Begonia is one of the most popular flowerbed cultures. It grows well not only in the sun, but also in partial shade, while maintaining bright colors. Tuberous begonia will become an ornament not only in a flowerbed. This plant is quite unpretentious, has a long flowering period. It grows quickly, weaving the earth with a beautiful bright carpet, for this reason begonia is very fond of flower growers.
This decorative culture belongs to perennials, rarely wood-growing shrubs with fleshy stems and foliage. Ever-blooming perennial varieties of begonias are shrubby, creeping vines and grassy.
The stem of the plant is upright, and sometimes creeping, juicy. It shows pronounced nodules. The number of internodes equals the number of leaves. The root system is very branchy, and in many species, besides the roots, there are tubers.
The leaves are oval, fleshy, slightly cut along the edge. Depending on the type of begonia, the leaves may have different colors: green, brownish-green or purple-brown.
The inflorescences represent panicles, on which the inflorescences grow laterally. They form in the axils of the leaves, starting with the fifth on the main stems. Inflorescences, consisting of approximately 3-5 flowers, are constantly growing. And the topmost one always has a bud for the development of the inflorescence.
Flowers in the inflorescences are large, have different sex types, irregular shapes and brightly colored perianths. The color of the flowers is very different: snow-white, orange-red, yellow, etc. The flowers consist of 4 petals of oval shape, a pair of sepals and free bracts. The fruits resemble a box with wings; at the time of ripening, it cracks at the seams. The seeds are very small, yellow in color, small cells are visible on their surface, but inside these small seeds there is a straight germ.
Begonia in the garden is planted for design. Three types of plants are commonly used for this.
- Tuber grows no higher than 30 cm. The variety is distinguished by large flowers, striking in abundance and brightness of colors. The flowers of these varieties of begonias are opposite-sex: on one bush male and female blooms at the same time. Flowering time is very long. Flowers have different forms: lotus, roses, carnations.
- Hybrid begonia is a separate type of ampelous type. The long hanging branches are covered with whole caps of flowers.
- The evergreen begonia has a large number of varieties. The bushes of this plant usually have a height of up to 15 cm. The leaves of an ever-flowering plant are small, oval-shaped and smooth. The color is different: green, brownish, dark red and others. Growing this variety is not difficult for experienced gardeners and for beginners.
To plant a plant, minimizing care for it, you need to follow a certain sequence, which will help to get good growth and beautiful flowering. Begin cultivation of tuberous varieties from the last winter month and continue until the end of spring.
Tubers preferably planted in wet peat. In this case, the plant will receive a maximum of nutrition and will develop well, because as for the soil it is not capricious. If you need to plant a begonia in room conditions, it will be good in the purchased soil, and you can prepare the soil mixture yourself. To do this, it is enough to mix leaf soil with turf and sand in proportions of 4: 1: 1. This soil has a weak acid reaction.
Begonia tubers have up and down. The top has a slightly concave shape with tubercles. Tubers need to be planted in the ground only with the round side up. If you plant mistakenly a tuber, sprouts can not break through the ground.
Planting tubers in the pot should be done if the temperature in the room is not higher than 20 C, and then pour the soil. In the future, the plant is moderately watered. Under such conditions, the tubers germinate quickly, and then transplant from the planting mixture into a spacious pot or garden soil, but this is done after the warm season. The plant, when properly planted, grows vigorously, and then blooms all summer if it is provided with decent care.
This plant is placed near the window overlooking the south-west. In winter, a pot with a bush is transferred to the south window. In summer, sunlight cannot hit the begonia leaves - the plant can get burned. For this purpose, the glass of the window must be closed with a film in order to get scattered instead of direct rays of the sun.
The plant prefers fertile soil. It should not contain lime. Feeding should be done approximately every seven days, starting from the summer days until late autumn. For this purpose, suitable fertilizers, which are designed for indoor plants.
For the plant to always be beautiful and luxuriantly blooming, properly organized watering is needed. With summer heat, tubers should be watered abundantly. Drying them should not be allowed. With good watering, at least three times a week, the plant blooms well, and in the hot season the bushes need to be watered every day.
When watering the ingress of water to flowers and leaves is unacceptable. This plant will suffer painfully. The plant has very tender, vulnerable roots. Strong soil moistening causes damage to the roots, and the plant may die. Because watering the soil, where begonia grows, you need only after it dries.
The potted plant at 40-degree heat needs to be cooled, for which the pot with it can be temporarily put in a basin where cool stones or claydite with water are poured. Spray the plant can not.
Seed propagation is very interesting. The short summer and late spring of temperate latitudes make us look for ways to grow the plant as early as possible. To this flower pleased lush flowering in May, it is better to grow seedlings, sowing seeds in the prepared soil in the room. Do not sow the seeds too soon, especially when there is no special additional illumination, but you do not need to linger. The process of growing begonias from seeds starts from late January to early April.
Often gardeners have no idea how to grow this perennial from seeds. Seeds, of course, are easier to buy in the store than to collect on their own, but it is necessary not only to get the seeds, but also to sow them correctly.
Begonia seeds are very small, so they are recommended to be mixed with sand before sowing. Some growers simply press the seeds into the wet ground, considering this method more convenient. It should be remembered that the seeds can not be sprinkled on top, because they need lighting. Planting boxes or pots should be covered with a film or glass after planting, and then put in a warm room. The air temperature should be not lower than 20 ° C and not higher than 24 ° C. If the air temperature is lower, the seeds may not germinate. Shoots appear about 12-15 days later.
When germinating seeds, the soil should be wet, but not too humid. After the seeds germinate, gentle shoots need adequate light. Otherwise, the seedlings, in the search for light, will greatly stretch and will fall. To the street, seedlings should be taught gradually and initially protected from the sun. When sprouts have a pair of true leaves, they pick a pick into separate pots with fertile soil. Picks do carefully, trying not to damage the tender shoots.
