Nivyanik in appearance the same daisy. And many lovers, without going into botanical subtleties, call it simply chamomile. But from a botanical point of view, these are still different plants consisting in a distant relationship. Nivyanik has another common name - daisy. But most often it is still called "daisy meadow».
Little about the plant
In total there are about 20 species of this plant. Fans grow even less. The most common are:
Common nivyanik, he is Chamomile Meadow or Culver Orchid.
Nivyanik is the largest.
But the varieties derived from these species, many. There are early and late, tall and small, with double flowers and simple. The greatest number of hybrids received from the most numerous. There are not very many varieties of common broth, the most unpretentious and widespread, and their main difference lies in the height of the stems. But unlike N. the greatest, it blooms earlier. In general, the height of the stems of the broiler varies from 30 centimeters to a meter, and the size of the flowers can reach 15 centimeters in diameter.
When buying a variety of Nivyanik be sure to bear in mind that not all of them equally well tolerate the winter. It comes from Europe and tolerates winter relatively well, but even frost-resistant species may not tolerate severe frost. Therefore, purchase only the one that is suitable for planting in your area, and even then, it is better to hide it for the winter. Also note that there are one-year hybrids.
Nivyanik looks great as a single plant, and in a group with other flowers. Low-growing varieties are used as a curb plant, and tall ones create a wonderful background for a colorful flower garden. It blooms almost all summer. Nivyanik good and cut. Most often it is used in a composition with other colors. A bouquet made up of, for example, Alstroemeria and Nivyanik, looks great and elegant.
Propagation of seed leaves with seeds has two drawbacks. The first and main - the vast majority of hybrids do not save varietal characteristics. What will be a grown plant, it is impossible to assume. The second drawback can not be taken into account. It lies in the fact that cornfield grown from seed blooms only in the second year, although there are rare exceptions. Most reliably grow seedlings nivyanika. This process is simple, and is indistinguishable from growing seedlings of most vegetables and flowers. Seeds for sprouts seedlings are sown in early spring. Earlier there is no sense to sow, the day is still short and the seedlings that have risen too early will be of poor quality. If the climate allows, then you can do without growing seedlings, sowing the seeds directly into the open ground in the fall.
The most reliable way to grow a new plant is to divide the rhizome of an already existing plant. Moreover, this procedure is necessary if you want to preserve the decorativeness of the bush. This flower is short-lived, if you take each of its stem separately. As a result, after 3-4 years, an ugly bush with an empty middle and overgrown edges is obtained. This bush in the spring, with the beginning of the growing season is divided into parts and is seated. At the same time, varietal characteristics and flowering periods are preserved.
By the end of summer, small rosettes appear on the edge of the bush of the cornweed. So they can serve as cuttings. They can pinch off with a piece of rhizome and plant. Usually they are taken well, quickly go to growth and bloom next year.
Choosing a place for landing
Nivyanik prefers fertile soil with moderate humidity and neutral acidity. If the soil is poor and overdried, then the flowers become much smaller. Heavy clay, as well as light sandy soils are not suitable for planting nivyanik. Not only are they poor in nutrients, so growing on heavy soil is fraught with over-wetting with the risk of fungal diseases, and the lungs quickly dry out, frequent watering and mulching is required. No less attention should be paid to the illumination area. It should be well lit. Otherwise, flowering will be poor, the stems are short and curved.
The seedling of a nivyanik lands in an open ground as soon as warm weather is established. The distance between the landing holes should be between 40-60 centimeters. Basically it will depend on the size of the plant and the future of the bush.
Divided bushes are planted in the same way immediately after dividing or acquiring. Planting hole is prepared in such a size that the roots are freely located in it. If the soil at the site is not fertile enough, then add some organic fertilizer there. Suitable rotted humus compost. After planting, the seedling of a cornfield is watered abundantly. If the soil has subsided after watering, sprinkle the ground. It is highly desirable to mulch the soil around the seedling, this will allow the moisture to linger longer.
The focus will have to pay regular watering plants. He does not tolerate dry land. This is especially true if the summer is dry. During this period, you need to regularly water at least 10 liters of water per square meter of land.
