Many novice gardeners are wondering: how can you grow mulberry? Equally important is the right care. What you need to know to get a good harvest of delicious berries?
Mulberry, or mulberry - is a deciduous tree of the mulberry family. There are many interesting facts about this tree. Since antiquity, it has been grown as a medicinal and valuable fruit plant. The foliage was used as a “food product” for silkworms - the very caterpillars that are “engaged in the production” of thin and durable yarn of natural silk. Today, this plant is still causing wide interest among amateur gardeners and landscape designers. Depending on the species, white mulberries are used as a fruit plant and for feeding silkworms, and black mulberries are grown mainly for the sake of tasty and juicy fruits. They got their name not by the color of the berries, but by the color of the bark.
- Read about the beneficial properties of mulberry and harm to the body.
Mulberry begins to bear fruit to the 8-10 year of life. Before choosing planting material, you should understand its types. Thus, the weeping reaches a height of 5 meters and has thin branches drooping to the ground, and this is different from the others. Her bred horizontal layings. There is a mulberry with a pyramidal crown, and there is a decorative spherical, with a neat and thick round crown. Sometimes a tree with fairly large leaves (up to 22 cm in length) or golden shoots.
Mulberry tree growing:
Mulberry fit well-lit places, protected from cold stagnation. It will ideally be used for planting sandy, sandy or loose loamy soil. The planting of young seedlings takes place either in early autumn (September - early October), or in April. The planting pit is dug up to the size of 80x80x60 cm. It is sprinkled with fertile soil, compost or humus in combination with complex fertilizers. Seedlings are planted in the center, straightening the roots, then sprinkled with earth and tamped. Complete planting abundant irrigation (one bucket) and mulching.
2. Caring for a tree
Abundant watering is required during the period of active growth, especially during bud break. It is also important to feed the plant. For example, fermented slurry or bird droppings mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 5 and 1:10. Top dressing is stopped from the beginning of July and the plant is now watered only in case of severe drought.
Be sure to remove weeds around trees and keep the soil loose.
Mulberry cherenku, planted seeds, separated from the parent tree. Reproduction of ornamental varieties is carried out by grafting on seedlings.
If you decide to propagate by seed, it is advisable to use the seeds of the current year. Clean them of pulp and can be stored before planting at room temperature. Seeds are sown in February, but before that they are soaked in a special solution - a growth biostimulator for a couple of hours. After that, they are slightly dried and sown in a nutrient soil, then sprinkled with soil 1 cm. The temperature in the room should be from 20 to 22 ° C. Seeds give, as a rule, strong and amicable shoots. After germination, the seedlings are placed in another place - more lighted and with a temperature of 16–20 ° C. In April, they are put in a small school on a bed, filled with fertilizer in the fall. In the course of planting between plants should remain 5-6 meters.
Typically, formative trimming mulberry is not required, it is only necessary if it is necessary to give the crown a cupped shape. The tops of the main and other shoots are cut to restrain the growth of the tree. However, for cold regions, this happens by itself through the freezing of the upper shoots and the emergence of root shoots, due to which a young shrub is formed.
For trees from warm regions, sanitary pruning is done every few years. If there is a risk of freezing of the shoots, pruning is done every autumn. The same applies to old trees, the fruits of which are beginning to shrink.
Necessary conditions for growing mulberries
Planting mulberry and further care for her so simple that the people call it "a tree for the lazy." Anyone can grow it in their own area, and without making much effort for this. To the environment it is very unpretentious. Even the mulberry, cultivation and care of which occurs in the middle lane, will produce a small but stable crop annually.Plant mulberry should be in places with good lighting, where the north and east winds do not blow. If necessary, you can build an improvised defense against them.
The tree grows quickly, resistant to drought and does not suffer even from severe frosts. It can withstand cold to -30 ° C.
Mulberry can be planted in 90% of the soil. But, of course, it will bear good fruit only on fertile soils that are rich in nutrients and substances. It is strictly forbidden to plant these trees in wetlands and damp lowlands. The most suitable option would be soils with good drainage and high ability to retain moisture. When planting mulberry trees, take into account that they grow over time, so the distance between the seedlings should be left up to 6 m.