When breeding tubers are divided into several parts. The condition for the possibility of growing a flower in this case should be the presence of a developed bud in the obtained part of the tuber. The incision is covered with crushed coal or sand. While the tuber does not take root and sprouts, it is watered moderately and tended with great care.
When cuttings are propagated, begonias have their certain subtleties. Before using this breeding method, it is necessary that the tubers are at rest from the first days of September. Then in January they will be ready for planting. Cuttings on the tuber need to grow no more than a month. Otherwise, you can deplete the tuber, and this will cause the death of the mother begonia. Shoots from tubers are separated and planted to take root.
You can also plant a stalk in the soil, cover with a can, for example, a half-liter glass, and put it on a warm window-sill. If water drops appear on the glass, it means that the rooting process is proceeding normally, and the seedling has begun to take root. The bank should not be removed until the sprout begins to grow. After that, he is trained to the open air, removing the jar first for a short time, and then the intervals of the plant "on the air" gradually increase. Whole tubers are stored for up to five years, and before planting them in the ground from the surface remove traces of mold and rot.
Subtleties of care for diseases
Begonias in the garden and in the room are quite whimsical and require good care. If the care is not thorough enough, you should not expect beautiful flowering from the plant. Many lovers of begonia face problems of care. This can be seen by the type of plant:
- there are brown spots on the leaves (this is a signal that the plant has been burned by the sun. Therefore, the plant must be removed in the shade),
- if the flower stands apart from the sun, and there are still brown spots (this means that the plant lacks fertilizer, excess or lack of water),
- leaves dry, and then fall off, it can be assumed that there is insufficient air humidity in the room.
When pests have appeared on the plant, this is a consequence of the fact that the care was incorrect.
- Most often the flower strikes rot. To avoid this, it is necessary to comply with the irrigation regime, avoiding waterlogging and stagnant moisture. About the appearance of rot signal blackening foci on the stems. It quickly spreads through the stalk. Foci of rot must be removed so as not to destroy the plant. Then process all parts of the flower with a special fungicide.
- Spotted bacteria can cause blackening. This disease begins with the appearance of vitreous specks on the lower surface of the leaves. The fight against it is useless, in addition, this disease can affect all the plants in the garden. Therefore, the affected perennial must be thrown out from the flower bed and the soil should be disinfected. To avoid infection, begonia should be sprayed with copper oxychloride, or rather its solution.
- No less dangerous enemy of begonia is powdery mildew. It appears when excessive watering. If dew is detected, the plant requires the flower to be treated with a fungicide. And if it is not, you can use garlic, or rather its infusion. But it is better not to flood the plant initially, simultaneously ventilate the room and loosen the soil.
- No less terrible for the plant aphid, which is controlled by hand. To do this, each leaf rubbed with alcohol. You can use a specialized solution that is sold in stores, for example "Khoma". For this purpose, take a teaspoon of the substance and dissolve it in a liter of water. This composition is processed leaves of the flower.
- Loves this perennial and spider mite. It affects the plant when there is insufficient moisture in the room. In order to combat this pest leaves need to be treated with a decoction of chamomile or soap solution. If this does not help, you can purchase a specialized drug in the store, such as Intavir or Karbofos.
Choosing a site for planting and soil for begonias
When choosing a place for planting begonias, it should be remembered that begonias can grow well in partial shade, so save sunny places for sun-loving plants. However, from an aesthetic point of view, a bed of begonias should be broken in sight - they are too beautiful to slide them into the far corner of the garden where no one will see them.
Begonias can be grown in one place for 6-8 years. This is another factor that must be considered when choosing a site for landing. Begonias practically do not deplete the soil and perfectly resist diseases and pests. This, by the way, is very convenient when planting begonias in flower pots or balcony drawers.
It should be borne in mind that begonias "love" loose, fertile, permeable soil, which has a weakly acidic reaction environment. Therefore, liming the soil before planting begonias is not required in the cultivated areas of the garden. Soil preparation consists of deep autumn digging, with the removal of rhizomes of perennial weeds, and the introduction of humus. Humus contribute from the calculation: one bucket per 1 sq.m. future flower beds. The introduction of humus is especially necessary with many years of cultivation in the same place.
Cultivation of begonias should be started in advance - long before the snow melts and the heat comes. Growing begonias begin in the period from late February to early March. Grow in boxes or pots. To grow the substrate is prepared, consisting of the following components: leaf soil and peat in a 2: 1 ratio. You can use pure peat with the addition of lime, at the rate of 50-70 grams per peat bucket. Some recommend the use of ready-made soil "Begonia".
Before planting the tubers in pots or boxes, they remove the remnants of the soil, prune the dried roots and incubate for about an hour in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. If you perform this simple procedure, then even slightly faded and shriveled nodules after such a procedure become suitable for disembarkation.
Then, in a box for growing, pour a layer of fertile soil with a thickness of 8-10 cm, and lay begonias on it, at a distance of 6-8 cm from each other. Tubers fall asleep with the remaining mixture so that the tops of the tubers remain on the surface and slightly moisturize. Boxes are installed in a warm and bright place, preventing direct sunlight. Water as needed. When watering, remember that water should not fall into the recess in the center of the tuber. Once in 15-20 days begonias should be fed with complex mineral fertilizer, at the rate of 1-1.5 grams per liter of water.
To begonia grew well and flourished in your home, follow simple rules:
- Low wide pot
- Good drainage
- Moderate temperature and high humidity
- Top dressing 1 time in 10 days
- Small rest period in the winter months
Open ground begonias
Caring for begonias in the open field begins, paradoxically, one month before planting in open ground - in early May. On warm days, boxes with raised begonias begin to be carried outside, gradually increasing the time spent in the open air, thereby hardening the plants.
