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List of popular edible and conditionally edible mushrooms

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Edible mushrooms are divided into 4 categories. Factors of difference are their nutritional value and the presence of harmful and toxic substances in them:

I category - withedible mushrooms of great taste - These are the mushrooms that can be eaten without harm to our health. They do not contain toxic substances and are usually very tasty.

Categories are listed in the table (list) of mushrooms below. Who do not have a category - are not included in the official sources of classification.

Category II - edible mushrooms of good taste.

III category - atlike edible - These are the mushrooms that can not be eaten raw, but only after a thorough heat treatment. As a rule, they are lower in taste and healthy qualities than edible mushrooms. Clicking on the link you will learn about the rules for the pre-treatment of each fungus of interest, as well as get acquainted with the most common and popular recipes for their preparation.

IV category - conditionally edible mushrooms.

Must remember that edible and conditionally edible mushrooms must be properly prepared, marinated, dried, stored and complied with all measures and rules provided for a particular mushroom. In addition, there are many dangerous duplicate mushrooms, which are similar to edible, but are not. It is also worth exploring all the rules of assembly and definition of edible mushrooms, to be very careful.

Clicking on the link you will learn about the rules for the pre-treatment of each fungus of interest, as well as get acquainted with the most common and popular recipes for their preparation.

The list of the most common edible and conditionally edible mushrooms:

White mushroom (boletus)

Borovik - the king of the forest. Mushroom first category. It grows in coniferous, deciduous, as well as coniferous-mixed forests. They can meet one by one, proudly towering above the ground. But often next to one mushroom necessarily grow several more brethren.

Mushroom tight, strong. It can be quite large. The mushroom cap often reaches a diameter of thirty centimeters. The color of the cap varies from light brown to yellowish brown. Leg mushroom thick, dense. In height, such a mushroom grows up to twenty centimeters (sometimes slightly higher). A distinctive feature of this white fungus is the white flesh of the leg (and not the pinkish hue). Does not have a bitter taste (which is characteristic of false ceps).

Mushroom during any culinary treatment retains its flavor and taste. Therefore, it can be both cooked and fried, as well as salted, pickled, dried. When drying does not turn black, like many mushrooms.

Varieties of ceps depend on their place of growth:

  1. Birch - it is distinguished by a light brown, ocher color or an almost white hat. It grows in birch from the beginning of July to the end of September.
  2. Oak - has a longer leg, grayish-brown cap. The flesh is loose. It grows in oak groves from July to October.
  3. Pine (Borovoy) - the hat is dark (brown or almost black). Short thick leg. It grows in pine forests from July to the end of August.
  4. Spruce - hat brown, reddish-brown, chestnut-brown. Compared with other porcini mushrooms has a longer leg. Such a mushroom can be found from the end of July to the end of September among the spruce forests.

Oak mushroom mushroom

If you decide to grow mushrooms in a farm, this article will be useful to you.

Boletus

Edible mushroom of the second category. It grows in deciduous or mixed forests, where aspen grows. It has a characteristic cap, which is characterized by the majority of reddish shades: it can be red, orange, less often grayish brown. Mushroom leg tight. In the section it has white flesh, which turns pinkish in the light at the beginning, gradually acquires a greenish-black color. Such mushrooms grow in groups, and near the central fungus one can usually find some more very small mushrooms.

Mushrooms are especially tasty in salted, pickled form, but they can be dried, fried, boiled.

  1. Red - color of a hat is orange, red-orange, brick. The diameter of five centimeters, the largest "obabki" can reach twenty-five centimeters. The surface is smooth, slightly velvety. The inner surface of the cap has no plates, finely porous. Leg length up to ten centimeters. The flesh is thick. Thickness - three to five centimeters. The larger the mushroom, the higher it is. The most voluminous copies reach thirty centimeters.
  2. Yellow-brown (aka red-brown). It grows in coniferous-mixed forests (where osinki are necessarily present) from mid-June to mid-September. A distinctive feature is the color of the cap. They may be yellowish, yellow-orange or red-brown. The rest has the same properties and characteristics as the usual aspen birds.
  3. White - a very rare species, because of this, listed in the Red Book. From July to early October (if you're lucky), you can meet in coniferous, deciduous, mixed forests.