How to plant a mulberry?Growing mulberries, like any other tree, begins with planting, which is best done in the middle of spring, namely in April, until sap flow begins. The second option is the middle of autumn before the beginning of the rainy season.
If the soil in which the tree is planted is poor in nutrients, the pit should be made wider and deeper so that up to 7 kg of compost mixed with 100 grams of superphosphate can be placed at the bottom. Then fertilizers are covered with a layer of soil. Its thickness should be such that the roots of the plant are not in contact with fertilizers.
Two weeks later, you can plant mulberry. Its roots need to straighten and prikopat, shaking the barrel. This is necessary in order to remove excess voids from the ground. When the roots along with the pit are completely filled, the soil should be compacted, and the seedling should be watered with 20 liters of water. When the water is fully absorbed, you need to mulch the tree trunk.
As mentioned above, planting mulberries is carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn. Landing during these periods is almost identical. But usually in the autumn they dig up a trench for planting, lay nutrients in it and leave until spring. But in April, complete the landing.
Features tree careWhen the tree is planted, you need to know how to continue to care for the mulberry. The main thing is to carry out abundant watering of the tree during the period of active development, especially when buds are blooming. It is also important to feed the plant.
Like any other tree, mulberry needs pruning. This is best done during periods of peace. The most painless pruning mulberry occurs in the spring. From the end of April to the beginning of May, when the buds have not yet blossomed, two types of pruning are performed: formative and rejuvenating. The third - sanitary - pruning is carried out in the autumn, when all the leaves have already fallen. But the air temperature should not be below -10 ° C. Different types of mulberry need to be cut differently. In the weeping mulberry, as a rule, the crown is thinned and the shoots and branches are shortened.When it comes time to prepare the mulberry for wintering, sanitary pruning is carried out. During this procedure, all diseased, dead and too weak branches and shoots are cut off. Sanitary pruning is usually not needed every year.
In order for the mulberry to hurt less and not be overpowered by pests, the tree trunk circle is treated with fungicides and insecticides for preventive purposes. It is better to do this in early April, while the buds have not woken up yet, and in October, after the end of the vegetative period. A good cure for diseases and pests is Nitrafen.
In the spring, it is better to process the wood and add seven percent urea to the soil. It will destroy all the pathogens and insect larvae that lay in the ground and in the mulberry bark. Also, the plant will be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer, which is so necessary mulberry in this season.
In order for the mulberry to adapt to severe frosts, it needs to be watered from spring to mid-summer, only when the weather is dry. After watering should stop. If spring is rich in rain, then it is not needed. At the same time, the mulberry tree needs to be fed. In early spring, fertilizers with the nitrogen component should be added to the soil, and in the summer - with potash and phosphate.
How to prepare mulberry for winter?A mulberry is prepared for wintering in the middle of autumn, bending the branches to the ground. This procedure will not cause difficulties, since the young mulberry is quite flexible. But since the mulberry grows large enough, it is better to place the skeletal branches horizontally in the future, and bend only the young branches.
The first three years, it is desirable to wrap the trunk and the main branches covering material in several layers. It depends on the severity of winter frosts. Then you need to throw it on the stanants, spreading out poison under it for winter rodents, which can greatly harm the tree. To prevent the wind from tearing down the sheeting, you need to press it down with something heavy, for example, with pipes, boards or bricks. It is necessary to remove shelter from a mulberry in May when spring night frosts come to an end.
If you do not take into account the bending in of the young branches and the manipulation with a protective coating, then the care of the mulberry tree and its preparation for wintering is no different from the usual agrotechnics of apple trees.
When and how to harvest?The mulberry gives the first fruits already in the third year. Only berries are small. They become larger after another five to six years. But there can accelerate this process. In the spring you need to plant a seedling uterine tree. Harvesting mulberries is the greatest pleasure, because you won't have to climb a tree. When the berries ripen, they fall down themselves. On the ground, under a tree, you only need to lay a thick cloth, for example, spunbond. Mulberries are very juicy and sweet, they can reach 5 cm in length. It all depends on the variety.
The mulberry tree multiplies both by seed and vegetatively.