No less important and feeding. Before flowering it will be useful to bring some bone meal into the ground. In general, two feedings per season will suffice. The first is held in spring, at the beginning of the growing season. To do this, you can use organic liquid fertilizer. The second time nivyanik feeds after flowering - complex fertilizer.
Before the onset of cold weather, the cornfield should be trimmed and covered for the winter. For this you can use any covering material, both artificial and natural - leaves, lapnik, sawdust. With the onset of heat shelter is removed.
As already mentioned, the cornfield over time is growing up. Therefore, the division and seating of the bush is not only reproduction, but also an important event for the care of the brook. It is necessary to divide bushes only in the spring. In the autumn division the risk is high that the plant will not have time to settle down and will die.
Of course, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil, remove weeds, cut off faded flowers.
Under one common name, a whole genus of perennial and annual plants belonging to the Astrovye family (Compositae) is combined. Most of the species are inhabitants of Europe and the temperate zone of Asia; as an introduced species, common common broccoli is found in Australia, New Zealand, and North America.
Many people mistakenly believe that the well-known chamomile is a separate flower. In fact, this inflorescence, and quite large in size. The basket contains marginal and tubular flowers. According to different data, from 25 to 70 species are included in the genus. In gardening, only four have become the most popular.
- Nivyanik is the largest. The plant comes from the slopes of the Pyrenees, reaches a height of 50-100 cm, and large inflorescences have a diameter of 10-12 cm, can be simple or terry. A distinctive feature is a later flowering period (from July to frost). Some garden varieties: Alaska (pictured above), Beethoven, Little Princess, Snow Lady.
- Alpine Nivyanik. Planting and care are somewhat different. The plant comes from the slopes of the mountains, prefers loose, well-drained soil. Ideal for group plantings, has a miniature size - only 15-20 cm in height. Flowers are large, with a light bluish tinge (in the fourth photo).
- Common nivyanik is a familiar meadow chamomile. The perennial plant grows up to 90 cm in height and has flowers of medium size (6-7 cm in diameter). Grades: Queen of May, Sanssouci, Mastern, Maxima Koening, Victorian Secret, etc.
- Marshland marsh. Forms large bushes up to 25 cm in height. Flowers are large, with a large yellow middle.
Place for gardener in the garden and soil
It is important to know that planting, planting and caring for which, depending on the variety, may differ only slightly, prefers sunny and well-lit places. You can, of course, plant it in a shady corner of the garden, and it will grow there, but the appearance and quality of flowers will suffer from it. Particularly sensitive to lighting Nivyanik greatest.
To say that the soil must be fertile, is unnecessary, because it is a prerequisite for any plant. It is necessary to cultivate the soil at least to a depth of about 30 cm, and choose a well-drained place. On poor soils, garden chamomile will grow, but the flowers will shred. It is recommended to add humus to heavy and light soils (15–20 kg per 1 m 3). The marshy areas of the berry are not suitable, they will often hurt, be damaged by fungus and age quickly.
Ordinary Nivyanik: planting and care in the spring
Sowing seeds for seedlings begin in March. Prepare for this a small container with a good substrate. The seeds are large, so squeezing them is not difficult. On a moistened layer of soil, sow them evenly and sprinkle a little with the earth on top (0.5-1 cm). The first shoots will appear in a week. Approximately in a month it is required to pick the cornfield in separate pots. Planting and care in the open field for seedlings are possible only in a warm climate. In this case, the young plants will bloom in the first year, closer to the fall. In the Urals and in Siberia, seedlings are planted in open ground in mid-late May after the threat of recurrent frosts has passed. Since the plants are large and form bushes, leave a distance of about 25 cm between them.
Nivyanik is a drought-resistant plant, therefore watering even for young specimens is required only in a very dry summer. For large flowers, it is recommended to periodically feed with complex fertilizers. Periodicity - 4-5 times during the active growing season, starting in May. On the introduction of organic greenfield will respond by increasing the green mass, but the appearance of flowers will be somewhat delayed, therefore it is recommended to do this before winter.
It is recommended to remove all withered flowers during the season. If you cut off the peduncle to the very root, then by the autumn the bush will delight you with another wave of bright colors.