It has an interesting color of the cap - soft light cream. The cap itself is fleshy, dense five to ten centimeters in diameter. Differs in concavity of an internal surface. Leg narrow, long, thickened at the bottom. When the cut is blue.

Brownberry ordinary

It grows in coniferous-deciduous mixed forests, preferring a large number of birches. The greatest distribution has, of course, in birch trees. With warm summer and heavy rains, you can harvest from July until the end of September.

It has a smooth hat of various shades of gray (from light to dark grayish-brown) color. The diameter of the cap is three to five centimeters. In young mushrooms, it is small hemispherical, but as the mushroom grows, the cap becomes large and rather fleshy.

The leg is long. It has small scales of dark gray color. The height of the legs to fifteen centimeters. The flesh is light - cream or grayish.

It has a false non-edible double - a bile mushroom (false brownberry). In contrast, this brownish is never wormy. Mushroom is not poisonous, but very bitter in taste.

Chanterelle real

Chanterelles grow in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, near trees and among moss and fallen leaves. As a rule, it is not a single mushroom that grows, but a whole “lischkina glade”. Fruits from late June to October. The cap is flat, with an uneven edge, gradually becoming funnel-shaped. The color is most often bright yellow, but depending on the composition of the soil and the age of the fungus, it may be more pale.

Leg slightly curved, cylindrical. Two mushrooms from one base often grow at once.

Mushrooms are fried, salted, pickled.

You can confuse with a false chanterelle, edible, but not so fragrant and tasty.

Champignon

Mushrooms are known to every city dweller, as they are sold in winter at every grocery store.

In nature, he prefers to grow on fertile, humus-rich soils. Most often it is open spaces (not deaf forests). You can meet him in the fields, abandoned gardens, meadows, near farms and cattle yards. The mushroom mushroom is robust and can grow in one place for several decades.

Distinctive features. The size of the mushroom cap is from two to three to fifteen centimeters in diameter. First, in the form of a ball, gradually straightened to an umbrella. Color is white, grayish, light. The surface of the cap is silky satin. The plates are light pink, and in old mushrooms dirty pink. It is the pink color of the champignon plates that is different from the pale toadstool, in which they are always pure white.

The mushroom stem is long and dense with a mushroom ring exactly in the middle. Fresh champignon has a delicate iodine aroma. The flesh is dense, white, slightly pinking at the cut.

Mushroom cultivation is practiced by both farmers and ordinary amateur gardeners. Special conditions for growing is not required. It is enough to buy a mycelium or mushroom spores, prepare the soil and a little care. Widely used in cooking.

Husky received their name because of the habitat. They grow exclusively on the stumps of tree roots sticking out of the ground. There are more than thirty species of mushrooms, but usually mushroom pickers deal with summer, winter, autumn and meadow ones. These are tasty and healthy mushrooms. They are slightly different, but there are similarities.

Young mushrooms have semicircular caps, which become almost flat with growth. The color of the caps of muted tones: from yellow with a touch of honey to brown-brown. Sometimes there are small scales on top of the caps. Plate light cream color.

False experiments from real ones can be distinguished by bright, even screaming caps: they have yellow, red-brick.

The leg is long, hollow. In height reaches fifteen centimeters. Another important difference between real species of all kinds from false (poisonous) specimens is the leathery ring on the leg. These mushrooms have a pleasant aroma, and false - an earthy, heavy smell. You can also check for "falsity": you can drop the cut mushroom in the water. The poisonous copy will immediately turn blue or turn black.

Like champignons, wild mushrooms are successfully grown in conditions of gardens, orchards, as well as on mushroom farms plantations.

