley landings in large gardens.
After getting acquainted with the assortment, it is important to learn the characteristics of planting and growing spruce in the conditions of central Russia.

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Product description

El Engelman (Picea engelmannii)

Coniferous tree, type species of the genus Spruce (Picea) of the Pine family (Pinaceae).

Evergreen coniferous tree growing to 50 meters, the diameter of the trunk with such growth can reach 90 cm. Every year the tree increases its growth by 20 cm.

This species is a long-liver, it lives in natural conditions up to five hundred years, however, the needles lasts no more than fifteen years.

The fir-tree has a dense cone-shaped crown, the branches are drooping, most often growing symmetrically. On the trunk scaly bark of red-brown color, with small cracks. On the young branches of the bark of a yellowish shade, with an edge.

The buds have the same elongated shape as the crown. The young needles have more blue color in color, the old one is more green, needles are tetrahedral, sharp, but not rigid. Needle length - up to 2 cm.

In August, cones, large, egg-shaped, up to 7 cm long, brown in color (young burgundy) ripen. Under the scales with sharp edges hiding winged seeds of dark brown color.

The view is not afraid of winds, it tolerates both high and low temperatures equally well. Also drought is not terrible, only young saplings require careful watering.

Since, in natural conditions, the Engelman variety forms dense plantings, in a shaded place it will develop as well as in a lighted one.

It is not recommended to plant in areas where moisture stagnates, with groundwater location close to the surface. This can be detrimental to the root system.

Unpartially in the choice of soil, in nature it grows well on limestone. It is desirable for the culture to provide a drained, moderately moist substrate with a neutral reaction, for example, loams.

The breed is not demanding to growing conditions, drought-resistant, light-requiring.

It tolerates a haircut and molding. In principle, formative pruning tree is not needed, but when planting a hedge or avenue, it is necessary.

Recommended for garden compositions, alleys, single and group plantings.

Frost resistance: high. The species is characterized by increased frost resistance (up to -30 ° C), but is sensitive to spring frosts.

For the winter, young trees are covered with spruce leaves. To protect the seedlings from the intense heat and the bright sun, they are covered with a light material.

Coniferous trees on the plot are always beautiful and stylish, they emit a specific fresh scent and allow you to feel unity with nature.

Most coniferous trees and Engelman's fir-tree in particular are unpretentious either in planting or in caring, which is attractive even for inexperienced gardeners.

Landing.

Soil: a mixture of loose earth, peat, sand and sawdust (3-2-1-1).

Drainage should be easy, it is better not to use brick, claydite, crushed stone and other solid materials for drainage, perlite, vermiculite, cut needles are suitable (with shears cut the Christmas tree on the needles, cones and firewood salad), because conifers - not deciduous, even not very serious damage to the root system can be fatal.

When transplanted in a year to individual pots, with heavy drainage, about a third of the volume of the root system of everything that was sown is lost (thin roots, heavy stones, with the slightest movement all breaks off).

"Drainage salad" is placed on the bottom of the box, plus this method is that the needles are light, a layer of 4-5 cm lets water through as well as claydite, for a year if it does not rot, it will crumble into pieces and in no way interfere with removing the roots of seedlings intact and preservation.

Method 1. Seeds have a forced rest and germinate soon after they fall into a suitable environment for this. Special training in the form of stratification is optional.

The best place of sowing is a film of relatively high greenhouse. Substrate is desirable based on milled sphagnum peat with a low degree of decomposition. For the preparation of the substrate in wet peat add 10 liters of 35 g of limestone flour and 20 g of Fertic alternately with mixing.

Before sowing, which is desirable at the very beginning of May, they separate whole seeds from empty ones. To do this, the seeds are poured with water and wait a day. After this time, the full-grained seeds sink, and the empty ones remain to float.

Fully grained seeds are pickled in 0.2% potassium permanganate solution for 30 minutes and dried on a newspaper. After that, the seeds are sown. It is better to do lower case sowing, as this facilitates care.

On top of the crop mulch 0.5-1.0 cm with a mixture of fresh sawdust softwood and peat, taken in a 1: 1 ratio.