At the same time, in the flower garden, where it is planned to plant begonias, once again dig up the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm, and then make mineral fertilizers, for example, Kemira Universal, observing the dosage - 30-50 grams per square meter.
When the threat of frost return is passed, in early June, begonias are transplanted to flower beds, to a balcony or garden containers. The distance between adjacent plants should be 15-20 cm, and the soil layer under the tuber should be 2 cm. Tuberous begonia tolerates transplantation well, regardless of age and variety. The only condition for a successful transplant is the absence of damage to the leaves on the petioles.
Care for begonia is a regular and abundant watering and feeding. Fertilizing is carried out alternating mineral and organic fertilizers. In the flowering period, which comes about three months later from planting the tuber of begonias to grow, it is necessary to observe the plants in order to timely identify the sick and those damaged by the pests of the plants. By the way, if your begonia suffers from an invasion of thrips, we recommend that you read the article “Trips. Methods of pest control ”, which is dedicated to combating them.
Begonia tuber storage in winter
With the arrival of the first frost, the begonia tubers are dug up. Digging must be done very carefully so as not to damage, therefore usually they are digging with a trowel or a garden fork. The stems are carefully cut with a knife or shears, leaving penets 2-3 cm high. Then, without clearing the soil from the roots, the tubers are carefully laid in storage boxes. Boxes with tubers set in a dry, warm and ventilated room to dry.
After 2 weeks, after drying the tubers, remove the remnants of the stems and shake off the excess soil. Then the begonia tubers are placed for permanent storage in a room with a temperature of 5-10 degrees and humidity of 80-85%.
In the presence of a subfield, boxes with tubers can be put there by filling in the gaps between tubers with sand. When stored in the refrigerator, the tubers are placed in a plastic bag with dry peat. The safety of tubers periodically checked.
At the end of winter, when the buds on the tubers begin to grow, the tubers can be divided by cutting them into pieces and powdering the cuts with powder from charcoal or colloidal sulfur.
Observing these simple guidelines for the cultivation of tuberous begonias, you can successfully and successfully cultivate this culture for many years.
What is a tuberous begonia
Tuberous begonia is one of the most favorite flowers of gardeners. The reason for this is truly gorgeous and long flowering, so decorating a garden, terrace or balcony with the help of this plant will not be difficult for you. The main thing is to properly care for the flower, otherwise it can not only get sick, but also die.
Китайский фольклор гласит, что первая бегония выросла на месте, орошённом слезами полюбившей женщины.
Клубневая бегония (Begonia tuberhybrida) – вид семейства бегониевых, полученный в результате сложной многолетней селекции девяти видов растений из разных уголков мира. Work on the creation of this flower was started in the XIX century, and today there are about two hundred of this bright perennial.
Begonia has several distinctive features. Unlike ordinary begonias, it can be grown both as indoor, and as a garden flower. At the same time it is grassy, shrubby and ampelous type.
The main feature of this plant is the presence of a thick rhizome (tuber) about 5–6 cm in size. The stalk is strong, thick, translucent and up to 80 cm tall, and the leaves are large, heart-shaped with a glossy or fuzzy dark or light green color.
Another difference of this type of begonia from other plant species is an unusually long (from May to October) and beautiful flowering.
The shape of the flowers are divided into peony and rose-like, while there are also flowers that look like large daffodils, camellias or carnations.
Depending on the type of plant, the diameter of flowers can vary from 3 to 20 cm, and their location can be both individual and group (in the form of inflorescences).
Male flowers differ in large size, terry surface and early flowering. At the same time, women look somewhat more modest - they are smaller in diameter and have about 4–5 smooth non-terry petals. These flowers will look great in a group planting stone garden
Color, of course, depends on the begonia variety. So, the most popular colors of this plant are:
Main varieties with photos
The most beautiful and popular varieties of upright tuberous begonias experts consider:
- Picotee Arlequin - plant of semi-sprawling type up to 25 cm high.
Flowers: large (up to 12 cm in diameter), yellow with a bright red border, terry.
Leaves: green, gear.
- Bouton De Rose is a short compact bush plant.
Flowers: pinkish, terry, up to 18 cm in size, pale pink or white.
Leaves: large, green, with a wavy edge.
- Dark Red is an undersized shrub of a semi-sprawling type.
Flowers: peony, up to 10 cm in diameter, double, dark red.
Leaves: large, finely toothed, green.
Another tuberous variety of this flower plant is ampel begonia. Its distinguishing feature is long, falling stems, studded with bright flowers. The most popular variety of this memorable flower is Chanson, striking with a variety of colors and shades. Ampella begonia is perfect for filling hanging pots
Separately, consider the Bolivian begonia (Begonia Boliviensis) - a type of ampelous flower, the shoots of which grow upwards, and upon reaching 30 cm they drop down in the form of a multi-tiered cascade. Such types as are especially demanded:
- Santa Cruz Sunset - sprawling plant with drooping shoots up to 40 cm and fuchsiform flowers of red-orange color,
- Copacabana - unpretentious in the care and hardy creeping plant with bell-shaped bright red flowers,
- Bossa Nova is a spreading plant with shoots up to 50 cm long and fuchsiform flowers of orange, red, white or pink color.
In what conditions can you grow
As noted above, to grow a tuberous begonia at home in pots, and right in the open field in the garden.
Due to the long flowering period (on the window sill it can bloom almost the whole year) and the chic appearance, the plant is especially popular to impart a luxurious and fresh look to balconies and terraces. Tuberous begonia looks great in the landscape and design of the house, even if only one grade is used
Thus, there are no restrictions on the place of cultivation of the tuberous begonia - the main thing is that the place is rather dry and warm.