Shrovetide or boletus are widespread in coniferous and deciduous-mixed forests. They like to grow in small but light glades. Most often grow in groups of several pieces. Grow all summer until October.

They have an “oily” smooth cap. Hat peel is easily removed when cleaning the fungus. In young mushrooms, it is slippery and sticky. The color of the cap varies from light brown ocher colors to brown chocolate colors. Color depends on the type of forest in which it grew, the illumination of the place and the type of oil can.

The pulp of the fungus is soft, dense and porous. Color from light to dark yellow. The tubular layer is covered with white film. As the mushroom grows, it breaks and hangs with flakes. The butterdish very quickly "grows old" and becomes dark and wrinkled. It is the most commonly affected worm mushroom.

In the people it is considered “the pickling king”. It grows among deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests where birch trees grow. Low, the height of the legs no more than five to six centimeters. The color is white or yellowish. Along the edge of the cap twists inside. The flesh is white, bitter.

Milk salted, but before salting necessarily soak or boil.

  1. Yellow - grows in birch groves and mixed forests from July to September. It has a large yellow hat slightly curved down. Leg short, no more than five centimeters and no more than three thick.
  2. Bluish - found in deciduous and coniferous forests. Hat yellowish, covered with hairs. Leg up to seven centimeters, hollow. Milky juice is white, blue in the air. It is used only in salt form after soaking.
  3. Oak - grows in oak groves in July-September. It has a big hat of yellow-orange color. Leg light, stained, hollow.
  4. Aspen - grows among aspen trees. The color of the cap is off-white. Occurs from July to September.
  5. Black (Black) - grows in birch groves. The color of the cap is olive-brown, almost black. Good in salt form. When salting becomes dark cherry color. After soaking the mushroom can be used not only in pickles, but also in soups and frying.
  6. Pepper - grows in deciduous forests from August to October. It has a large light hat and short leg. Milky juice turns blue in the air.
  7. Parchment - it looks like a pepper, but it has a longer leg, and the cap is not smooth, but slightly wrinkled. It grows from August to early October.

Mushroom classification

On earth there are a huge number of different types of mushrooms. In total, there are about two hundred species. It is noteworthy that a single generally accepted classification does not exist. In different regions within the same country, it may be different.

There are two main classifications:

  • By edibility.
  • By nutritional value.

For edibility, there is a clear division of species, while for nutritional value, there is no such clear division. The fact is that in different areas and regions the options for classifying mushrooms will be different, depending on various factors and environmental conditions.

Giant swine

Svinuha, or giant ryadovka (lat. Leucopaxillus giganteus) - is a large mushroom with a hat with a diameter of 10-30 cm in the form of a funnel with a wavy edging in white.The hat is located on a thick white leg - up to 3.5 cm in diameter. It has the shape of a cylinder with a bulbous base. Reaches a height of 4-7 cm.

The flesh is white, with a powdery aroma, tasteless.

Under the cap are frequent descending plates. They are white in young representatives, cream in old ones. Svinuha giant grows in Russia, in the Caucasus. It grows in groups, can form "witch circles."

Cooks use it only in boiled or salted species.

Ear of one (lat. Lactárius flexuósus) is considered to be a syrolic. It is a medium-sized mushroom with a cap, reaching 5–10 cm in diameter. It is convex in young representatives, and later becomes a funnel-shaped one with a curved edging. Its color is gray with pink, purple or brown shimmer. It may contain dark concentric circles. The fruit body has dense white flesh. It produces milky juice. Smell with a hint of fruit.

The leg is painted in tone with the cap. It has a height of up to 9 cm and a width of up to 2.5 cm. It is shaped like a cylinder. In young representatives, it is dense, in old age becomes hollow.

Under the head there are infrequent yellow plates. At the beginning of the life of the fungus, they grow, then descend. From July to October, the ferry appears alone or in groups in forests dominated by aspens and birches. Mushroom pickers also know it by the names podoreshnitsa, plantain, gray crown, gray-lilac pink. Gather for salting.