In the process of growing annual seedlings, until August 1, three foliar dressing with 0.1% urea solution is carried out.

The first is carried out two weeks after the emergence of shoots. In early May of the second year, seedlings are planted in the ridge. Previously to this ridge add the same peat mixture, which was used for sowing in the amount of 30-50 l / m2.

The distance between seedlings during planting is 15-20 cm. Later in the process of growing in the ridge, plants are fed each year in early May with fertilizer for conifers. If necessary, carry out watering and weeding. The minimum period of growing plants in the ridge is three years.

Method 2 Scarification of seeds ate. For better seed germination, scarification can be performed - a violation of dense seed covers. To do this, put the seeds in a jar, pre-lined from the inside with coarse sandpaper, and produce intense shaking, as a result of which the hard covers are broken. It is necessary to sow the seeds treated in this way immediately after processing.

Method 3. When the length of the day in spring is 10 hours or more (for indoor cultivation) or the risk of night frost has passed (for outdoor cultivation), you can start sowing seeds.

For sowing, we will need balcony boxes 40–80 cm in length and 15–20 cm in height. In the absence of balcony boxes, any container will fit, even cut-off 5-liter bottles from under water).

It is not necessary to create greenhouse conditions for future Christmas trees. Simply place them on the southern window and ensure regular watering. As soon as the heat comes, seedlings with a box can be planted in the ground. Stick to the ground and grow until next year. Not forgetting to periodically water with phytosporin, weed and handle Epin. Epin more often 1 time in 2 weeks should not be applied. Fitosporin - the interval between treatments is fifteen days.

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This species is a long-liver Ellen Engelman (Picea Engelmannii), lives under natural conditions for up to five hundred years, although the needles are kept for no more than fifteen years. El Engelman is from the genus El pine of the Pine family. In its natural environment, its habitat covers the rocky mountains of the forest belt of North America. It grows in the shadow of mountain slopes and valleys at high altitudes, 1500-3500 meters above ground level in vast areas of clean and mixed forests. Its neighbors of the lower belt in the place of growth can be monochrome and pretty firs, western heaps, larches, twisted broad-tailed pines, and the upper one - subalpine fir, mountain heats, Layel larches, blond, soft pines. the middle of the 19th century, and in Russia - from the end of the same century. Engelman spruce is a fast growing tree. Not widely received, since few regions are suitable for its growth. On average, it lives three hundred or four hundred years, but in some cases its life expectancy reaches six hundred years. It has a high frost resistance.

Crown shape and height: evergreen coniferous tree growing to 50 meters, the diameter of the trunk with such growth can reach 90 cm. Every year the tree increases its growth by twenty centimeters. The fir-tree has a dense cone-shaped crown, the branches are drooping, most often growing symmetrically. On the trunk scaly bark of red-brown color, with small cracks. On the young branches of the bark of a yellowish shade, with an edge.

Kidney: a representative of the species has the same elongated shape as the crown. The young needles have more blue color in color, the old one is more green, needles are tetrahedral, sharp, but not rigid. The length of the needles is up to 2 cm.  In August, cones, large, egg-shaped, up to 7 cm long, brown (young-burgundy) ripen. Under the scales with sharp edges hiding winged seeds of dark brown color.
The birthplace of Engelman Spruce is the forest of the Rocky Mountains of North America, also a province of Canada British Columbia. Trees grow in groups along the rivers, mountain slopes, preferring shadow areas.

Decorative species of Engelman spruce include: small-coniferous (microphilla), blue weeping (glauca pendula), blue (glauca),

Planting and care: When planting, it should be noted that many species react badly to a polluted environment. They are not recommended to land in areas with the production of heavy industry, near roads with heavy traffic, near gas stations.

Choice of place: the view is not afraid of winds; it tolerates both high and low temperatures equally well. Also drought is not terrible, only young saplings require careful watering. Since under natural conditions, the Engelman variety forms dense plantings, in a shaded place it will develop as well as on a lighted one. It is not recommended to plant a view on areas where moisture is stagnant, with groundwater being close to the surface. This can be detrimental to the root system. 

The soil: the plant is picky in the choice of soil, in nature it grows well on limestone. It is desirable for the culture to provide a drained, moderately moist substrate with a neutral reaction, for example, loams.