The multiplication of mulberry seeds is the easiest way for all types of this tree. You just need to take a handful of berries of the selected variety, put in a container and put in the sun to wander. Then in the water you need to well re-seed and drain the water with empty shells. Then again fill with water and pass through a strainer with a fine mesh. Then wipe again and rinse. Repeat until only pure seeds remain without pulp.
After they should be well dried and put into a paper bag and stored in a dry place until the beginning of spring. 45 days before sowing, moistened seeds should be placed on a shelf under the freezer for stratification or kept in water for three days. It is necessary to seed mulberry seeds to a depth of 1 cm in the most light place. It is often necessary to water the future mulberry, but not to flood it.You should also make sure that the young plant does not ruin the spring frosts. The first shoots need to be protected from direct exposure to UV rays. Thick plantings should be thinned in the phase of the fifth leaf. Bad ones are left on the ground to grow until the age of two years. Signs of the plant mother during reproduction by seeds are not transmitted. Such seedlings are used for grafting varietal mulberry.
How else does the mulberry breed? The best method of breeding in the summer is cutting. In the beginning of summer, cuttings with two or three buds are cut from a healthy shoot of this year. Lower leaves need to be removed, and on the rest, leave half of the plates so that the cutting further grows and develops.
You need to plant cuttings in a greenhouse, you can even make it improvised, under a translucent film to a depth of 3 cm. There are conditions in which cuttings root well. They will need moderate watering, frequent airing of the room and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. The fact that the stalk is rooted can be understood in a month, when new shoots appear. These seedlings are exactly the mother tree.Mulberry is grafted by almost all known methods. The easiest and, most importantly, successful is copulation. The mulberry can be planted indoors in the winter or with the onset of early spring. Those cuttings that were grafted before sap flow are taken root faster.
A simple copulation represents the same oblique cuts on the graft and the rootstock so that the cambial layers fit together more clearly. Cuts are made between the kidneys. When the cuts are aligned, the junction should be tightly covered with a soft plastic bandage.As the otvodka used lower branch. It bends down and fixed on the surface of the soil, then sprinkled with earth. For rooting to occur better, the branch must be broken at the fold or the ring of bark removed. With this technique, the formation of roots is stimulated. The procedure should be carried out in the spring, and by the fall roots will appear on the layers.
All the nuances of proper planting mulberry
Mulberry grows more than 10 meters in height. One tree can have either male or female flowers, although there are also such trees that both have at the same time. For the cultivation of mulberry there are two methods of reproduction: seedlings and seeds.
Seeds are planted either in late autumn or spring, but in both cases they are pretreated with a special solution that is designed specifically for seeds.
If you decide to plant a mulberry tree in the fall, it is best to do so before the end of October. For planting in spring, you must first soak the seeds in cold water (for a day), and then place them in warm water for another 24 hours.
The site for planting should be sunny and after you find such a site on your territory it will be possible to proceed to the preparation of seed furrows. Grooves are well watered with water mixed with fertilizers for fruit and berry crops.Since the seeds are very small, it is best to sow them less often, deepening the soil by 3-5 cm. After sowing, pour the grooves richly and use mulching, which will prevent the soil from drying out. If planting is carried out in the fall, then you should additionally insulate the beds.
For good growth, mulberry seedlings are fed with fertilizers.
By autumn, with proper care, the seedlings will be strong and large. Then they are seated so that they have more room for development. The distance between plants is 3-5 m.
Mulberry begins to bear fruit 3-5 years after planting, which largely depends on the plant variety and the characteristics of care. Mulberry root system is very powerful and can withstand the cold winter or summer heat.
You can also plant a mulberry tree with the help of seedlings. Purchased seedlings are planted in the spring on a sunny plot. A pit is dug at this place, after which compost is added to it.
The soil at the selected place is plentifully watered with water diluted with fertilizer for rooting seedlings. Then everything is covered with earth. After the next watering, the soil around the seedling is mulched.
In order for the mulberry to grow well-groomed and not too large, its crown should be cut and shaped.
In dry weather, it is necessary to water the plant as often as possible, periodically removing weeds. This variety of mulberry does not need to form a crown, which greatly facilitates the care of the tree, but dry branches still need to be removed.
Features care for mulberry
Mulberry is unpretentious to care, but, during intensive growth, it needs abundant watering. An equally important care operation is mulberry fertilizer, which is diluted with diluted water from fermented slurry.