Landing at home
Growing at home should begin in early March - at this time, the first buds appear on the rhizome, from which later sprouts will hatch. If there is a lot of them on one tuber, then it can be divided into several parts with the help of a knife, leaving one or two eyes on each of them. Sections at the same time should be sealed with crushed coal, and the tuber pieces should be planted in moist peat. When caring for a plant, it is extremely important to remember the so-called “light mark” and not to change the position of the pots in relation to the sun, otherwise the buds on the tuberous begonia may fall off
Planting in a pot. Step-by-step instruction
- Tubers should be planted into the soil in a rounded bottom part - it will be the roots that will later grow from it. Shoots will bite out of the concave lobe, so it must remain at the top.
- In order to speed up the process of the emergence of sprouts and the formation of stems, during planting the tuber must be buried in the peat only half, leaving its outer part on the surface.
- A few weeks later, when the size of the shoots will reach 5 cm, and the first leaves will appear on them, each specimen must be transplanted into a special soil, sprinkling the rhizome with earth, and rearranging the pot in a bright and warm place.
The ideal soil for planting the tuberous begonia can be made independently by adding sand to the floral substrate.
Particular attention should be paid to the size of the pot for the tuberous begonia. The capacity for transplanting a young plant should be wide (with a diameter of 20 cm), but shallow, because the rhizome of begonia is superficial.
After transplantation, the plant will begin to grow rapidly and release a large number of buds and leaves. With proper care, the begonia will bloom all summer and will not fade even in the fall, but before the winter begins, the foliage will fall off, so its stems must be cut, the tubers removed and the roots cut. Keep the tubers at the same time will need to spring in a dark cool place.
The procedure for planting a tuberous begonia with seeds looks a little different: the seeds should be soaked in a growth stimulator and placed on a moist surface, carefully pressed against the soil and sprayed with a spray. Then the sowing container should be covered with glass or polyethylene and put in a well-lit place. Typical grains are recommended to be planted in the seedling boxes, and granulated - in peat tablets
With proper care (timely moistening of the soil, regular airing of the containers and maintaining the temperature at + 21–22 ° C), the first shoots will appear for 10–12 days. This is how the first shoots of begonia look, from this point on, the ventilation period should be extended to teach the seedlings to a normal environment.
After the appearance of the third true leaflet, the strongest seedlings must be swooped into separate seedlings with light crumbly soil. Flowers must be watered, put in a lit place and provide a temperature of +20 ° C. By the end of the summer season, the young begonias will bloom, and by the beginning of the winter season, full-grown tubers will develop.
It is necessary to pinch only the ampelous begonia, all other varieties, judging by the reviews, grow densely and bloom profusely without any outside intervention.
Rules for watering a home plant
- In the summer, the flower must be watered abundantly with distilled warm water. At moderate temperatures, it is enough to moisten the soil of the begonia every other day, in the heat - every day.
- Over-wetting plants should be avoided, as this can harm already fragile roots. Therefore, before watering, you should make sure that the ground is dry enough.
- On hot days it is better to put the pots on pallets filled with wet pebbles and systematically irrigate the air around them.
- After the plant ottsvetet, the frequency of watering should be gradually reduced.
It is recommended to feed begonia with complex mineral preparations once every two weeks, alternating them with organic-type feedings.
After the end of the budding period, the ground part of the flower should be cut, and the pot with tubers should be placed in a cool place and stored until spring.
Features care for begonia planted in the garden
- Fertilize the plant can be with the help of humus, ash and potash-phosphorus feeds from May to October, once every two weeks.
- To stimulate the growth of lateral shoots, the top of the stems with a length of 7–8 cm should be pinched.
- Closer to autumn, watering should be reduced, the tubers should be dug out, and the roots should be cut and disinfected with a fungicide solution, then dried and placed, buried in peat, in a dark, dry room.
Garden begonia: varieties and varieties
Begonia is a flowering plant that is decorative throughout the growing season. Different varieties of begonias, besides amazing variegated colors and shapes of flowers, have lovely leaves. The leaves of begonias are painted in green, olive, burgundy, pink, sometimes with pearlescent dots and strokes.
In nature, the habitat of begonias is found in the tropics and subtropics of South and North America, Africa and Asia. In this climatic zone it is rather humid, therefore the varieties of garden begonias, planted to decorate the site, should be placed in a shady place, with ensuring regular and sufficient watering.
Begonias - perennials, usually develop in the form of vines, shrubs or subshrubs. Plant roots are often reduced to a tuber.
In garden landscape design, three types of begonias are usually used, represented by an abundance of varieties.
B. tubergybrida (tuberous B.) - plant height is only 30 cm. Huge double and non-double flowers amaze with an abundance of colors. Flowers in tuberous begonias are dioecious: male and female can simultaneously bloom on the same plant.
Begonia root is a fleshy tuber. The genus is characterized by a long flowering, which begins in early summer and ends in autumn. The diameter of flowers is from 6 to 21 cm. Begonia flower forms are different, they resemble roses, lotuses, anemones, carnations.
Attention! Cultivation in the open ground of tuberous begonia has its own subtleties. The plant is required to provide greenhouse maintenance during the winter period, or to pre-grow begonias in greenhouse complexes before planting to a permanent place.
B. tubergybrida pendula - a separate type of begonias with the ampelous growth form. Long bushy shoots are covered with colorful hats of flowers.
B. semperflorens (ever flowering) - includes a huge number of varieties. The bushes are low plants, about 15 centimeters high. The leaves are small, oval, smooth, from green to brownish. Varieties of this begonia are widely used in landscape design for planting in parks and squares. Begonia blooms with “caps” of small flowers of white, pink or red color. Begonia garden: the cultivation of this plant is not difficult, even for beginners.