Blue sky green

Stropharia aeruginosa is a small mushroom with a cone-shaped cap measuring 3-8 cm in diameter. Its surface is painted in blue-green color. The skin is wet and slippery. Dotted with ocher spots.

The flesh has an unattractive blue or green color, a faint odor and a bitter taste. Smooth foot grows up to 12 cm in height and up to 2 cm in width. Like a hat, it is slippery, shaggy. It has a white ring.

Under the head plate is placed hymenophore. The plates are often added to the leg. They are painted in blue or purple shades.

Mushroom can be found on the stumps, in manure, on the soil saturated with humus. It grows in the forests of Eurasia and North America.

It can be eaten in salted and baked form, but is considered to be tasteless.

Beautiful Russula

Another representative of conditionally edible mushrooms is Russula rosacea. It has a convex cap 10 cm across, painted in bright red. As it develops, the cap straightens and first looks like a hemisphere, and then becomes prostrate, slightly indented in the center.

Over time, she loses her bright color, which turns into faded. Under the bonnet there is a hymenophore in the form of white or cream-colored plates.

The pulp of the beautiful russula is white and dense. Her smell is pronounced. There is bitterness in taste. The stem is short - it grows to a maximum height of 4 cm. In most mushrooms it is straight, but it is also curved. It is white in color, sometimes with a pinkish sheen.

This mushroom rink mushroom pickers are mainly found in forests with deciduous trees, but sometimes also among coniferous plantings. The period of fructification is in summer and autumn.

In cooking, a beautiful russula is prepared only with other mushrooms or served in a marinade of vinegar. By itself, it is tasteless.

Blackening Russula

This mushroom in the encyclopedias of mushroom pickers can be found also under the name of blackening sub-loads. In Latin its name sounds like Russula nigricans.

This is a rather large russula with a cap that is 5 to 25 cm across. When it appears, the cap is painted white, but later turns gray and black.

The pulp of the fruit body breaks easily, but is dense in texture. The color is white. When the cut turns pink. Pleasant to taste, but with a slight bitterness. The aroma is also pleasant, though easily perceptible. The leg grows to 10 cm. In shape, it resembles a cylinder. The color is brown.

Hymenophor in this russula is lamellar. The plates are rare, white, gray over time. There were specimens with black plates.

Caught in areas with moderate climatic conditions and in the western part of Siberia. Fruiting begins in the summer and continues until frost.

Only young representatives are suitable for food. They are eaten boiled and salted.

Morel conical

Morchella conica is an interesting in appearance mushroom with a breastplate shape. His hat is folded, cellular, up to 9 cm high in the form of a long cone of brown color with a yellow or black shade. Her interior is empty.

Leg in the form of a cylinder, 2-4 cm tall, hollow. The surface is covered with grooves. The color is white, yellow, gray, brownish.

The flesh is very fragile. May be white or cream colored. Tasteless and odorless. Morel taper refers to spring saprophytes. The period of fructification falls on April - June. It is quite rare. Habitat - forests, parks, gardens.

Cooks cook it, fry and dry after a preliminary heat treatment.

Сморчковая шапочка

Этот гриб, как и предыдущий, имеет шляпконожечное плодовое тело со свободно сидящей на ножке колпачковидной шляпкой. По величине шляпка маленькая — до 5 см в высоту и до 4 см в поперечнике. Её цвет зависит от того, где гриб растёт и на какой стадии развития он находится. It may be brown, brown, yellow, ocher. Its surface is folded. The flesh breaks easily. Does not possess special taste. It has the smell of damp.

The leg is up to 11-15 cm long. In youth, it is white with a yellowish tinge and cotton-like, in maturity it is ocher and hollow.

Habitats - countries with a temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The mushroom prefers deciduous and mixed forests, areas near water. Mushrooms come across large groups of morel hats, numbering 50-70 copies. The fruiting season is April and May.

Some sources claim that this mushroom is inedible and can cause poisoning. However, it is often referred to as conditionally edible, giving recommendations on pre-heat treatment.