The earth that surrounds the mulberry tree, you need to regularly loosen and clean weeds. Mulberry tends to grow to 35 meters in height. In order for a tall tree does not spoil your garden, it should be pruned.
As mentioned earlier, the mulberry can be combined at once two articles, but if your mulberry tree does not bear fruit, then it is male.
As winter approaches, you need to think about how to cover the mulberry for the winter and protect the tree from freezing. This can be done with the help of a spunbond or with spruce feet. The advantage of the first option is environmental friendliness, durability and low price.
Pruning and forming mulberry crown
High decorative properties of mulberry can be achieved by cutting wood, which is absolutely safe for mulberry. This procedure is carried out from the beginning to the middle of winter, during the complete rest of the plant.Old trees are pruned only when necessary, since sap flow can occur at this time. If pruning cannot be avoided, cauterize the wounds with a red-hot red poker. In the summer, they remove infected and damaged branches.
Для формирования дерева оставляют штамб в 1,0 м. Именно на эту высоту обрезаются все боковые побеги, а крона формируется в форме чаши или метлы до 4 м в высоту.
Чтобы дерево не росло в высоту, укорачивайте центральный побег раз в два года на 1/3 длины (при условии, что крона формируется в виде чаши).
When forming a “broom”, they do the following: without selecting a central shoot, they prune at the same height, while leaving 3 strong shoots.
Mulberry can be formed in the "weeping" form. To do this, cut the branches on the lower and lateral buds. This does not harm the decorative properties, but the harvest will be lower.
Now, when we figured out how to decorate your mulberry tree, the question arises - "Do I need to cut the mulberry at all?" Our answer is definitely needed.Pruning rejuvenates the plant, especially when grinding berries and reducing yield. In this case, the branches are shortened to the same length, thinning the crown.
Cut the oldest branches. Unwanted shoots that form on the trunk are shortened in the first year and removed in the second.
All methods of breeding mulberry at home
Multiply mulberry can be in several ways: seeds, green cuttings, semi-woody cuttings, woody cuttings and the top graft.
SeedsThis method is the easiest. You need to take the full-grown, ripe berries of a favorite variety, put them in a bowl and bring the container to a sunny place before fermentation. Then the mulberry seeds are well washed and drained with empty shells.
Seed material is passed through a fine sieve into a bowl of clean water to free it from the pulp. Then the seeds can be dried and folded in a paper bag for storage in a dry place until spring.
1.5 months before the planting season, wet seeds should be placed on the top shelf of the refrigerator. This is carried out for stratification.
Mulberry seeds are sown in fertile soil in April or May to a depth of 1 cm. The place is chosen bright and sunny. New plantings need frequent watering.
This type of breeding is good to use in summer. In June, cuttings are cut from the middle part of the healthy shoot of the current year. They should be 2-3 buds. Lower leaflets are removed.The cuttings are planted to a depth of 3 cm in the greenhouse, under a light film. High humidity is created under it, which will help the cuttings to take root quickly and efficiently.
They need to be watered regularly and often ventilated, and the first dressing is carried out a month after planting, using mineral fertilizers. For rooting the stalk takes a month.
Reproduction is carried out in July cuttings with brown wood. Preparation before planting and subsequent care is the same as in reproduction with green cuttings. Rooting cuttings is carried out in 1.5 months.
Lignified cuttingsFor this type of breeding, use lignified shoots of a healthy, productive plant. Take them from the outside of the illuminated crown.
Procurement of cuttings is carried out in the period of leaf fall. The leaves on the cuttings are removed and then treated with a root formation stimulator.
After that, the cuttings are planted in the ground so that their above-ground part is 5 cm. At this place they grow to the age of two. Strong seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
If everything was relatively simple in previous breeding, then only experienced gardeners know how to plant mulberry.
Methods to combat diseases and pests
Like other fruit trees, mulberry often suffers from various diseases and pests. Bad weather conditions, improper care, lack of or excess fertilizer causes major diseases of the mulberry tree. These are mainly viral, fungal and bacterial diseases.
Most often, the mulberry suffers from powdery mildew, brown leaf spot, bacteriosis and curly small-leaved leaves.