Planting begonias garden
Begonias garden: planting and care, - the plants are planted in a permanent place in the spring, with the onset of warm weather. Tuberous begonias are first grown in greenhouses, grown plants with flowers are often planted in flower beds. The ever flowering begonia is planted with the first flowers, which allows you to immediately get decorative flower beds. That is why the varieties of begonias ever flowering are widely used in landscape design.
It is not allowed to overflow plants, which may cause tuber rot. With a high level of groundwater, beds for begonias are arranged after the drainage has been completed. Planting begonias in the open field allows you to solve the problem of decorating hanging pots, flowerpots, flower beds, rabatok and lawns.
Plant care is reduced to ensure timely watering, which is reduced by the flowering of begonias.
In the period of growth, begonias require several dressings.
The ever flowering begonia is usually used for landscaping as a letnik. The mother plants of varietal plants are stored in greenhouses for reproduction in a vegetative way. In winter, watering plants is reduced.
Fertilizer and dressing begonias garden
Begonias spend a lot of power on flowering, so for the season you need to carry out several dressings.
- In spring, the plants are fed with a full complex fertilizer, which will help the plants to increase the green mass faster.
- During the budding of plants, phosphate and potash fertilizers, as well as trace elements, are applied.
Diseases and pests
When growing begonias, the plant is often damaged by pests. Particularly relevant infection of plants when breeding begonias in the greenhouse. The main pests of the culture are: greenhouse aphid, shield and false scale, whitefly, thrips, nematodes.
Pest control measures are reduced to the treatment of planting systemic drugs, the dosage of which is specified by the manufacturer.
Diseases of begonias occur on the background of improper care, excessive watering, improperly selected land mixture: powdery mildew, gray mold, bacterial and ring spots.
The treatment is aimed at the destruction of the fungi that cause these diseases. Plants are treated with fungicides ("Fundazol", "Topaz"), Bordeaux mixture, solution of blue vitriol.
Begonia garden: a combination with other plants
Garden begonias form beautiful combinations in plantings with lawn grasses, decorative leafy crops, curb leaves:
Planting begonias with low shrubs, providing the plant some shade, also perfectly decorate the territory.
Garden begonia in landscape design
Photos of modern garden and park areas show that landscape architects from different countries make extensive use of garden begonias in the design of park compositions. Attention is drawn to the photo of landscape design with flowerpots planted with tuberous begonias. These vases look great on lawns and framed flower beds.
The flower beds, on which garden begonias are planted, look great up to the most frost.
How to buy a suitable tuber
Begonia recommended to buy in specialty gardening stores. After winter frosts, ripe Dutch tubers can be purchased.
Packing can be different, in packages of several pieces with wood chips and peat mixture, or loose. Do not buy at a sale or at a discount, most likely, these are already spoiled nodules that will not germinate. Pay attention to planting material.
Signs of unfit tuber:
- inelastic and sluggish,
- dried out by sight
- there is damage,
- has the presence of bloomed.
Garden flowers are very delicate, so they should be planted in a special way. Let's discuss the rules of planting garden begonia.
- plastic container
- soil, peat organic,
- tubers already prepared.
The soil must be slightly acidic for cultivation, otherwise it will wither in an alkaline one. Plant in a plastic container with sprouts up, sprinkle with earth by 2, 5 cm. Seedlings should be grown at a temperature of + 21 degrees. Subject to all the subtleties in a week will grow the first leaves. Planted seedlings in open ground no earlier than 2 weeks after the first bore.
If you want to get a solid, beautiful flowery carpet, planting in the ground, you must observe a distance of 20 cm between plants. After the end of planting in the ground under the seedlings need to mulch so that it does not dry out, for this is suitable sawdust, peat or small clay. Provide the necessary care for the plants.
Tuberous begonia: reproduction
Tuberous begonia can be propagated by seed, by dividing a tuber or by green cutting.
- Tuber dividing method for reproduction and flower cultivation used in greenhouses. To do this, it is necessary to moisten the planting by carefully spraying water for irrigation over the soil surface. The soil must be kept moist, watering as necessary. Transfusion is very harmful because it did not grow roots and shoots. The method of dividing the tuber is mainly used for rare plants.
- Green cutting - Another way to multiply the tuberous begonia. In the container with the prepared, moist, fertile soil lay royal tubers. Put in a bright place. After the green shoots appear, they break off and are planted in a container or individual cups. When sprouts take root, they are recommended to be planted in a permanent place. This breeding method can also be applied to ever-flowering begonias. For this, the bores are cut from the mother flower and planted in light ground.
- Seed propagation is used for breeding purposes.
Some secrets of pomp garden begonias
Increase flowering time and give it more fluffy shape help care, systematic fertilizing the flower and cleaning dried flowers.
The problem of keeping buds of the garden begonia is in unsuitable conditions. This may be too sunny a place where vegetation gets overheated. It is possible to take measures simply to move it along with the land into the shade or to wait for the next year and also make a transplant along with the land.
Есть ещё одна причина оподания бутонов это слишком влажная почва, тогда просто купируйте полива. Растущая в саду бегония заболеет при высокой влажности и резких перепадах температуры мучнистой росой. От недуга помогут избавиться специальные фунгициды.
Предлагаем в первую очередь орошать слабым раствором кальцинированной соды. Or garden begonias can attack aphid and spider mite. In order not to use chemistry, first use folk methods, for example, tincture of garlic tops, onion peels. Well apply the ash for these purposes, dissolve it in water and strain, process the bushes with this solution from different sides.
Begonia, sprouted in pots, is well treated with soapy water 2-3 times, then rinse. As one of the options to buy a special stick in the flower shop and insert it into the pot. Thus, the wand will fertilize the plants during watering and protect against pests.