Ordinary Nivyanik: planting and care in the fall
Chamomile bush must be divided every three to four years, otherwise the plant may die. It is best to do this in the spring, but autumn seating is also possible. It should be borne in mind that survival rate is much worse. New plants, separated from the parent bush, at first requires watering.
Varieties with large and double flowers for the winter will require light cover. Tumble a bush with a layer of dry leaves (10-15 cm), do not forget to remove them in early spring so that the plant does not bloom.
Diseases and pests
One of the most unpretentious and beautiful garden plants is a nivyanik. Planting and care do not cause difficulties, but the plant is subject to certain diseases. Of these, most often you can encounter fusarium, stem stem rot, splotches, rust, false and powdery powdery mildew, chrysanthemum miner, and meadow tripy. The reason often serves as a cold and rainy summer. As soon as you notice signs of the disease, it is recommended to treat the plant with a solution of 1% Bordeaux mixture. The procedure should be repeated at intervals of 10 days 3-4 times. You can also sprinkle bushes on top of wood ash. In case of severe damage, remove the entire above-ground part and burn it, and the young shoots will grow quickly.
In conclusion, it should be said that the garden (planting and care, photos of flowers - all this information is presented in the article) can bring charm to any garden. It can be used in the design of mixborders, rabatok, borders and as a pottery culture, it is beautiful in the composition of bouquets. Many gardeners practice the annual division of the bush to get a large inflorescence on a long stalk for cutting. As partners of the garden chamomile, cornflowers, bells, delphinium are suitable, in addition, she herself perfectly emphasizes decorative leafy shrubs.
Choosing a place for a berth
If you hesitate where to plant daisies in the country, give preference to an open sunny place. In the shade, the plant feels depressed, the stems of the cornweed can be deformed, and the peduncles – bend You can not plant it in the area where water accumulates in the spring. Garden daisy loves soft and fertile soil with good drainage. Neutral or lime soil is more suitable for plants; heavy clay or light sandy soil is not recommended. When preparing the soil in heavy soil add 20 kg of rotted organic fertilizer per 1 sq. Km. m, in easy – 15 kg.
Growing seedlings from seeds
Sowing seeds nivyanika for cultivation in the ground takes place in late spring or early autumn. In the first case, by the end of the summer strong seedlings develop, which need to be planted closer to the cold to a permanent place. For this it is better to sow the seeds in the greenhouse, they will grow faster. Bloom garden daisy in the second year. In the second variant, the seeds will germinate in spring, they can be planted in May, and the plant will be able to bloom later this year.In the greenhouse or on the site, transverse beds are made with a distance of 20 cm. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2 cm, covered with soil or peat, moistened. After 3 weeks, shoots appear. If you sow in a permanent place, thin the sprouts and plant them. In the prepared pits, place the compost, mix with the ground, plant one plant at a time, pour.
Combination and application in landscape design
Due to the long flowering and beautiful shape of the bush Nivyanik becomes an indispensable element in landscape design. A simple but very decorative garden chamomile can be planted alone or in combination with other plants, for example, in a group planting against the background of ornamental shrubs. It is often used in difficult beds-mixborders. Garden chamomile is wonderfully combined with cornflowers, delphinium, bells, poppies, calendula, sweet peas, lupine, this flower garden is ideal for a country-style garden, it will give it an atmosphere of rustic comfort.Variety of garden nivyanik is represented by many hybrids, among which there are specimens with large flowers (inflorescences up to 14 cm in diameter), with semi-double and terry baskets.
A delicate composition of nivyanik, doronicum and feverfew, diluted with contrasting dots of red poppy, will adorn the garden wonderfully. With the help of the gardener you can also create a beautiful bright spot on the lawn.
Low-growing forms of cornfield with a height of no more than 30 cm are used in alpine slides and curb plantings. Their neighbors can be marigold, daisy, small-aperture, gaillardia.
From tall tall berry there are beautiful bouquets, which also keep freshness for up to 10 days.