Diseases and their prevention:

Schutte - needles grow brown in spring, clusters of fungal spores form at the bottom of the needles, нежSneetny schutte - brown scurf on needles appears in the autumn, in spring it becomes covered with white scurf, 
Fusarium - mostly young plants suffer, needles become brown and fly around, 
Stem and root rot - dry tops of branches, the trunk is covered by the settlement of mushrooms,
Necrosis of the bark - the bark becomes dry, changes color, becomes covered with rusty outgrowths and eventually dies off, 
Ulcer cancer — ulcers appear in the bark of the trunk, leaking with resin, often with the formation of fungi,
The spruce spit is a severe form of a previous illness, aggravated by the twisting of the branches.
The fight against diseases involves treating plants with fungicides, usually watering the tree at the root.

Preventive measures: it is advisable to plant in a sunny area, long-term shading develops moisture, which bacteria love.
Carefully choose seedlings. When planting, treat the root system with fungicides. To carry out timely sanitary pruning, process cuts with garden pitch. In the spring to conduct spraying preparations containing copper.
Important! It is recommended to exclude the neighborhood with the bird cherry, since the latter is subject to the same diseases and can become a carrier of viruses and bacteria.

The main pests of Engelman spruce are: Spruce worm, according to its name, destroys the needles of a plant. The affected areas are treated with soapy water, with the help of a fan rake they remove damaged needles and burn it. When the situation is running apply systemic pesticides.

The spider mite lodges and breeds voracious offspring, most often on young plants, because of its vital activity, the tree loses its needles. The fight against pest is spraying with colloidal sulfur, you can use traditional methods: dandelion infusion, garlic. With a strong defeat by insects apply acaricides.

Important! Do not allow large settlements of ants (they breed aphids). In a strong drought, spray the branches to avoid creating a habitat favorable for the spider mite.

Aphid and its numerous offspring suck all the sap from the green parts of the plant, which leads to the death of the tree. Densely populated with aphids, branches are best cut by processing the cut. The remaining areas need to be treated with soapy water, pre-laying the plant stem circle in order not to damage the soil microflora.

Preventive actions: carry out timely sanitary pruning. Especially carefully care for young seedlings. Do not allow overmoistening. To carry out preventive spraying with insecticides.

Features of the process of care and landing: ель предпочитает увлажнённые, дренированные почвы, поэтому при посадке готовят наиболее подходящую для неё смесь:При посадке корневую шейку не заглубляют, оставляя на уровне с поверхностью почвы. В конце процесса обязателен полив с внесением удобрения — 100 г нитроаммофоски, 10 г корневина на 10 литров воды, всего под корень выливают около 40 литров воды. Полив — дважды в месяц (в засуху раз в неделю) двенадцать литров воды. Подкормки — два раза в год (комплексы для хвойных растений). Pruning - sanitary and formative (spring or autumn). Loosening - no deeper than five centimeters,
weeding.

Some important points: In principle, formative pruning is not necessary for the tree, but when planting a hedge or avenue, it is necessary,
for the winter, young trees are covered with spruce trees,
adult and young trees (near-stem circle) for the winter are covered with a layer of peat, in the spring it is mixed with the soil,
to protect saplings from intense heat and bright sun, they are covered with lightweight material,
reproduction is carried out by seeds and vegetative,
the seeds of Engelman ate retain their fecundity for five years.

Application in landscape design: Most often, spruce trees are used as living protection from wind, snow drifts and noise suppression. Such landings can be found both outside the city and in urban settings, in the form of avenues and mini-parks. The tree looks good in single and group plantings with coniferous and deciduous plants. Also coniferous plants such as thuja, juniper, cross-pair microbiota, yew, cypress, fir, boxwood, pseudo-topsug, larch, cryptomeria, pine, cedar, and myririum foxtail, will perfectly decorate your summer cottage.
Low-growing varieties decorate rock gardens, protect flower beds, are used in bonsai compositions. The beautiful shape of the crown and the compliance of the forming haircut allows you to successfully use the Engelman spruce tree as a New Year tree, which many private house owners use.

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