For the most part, begonia is a garden non-whimsical and non-painful plant that is perfect for home and garden cultivation, and it is not difficult to care for it, and the result will not take long to wait.
Flower for quartermaster
Discoverers of some begonia varieties were French fleet quartermaster Michelle Begon and the monk the Franciscan Charles Plume.
One of them was a nerd, and the other just wanted to get a rare kind of begonia to decorate them Rochefort. Just the quartermaster Begon gathered an expedition, during which, in Haiti, Plumier noticed a rare kind of flowers, they had unevenly growing leaves and light pink buds similar in appearance to butterflies.
Plumier gave him the name begonia in honor of his benefactor and organizer of the expedition Begon. After some time, I found some more related species. When they returned home to France a strong storm broke out, taking with them the seeds, only the sketches of this species remained. Unfortunately, Michel Begon never saw the plant that glorified his name.
Begonia is a tuberous culture, so planting and subsequent care in the garden begins with the acquisition and preparation of tubers. If the planting material was purchased in advance, it can be stored in a refrigerator or basement until early March. With the arrival of spring, the tubers begin to awaken. In order to speed up this process and to plant seedlings early in the open ground, they must be prepared and germinated.
Each tuber should be examined for damage and decay, only healthy ones should be selected, and then placed in a 1% solution of peroxide or potassium permanganate for half an hour. This procedure is carried out with the aim of disinfecting the material and protecting the plants from disease in the future. Now flower shops offer a special tool for the treatment of begonia tubers, which, in addition to protection, provides a starting feeding of plants and accelerates their growth.
The size of the planting material does not matter. Even if the tuber is very small and shriveled, but it has at least one living kidney, it will quickly sprout. After treatment, large tubers are cut into several parts (according to the number of buds), and cuts are sprinkled with crushed coal. If the buds are not yet visible, cut the tuber is not worth it, because you can damage the germs of the shoots. Then each cut part is planted in a separate glass filled with soil for germination.
In the southern climate, where the earth warms up faster, begonia tubers can be planted directly into the ground, providing a film shelter for the night. However, begonia is grown in open ground extremely rarely, since everyone is trying to plant already-flowering seedlings in a flowerbed. The only way to do this is to sprout a tuber in a pot or cup, after which the plant is planted in a flower bed.
To roots and sprouts appear more likely, begonia tubers are planted in loose and fertile soil. At the bottom of each cup must be placed drainage (pebbles, expanded clay). If you use ordinary garden soil, then you should add a little peat, coarse sand or vermiculite to it. The tuber is placed in the cup with the convex side down, and the sprouts (concave side) up, and sprinkled with a 2–3-cm layer of earth.
The recommended temperature for growing seedlings is 21–22 ° C.
With regular soil moistening, small leafy sockets appear on the surface in about a week. From now on, plants should be taken care of: regularly water, loosen the ground and take to the air for hardening. Watering the plants should be on the edge of the cup so that the tuber does not rot. The first hardening procedure should last no more than 15 minutes. Gradually, this time increases, and in a month the begonia is left outside for 2–3 hours.
With the appearance of buds, seedlings can be transplanted into open ground. It is better to do this by transfer, removing the plant from the cup along with the ground. The seedlings are planted in the wells, at the bottom of which a handful of humus or compost is laid, as well as some mineral fertilizers. When forming a floral pattern or ornament, plants are planted at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other. To begonia garden soon took root, immediately after planting the seedlings watered.
Watering and feeding
Care for begonia, growing in a garden or flower garden, is only in watering and dressing. These two processes, as a rule, are sufficient to maintain decorativeness and lush flowering throughout the summer. So that the weeds do not spoil the beauty of the flowerbed, the soil is covered with colored decorative mulch.
Watering begonia often and abundantly, but so that the moisture does not stagnate.
Feed the plants better liquid complex fertilizers for flowers, and combine top dressing with watering. And to begonia garden after planting and with minimal care bloomed for a long time, you must regularly remove dried buds.
Like any tuber plant, a perennial garden begonia pleases with its flowering from spring to late autumn, but after all the buds have blossomed, its tubers are dug up. With the advent of September, it is already possible to start preparing for this process: reduce watering, and stop feeding, completely.
In the middle or end of October, the bloomed begonia is dug, the tubers are cleaned of stalks and small roots, washed, dried thoroughly in a dry place for 2 weeks. Then they are placed in a box with moistened sand or sphagnum moss and put in a cool (6–8 ° C) place. During the winter, tubers should be regularly inspected and removed rotted. In the sand, rotting occurs more often, therefore, it is more expedient to use sphagnum for storage.
Botanical description of tuberous begonia
Each plant is famous for its features - leaves, flowers, elegance of forms. In this sense, tuberous begonia can be called a classic home flower. What is required from a houseplant? Lush and long flowering, bright colors, pleasant foliage. This characteristic can be applied to any variety of tuberous begonia.
Botanical description of the plant is as follows:
- the form - bushy, in height from 25 to 80 cm,
- leaves arranged asymmetrically, shaped like hearts,
- flowers have various coloring - white, pink, yellow, bright red, peach, coral, orange,
- underground rhizome massive, in the form of a tuber, whence the name of the species.
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The blooming of the tuberous begonia lasts from May to November - it is largely because of this that the plant has gained deserved fame among experienced and beginning flower growers.
What varieties for the garden is better to choose
For planting tuberous begonia in the garden, you can pick up any variety, since the conditions of care for them are about the same. Therefore, in this case, you can fully trust your taste and give complete freedom of fantasy. Moreover, thanks to the diversity of species, begonia will certainly satisfy even the most demanding taste.