How to conduct wateringFor garden chamomile watering is very important, with a sufficient amount of moisture its inflorescences become larger and brighter. The plant especially needs watering in dry weather, a necessary measure – 10 liters per 1 square. m. But it is important not to overdo it, because the excess moisture threatens early aging and fungal damage. To keep moisture in the soil longer, it is recommended to mulch the cornfield with wood shavings or mowed grass.
Pest and disease controlNivyanik can suffer from chrysanthemum miner, meadow thrips, ants and aphids. Pest control is seasonal treatment with insecticides ("Basudin", "Inta-vir", "Aktellik", "Phosbecid"). There are traditional methods: spraying before the formation of buds with soap solution (a bucket of water, 100 g of soap), spraying infected plants with a solution of water and wood ash.
The cornweed can be affected by stem stem rot, bacterial cancer, fusarium wilt, spotting, rust, powdery mildew. To prevent the development of bacterial and fungal diseases, watch the soil: it must be dry and loose. If you notice a grayish bloom at the base of the stem or dark brown spots on the leaves, treat the plant with 1% Bordeaux liquid and repeat this action several times in ten days. Neivyan bushes also sprinkled with ashes. In case of severe damage, you will have to cut and burn the aboveground part of the plant.
Collection and storage of seedsIf your site already grows plant, you can use it for further cultivation from seed. Seeds for planting harvested in August - September. Choose a healthy shrub and leave several flower stalks on it. When the petals dry up and the baskets themselves turn brown, cut them off and dry them in a dark place. Separate the seeds and place them in paper bags with small holes to allow air to enter. Seeds need to dry out a few more weeks.
Other ways of breeding cornfield
Nivyanik can be sown as well as grown by vegetative methods: grafting and dividing the bush.Every 3-4 years Nivyanik bush should be divided, because the inflorescences will start to grow smaller. In the spring, when the plant is at the beginning of the active growth stage, it is preferable to plant the plant. If you do this in the fall, weak plants may not overwinter. Растение нужно выкопать и разделить корневище на мелкие части острым ножом. Слишком малые части имеют низкую жизнеспособность. Разделенные растения высаживают на расстоянии 30 см, присыпая корневище. Нивяник очень быстро разрастается.
Черенки срезают в июне – августе. Separate small basal rosettes of leaves with part of the rhizome.
Garden chamomile is fairly simple in the cultivation and care of the plant, but still has its own characteristics. Favorite gardener Nivyanik looks great in flower beds and bouquets. If you have a plot, be sure to put it on this little sun.
How to plant a cornfield
Nivyanik loves open and sunny areas where water does not stagnate. Nivyanik garden varieties with large flowers should be planted in well-lit areas.
Planted plants depending on the variety at a distance of 30-70 centimeters from each other. Should count on the gradual growth of the bush.
For planting grasslands, places with well-fertilized and loose soil are selected. This plant will develop poorly on sandy soil and on soil where water stagnates.
How to plant daisies
Planting daisies in the ground is carried out after the preparation of the site - in the soil for digging you need to make a comprehensive fertilizer for flowers. Dig holes 20-30 cm deep at a distance of 20 to 40 cm apart - the distance between the bushes and the depth of the holes depend on the type of chamomile. Remove the seedlings from the cells along with the earthy clod, plant them in the wells, cuddle the soil around the stems and water the seedlings. Chamomile seeds will bloom next year.
How to carry out feeding plant
Of course, you can forget about feeding a flower and think that it is not so necessary. But then do not be surprised why on the neighbor's site the daisy looks richer and more effective than yours. Chamomile loves feeding and loves them:
- The very first top dressing occurs in the process of preparing the soil before planting chamomile garden. Rich organic compounds are suitable for this purpose. After making fertilizer, the root circle needs to be mulched,
- the second dressing is carried out in the middle of spring with ammonium nitrate. It is better to pre-water the soil before dressing, for good absorption of fertilizer. You will need about 20 grams of fertilizer per 1 sq. M.
- in the period of tying the buds will not interfere with dressing with urea. But she needs only faded plants,
- In order to prevent excessive soil oxidation by mineral fertilizers, nitrogen-containing feedings should be used periodically. For example, mullein, bird droppings.