Mealy dew caused by fungus and infects mulberry. The main and main symptom - mealy white bloom. The fungus captures the leaves and shoots. The appearance of powdery mildew is caused by waterlogging or thickening of tree planting.
At the first signs of powdery mildew, mulberry sprayed with systemic fungicide. In the autumn prevention is the collection and burning of leaves.
Tsilindrosporioz (brown spot)is also caused by fungus. Red spots appear on the leaves, and with a strong lesion, small holes form at the spot. The leaves themselves gradually turn yellow.
The method of struggle is very simple. The collection and burning of fallen leaves. For prevention you can process plants with Silit solution. Spraying is carried out before the buds swell.Bacteriosis affects young mulberry shoots. Spots of irregular shapes appear on them, which eventually turn black. Damaged leaves curl and gradually fall off. On the shoots appear brown spots of elongated shape. They cause deformation of the shoots.
Against this disease can be applied Fitoflavin or Hamair.
Curly reduces mulberry yield. This is a viral lesion that insects spread. Wrinkled tissue between the leaf veins. The leaves are folded, and the growth of shoots changes: their number increases, but they become quite weak. The leaves lose their color and break. Treatment, unfortunately, does not exist.
Mulberry harvest may be reduced due to pests. The most frequent uninvited guests are the white American butterfly, spider mite, and Comstock worm.
White american butterfly lays eggs on mulberry leaves. The nest is made of cobwebs, inside it - the larvae. Over time, the caterpillar eats the leaves, which is enough just to notice.
To deal with this problem is easy: you need to find nests with larvae and burn them. Caterpillars destroy chemicals (for example, chlorophos).
Spider mite can be determined by the cobweb on the top of the sheet. The mite feeds on tree nutrients through the leaves, which gradually fall off.
During the growing season it is necessary to destroy all the weeds around the strain, loosen the soil. Then you should spray the culture thiophos solution.Comstock Cape settles on the branches and leaves of the mulberry, sucking the juice from the mulberry tree. This leads to a decrease in plant immunity. You can destroy the pest with the help of chemicals by spraying.
We hope after reading this article you have fewer questions and you can grow healthy mulberries in your garden. With proper care for her, she will delight you with a bountiful harvest and decorative effect.
What is useful in mulberry?
Here, friends, you can talk endlessly. It is known that mulberry leaves feed mulberry leaves. Many centuries ago, people began to make silk fabric from threads that are produced by hardworking mulberry worms. The branches of one-year-old plants in spring and the upper third of young shoots in summer are used as feed. Every four to five years, a mulberry tree is given a one-year “leave” so that it can fully recover.
Mulberry fruits not only juicy, tasty and fragrant - they are also a well of useful substances. In addition, they have certain cured properties. They are used in processing. From mulberry you can cook a great compote, jam, and even make a great wine. In addition, mulberry berries are dried, and then used as a sugar substitute. Their shelf life is very large. By the way, about sugar: its content in the berries of a mulberry tree is very high, but acids - the minimum concentration. In addition, mulberry is rich in vitamins C and B, as well as phosphorus, carotene, pectin elements, choline, resins, rutin and glycoside. And there is a lot of iron in them, thanks to which the berries are shown to people suffering from anemia, gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Mulberry can help you overcome heartburn, reduce blood pressure and normalize metabolism. Among its most outstanding merits is the ability to heal blood. It is useful for the spleen, and even for the liver. Cardiovascular diseases are direct indications for eating mulberries. Cora plants are attributed wound healing properties, while infusions on the leaves are used as a tonic.
Fuh, like all of its advantages listed! And, yes, I forgot to add that all this applies to both white and black mulberries. By the way, mulberry wood is also very valuable due to its density and specific brilliance - furniture and various tools are made from it.
So, dear readers, as you can see, the mulberry is suitable for both ordinary gardening and as a valuable fruit tree. I am fascinated by its weeping form, which, in fact, adorns the city. The branches of the weeping mulberry, while diving, are practically touching the ground. Yes, in principle, I think they would be concerned if they were not followed. In the urban area, the mulberry grows quite successfully, despite the pollution of the atmosphere and industrial emissions.
PS: Mulberry, by the way, quite successfully strengthens the sands and the slopes of ravines.