Here are just a few popular varieties that will literally decorate the dacha and will become a real center of attraction:
- Ampelous begonia (B egonia pendula) or begoniahanging gives unusually beautiful flowers. It grows to 30-35 cm. It is interesting that the flower stalks literally hang - that is, such a plant must be placed at a height. Among the varieties of begonia ampelnoe there are terry and semi-double varieties. In favorable conditions, they can grow to 50-100 cm in total length. The shoots of ampelous begonias easily creep and perfectly hide both bare soil and walls. They can also be hung up - you get a real hedge of extraordinary beauty.
- Multicolor begonia gives numerous flowers of orange color. They grow in such quantity that from a distance the flowerbed will look like a flower carpet.
- For cultivation of plants in the open field bred a special variety garden begonias.
In the garden and in the country you can create a flower garden of any plant species: under the conditions of planting and care, you can get an incredibly beautiful flower bed or even a whole flower arrangement.
When choosing street begonia varieties, it is important to consider not only their color combination, but also their height. Flowerbed should be smooth and neat. If necessary, too large shoots cut with a sharp knife.
Tubers (bulbs): selection, planting, care
First of all, it is important for the grower to choose the right begonia tubers (they are also called bulbs). As a rule, the material is purchased in specialized stores, the range in which is quite large. Therefore, the main task is not in the search for tubers, but in their proper selection. Here are the first things to notice:
- Of course, the bulb should have a normal appearance: without cracks, overgrowth, mold, etc.
- In size it is better to pick up those tubers with a diameter of more than 3-4 cm.
- It is not allowed to choose dry bulbs. Therefore, you should pay attention to their weight: healthy tubers are quite dense and heavy, and dry, on the contrary, light.
- If you buy the bulbs in March, you can see how white or reddish buds are beginning to form on them. At the same time, it is optimal to buy material in January. There are no buds at this time - the tuber is in a state of physiological rest.
The very planting of the tuberous begonia in the pot does not take much time. The main requirement is to create optimal lighting, watering and temperature conditions. Conventionally, the whole process can be divided into 3 stages.
Step 2. Planting tubers
A pot or box must be put on a pallet - after all, it is supposed to water the future begonias abundantly. At the bottom lay drainage (expanded clay, pebbles), then - the ground. The surface of the earth should be 3-4 cm below the edge. A small depression is made in the center into which the tuber is planted.
Each bulb has 2 sides - convex and concave. It is necessary to place into the ground only with the convex side (respectively, the concave will look upwards). It is important to note that the upper third will remain on the surface. When the first shoots appear, they can be slightly sprinkled with earth.
Step 3. Care for sprouts
Now it remains to carefully pour the soil - it should become noticeably wet (but not too much). Boxes or pots placed in a sunny place. However, direct rays must also be avoided. To solve this problem, you can use the following tips:
- Optimally positioned containers in the west or east.
- If the sun comes too much, you can create a penumbra using a curtain or shade from other plants.
- Well, in the case of south windows better to put the container a little further from the window sill
- Concerning temperatures, then it should be at least 20-22 o C. After all, in order to understand how to put a tuberous begonia in a pot and care for it, it is important to consider that this plant came to us from the tropics. Therefore, in the home provide a sufficient level of humidity and light.
- Watering mode determined by the condition of the soil - it should always be moderately wet. At the same time, water is not allowed on the tuber itself - it can rot and die.
Normally, the first shoots will appear in 5-7 days, and in another 15-20 days 2-3 leaves will show off on the tuber. It will take another month, and with proper care on the tuberous begonia will appear the first flowers, which will mark the beginning of spring.
- If you later plan to transplant a flower in an open ground (for example, to decorate a garden or a summer house), you can do it a month later after the appearance of the sprout.
- However, if there is no certainty that there will be no more frost, you can simply transplant the flower into a pot with a diameter of 25-30 cm and wait for the final onset of the warm season.
Seedlings for seedlings
This method requires some effort and in general it looks more troublesome. On the other hand, the gardener gets invaluable experience in plant breeding. In addition, you can grow a lot of begonias at once, from which to create a beautiful flower garden in the garden or in the country.
Growing technology looks like this:
- The process starts already in January (until the beginning of February) - because by spring you need to get ready seedlings and distribute them in pots. However, you can plant seeds and later - they will bloom, but only in the fall.
- Seeds, as a rule, are immediately mixed with a small amount of sand: they are rather small and can be blown away by the wind.
- As a rule, seeds are grown in boxes. You can choose a container from any materials, while it should not be too deep (10-12 cm in height is enough).
- The soil is prepared in advance according to the scheme described above. You can also use peat tablets. Immediately before planting, the land is watered abundantly - it should become noticeably wet.
- Then spread the seeds on the surface. You should not fall asleep them - you can only distribute a handful of soil over the entire surface.
- Then you need to wait a few hours and cover the box with glass, and lay the paper on top. The temperature should be about 21-23 o C.
- Shoots appear after 2 weeks. At this time, the glass is removed, and the drawer is removed in a cooler place (18-19 o C).
- After the appearance of 3-4 leaves carry out a pick. At the same time, make the first mineral fertilizers. It is important that they contain nitrogen and potassium - otherwise begonia will grow much slower.
- The seedlings need constant watering. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the soil can be moistened with a spray gun. And when there will be 1-2 sheets - to water, as usual.
Planting: when and where to plant
Everything has its time, and everything has its place. If we apply this phrase in connection with the begonia planting in the country, we get the following answers:
- By landing one should always be guided by the actual weather. If the warm season has already begun, and the temperature has settled, you can start work.
- Night temperaturefrom +12 o С - necessary criterion.
- Thus, the garden begonias are planted At the beginning of June (in southern latitudes - at the beginning of May).