Tinder is sulfur-yellow

Polyporic sulphureus (lat. Laetíporus sulphúreus) is not recommended for frequent consumption, as there is evidence of its toxicity. The fruit bodies of the parasitic fungus do not settle too high in the trees or on the stumps.

At first they resemble yellow or orange drops. As they develop, they become similar to the ear - a few pseudo-heads, 10-40 cm in size, in the shape of fans grow together. This "construction" can weigh up to 10 kg.

Their flesh is juicy, soft, fragile, with not too expressive smell and sourish taste. The color is white. The hymenophore of this tinder is in the form of yellow tubes 0.2-0.4 cm long.

The corpulent yellow shed is parasitic on many deciduous, fruit, coniferous trees. Settled on them from May to September.

It costs about 40 minutes to boil this mushroom. Only fresh specimens are suitable for food. They are fried, boiled, pickled, salted.

Scaly tinder

The scaly shale grinder (lat. Polýporus squamósus) is well known to mushroom pickers because of its widespread occurrence. Fruit bodies are located low in the trees. First, they have the form of a kidney, then - prostrate. In diameter reach 30 cm. They are colored yellow or gray. The surface is dotted with dark brown scales.

The tinder has a soft pulp which is soft and spongy in mature specimens.

The leg of the fungus is up to 10 cm long and up to 4 cm thick. Its color is white, at the base it is brown with black. Rubic comes across in Europe and the United States. Most often grows in the spring on the trunks of weak trees, but can also occur in summer and autumn.

The food is eaten only at a young age. It can be eaten after boiling, salted and pickled.

Entoloma garden

Entoloma clypeatum first appears with a bell-shaped cap, which eventually changes to convex-concave with jagged edges. Its color also changes over time - at first it is white with gray, then becomes beige or gray with brown, and at the end of life - gray-brown. Under the cap are wide and rare pink plates, which are attached to the average height of the stem (up to 10 cm) in white, pink or gray with a light base.

The entomole pulp can be dense or soft in consistency. She has a mealy taste and aroma. It is white in color.

Mushroom pickers, as a rule, meet this mushroom growing in groups. It lives in forests, can grow in orchards. The period of fruiting falls in May - July. Entolomus as a conditionally edible mushroom with a mediocre taste is used in cooking for frying, cooking, pickling and salting. In Europe, there are countries where it is considered a good mushroom.

So, we considered only some conditionally edible mushrooms. In fact, they are much more. One thing unites them all - they should be boiled before use in order to remove the unpleasant taste and smell and so that there are no unpleasant surprises from the gastrointestinal tract.

Fifth place - a raincoat

This mushroom is also called grandfather tobacco, because in the process of aging a cavity with grayish or brownish spores is formed inside its pulp. When the fruit body ripens completely, it will be a whitish ball with a thin skin that is filled with these spores. It is worth picking up this mushroom until this process is complete, while the flesh is still white. It is recommended to soak for 1-2 hours, or boil for 10 minutes before further cooking.

Fourth place - valui, bow

This mushroom with a short leg and an amber cap is harvested for further salting. It appears closer to the fall, after the rains, and comes out of the ground with the hat closed, which then gradually unfolds. In the Urals, this mushroom is valued as a delicacy, and it is confidently harvested, despite the huge abundance of other forest gifts. But before salting it must be soaked, and longer than milk mushrooms. If the grudge gets rid of bitterness in 2 days, then the walui is soaked for at least 3 days, and only then it is used for pickling with the cold or hot method.

Third place - chicken, cockerel

These mushrooms are also referred to as ringed caps, and in the eyes of many people are common toadstools. But do not rush to conclusions, it is also an edible mushroom that grows mainly in deciduous forests, where it appears from August and continues to grow until late autumn. To lowland places, to the overwetted soil. It has a whitish tint, as well as a ring on the leg - the remainder of the film, which is under the cap of a young mushroom. It can be used as food after pre-digestion or soaking, which will remove its milk juice.

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