- Concerning place selection, here it is important to take into account 2 points at once - practical and aesthetic. To organize the proper care of begonia in the garden, planting plants is best done in the most prominent place, because such beautiful flowers just can not stay away. On the other hand, for them it is necessary to provide sufficiently bright lighting and an acceptable composition of the soil.
How to plant begonia in the garden
The technology of planting begonias in the country is not particularly difficult.
- After selecting the location, seedlings are fixed in the ground so that the entire green part remains on the surface.
- The interval between plants is 20-25 cm.
- The plant must be handled very carefully - it is unacceptable to put pressure on the roots or leaves or drop the seedlings. In the event of injury, they may not survive.
Regardless of what sort of street begonia to take for planting, care begins with the proper selection of the soil. The plant loves slightly acidic, fairly fertile land with loose soil. Therefore, first of all it is necessary on the site and in the garden to take care of to not be:
- large stones
- dense layer of earth
- willow or oak nearby - they saturate the soil with tannins that adversely affect the development of the plant.
If there is no certainty about soil fertility, it is better to add humus, bird droppings or other organic fertilizer. A week later, you can start planting a tuberous begonia.
Watering in the garden
- Watering begonias pretty plentiful: the soil should never be dry or cracked.
- On the other hand, need to know when to stop: When planting and in the further care of the tuberous begonia in the garden should not be given too much moisture. Excessive moisture leads to rotting of the roots and even death of the plant.
- Water the plant usually in the morning hoursonce every 3 days. At the same time, it is important to try to prevent moisture from getting on the stems, greens and flowers: they are quite tender, and the sun's rays can cause burns.
- During flowering Begonias watering should be reduced by 1.5-2 times compared with conventional volumes.
Thus, it is necessary to periodically check the condition of the soil, and most importantly - to be guided by the appearance of the flower itself. If the plant is in good shape, the leaves are elastic, and the flowers form quickly and are long enough, then everything is in order. If they become lethargic, you should immediately check the soil: perhaps it is already dry.
Fertilizers are used to take care of tuberous begonia in the garden and in the country - immediately after planting and during the summer season. The application mode is as follows:
- After landing It is necessary to immediately apply a complex mineral fertilizer (dosage according to the instructions).
- When the bushes started buds form, make fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium.
- Summer You can feed another 2 times with mineral fertilizer.
And starting from August, the feeding is stopped - the plant needs to be prepared for the winter period, i.e. to a phase of physiological rest.
При правильном подходе цветок начинает расти чрезвычайно быстро. Поэтому нужно сразу подумать о том, что скоро наступит время для обрезки листвы и побегов. As soon as the stems have reached 8 cm, they carry out the first adjustment of the form: they remove the excess layers from the sides so that the bush acquires the desired appearance.
And when the shoots grow to 12 cm, you need to pinch the tops, so that the plant looked very attractive, and not chaotic. Pruning is carried out only with a sharp knife - garden shears are not suitable for this, because begonia is a very delicate plant.
When pruning took place, it is better to sprinkle damaged areas with charcoal - so the plant will recover faster. In addition, a similar tool serves as a kind of disinfection.
This condition of care for the tuberous begonia in the garden should be taken care of at the planting stage. On the one hand, this flower is very fond of light, but on the other - it does not tolerate direct sunlight. The answer is obvious - you need to create a light shading.
And in the garden this can be achieved with the help of bushy plants that will cast a faint shadow. If not, you can make a canopy of fine-meshed mesh. It is important to understand that too much shading (for example, under the foliage of a tree) is also unacceptable - that is, in this matter one should proceed from the principle of the golden mean.
Preparation of begonias in the garden for the winter
- In September, watering begins to significantly reduce - the plant must be prepared for winter.
- Dig the tubers should be before the onset of the first frost. In our latitudes, it will be mid-October (in the south - until the beginning of November). The whole green mass is completely removed, and only bulbs are taken for storage.
- Tubers (bulbs) are treated with fungicides (for example, the “Maxim” product) or in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (hold for 30-40 minutes).
- Then the tubers are dried in the open air and stored at home or in the basement. You can also keep them in the refrigerator or in the cool part of the apartment.
How to store tubers
The most important thing is to take into account a few simple tips that will allow you to keep the material well:
- Initially, all tubers are carefully inspected to immediately remove the damaged material.
- Storage temperature should be above zero, but at the same time no more than +9 o C. Otherwise, the tubers begin to germinate.
- Even a small amount of moisture on the material is not allowed. If possible, it should be stored in a dry place.
Storage in the apartment
In the apartment you need to find the coolest place - for example, under the window or under the balcony door. Pre-check the temperature (so that it is always in the range of 0-9 o C). There are three storage options:
- In the box or the box - in bulk. Tubers are placed, completely filled with sawdust, dry peat or sand.
- In pots - they are transferred to a cool place, while the upper part is cut off with a sharp knife flush with the ground. It is sometimes necessary to water the soil so that it is slightly wet (drying is not allowed). If the tubers are stored in pots, it is better to water them through the pan to avoid possible rotting.
- If the apartment is warm enough and there are no cool places in it, you can save the begonia tubers for further planting and in a refrigerator. The material is dried, placed in bags with holes and covered with sawdust, or each tuber is wrapped in paper. Store in the door or at the bottom of the refrigerator (in the same place as vegetables and fruits). Such care will perfectly save bulbs of a tuberous begonia to a new planting.
Storage in the basement
If you have access to a fairly dry, cool basement, you can save the tubers there as well. They are also placed in a cardboard box or a wooden box, filled with peat, sand or sawdust so as to completely hide. It is important to understand that the cellar is definitely not suitable for such purposes. As a rule, the humidity in it is always increased due to the proximity of the earth, which will lead to rotting of the material.