Tetranychus tellarius, Two-spotted spider mite, Spider mite, Spider mite
Red spider mite
Acariform mites - Acariformes
Mite spiderweb - small arthropod. A dangerous pest that damages more than two hundred species of cultivated plants. From fruit and berry crops, fodder plants are apple trees, all stone fruit, gooseberries, strawberries and currants. Damaged leaves turn brown and dry. Fertilized females winter. Reproduction is bisexual and parthenogenetic. From unfertilized eggs males hatch. The development is incomplete. In different climatic conditions gives from 8 to 18 generations per year.
Click on photo to enlarge
Imago. Tick size 0.25–0.43 mm. Body shape is oval. As with all members of the family of spider mites, peritremes are located in the wall of the cheliceral funnel. The end part of the peritrem does not protrude beyond the front edge of the body. The chelicera segments are fused and form a stylophor moving longitudinally along the hypostome. Distal segments retractable, long. The shin of the tentacles is provided with a massive claw. Two pairs of eyes and three paws of setae are located dorsally on the propodosome. Parietal setae one pair. 8-10 pairs of setae are located on the hysterosome.
Sexual dimorphism. The body of the female is oval, 0.43 mm. The color of the females body at the beginning of summer is gray-green, with small spots on the sides, from the end of summer to the beginning of spring it is orange-red. The dorsal surface is covered with long, slightly pubescent setae located in six transverse rows. Trailer department peritrem consists of four chambers. The last one is the longest. On the hysterosome, the longitudinal folds of the skin are located between the inner sacral and lumbar setae and the bends form a figure close to a rhombus.
The body of the male is characterized by an elongated shape, sharply narrowed towards the posterior end, length - 0.25 mm. The length of the penis is 2–2.2 microns. It is 5-6 times shorter than the handle. The anterior and posterior processes of the beard are pointed, the shape is uniformly convex.
Egg. The shape is spherical, diameter - 0.14 mm. At first greenish-transparent color, later gets a pearl shade.
Larva. The shape of the body is hemispherical. The length is 0.13–0.14 mm. It has three pairs of legs.
Nymph. Body shape is close to an adult female. The legs are four pairs. It differs from an adult individual in smaller sizes and less slender, massive segments of legs. Different nymph ages differ from each other, as well as from adult mites, by the location and number of setae on the ventral side of the body.
Phenology of development (in days)
Imago. Unfavorable winter conditions are experienced only by fertilized females. Wintering places - plant remains, exfoliated bark of trees.
In spring, when the temperature rises to 12–14 ° C, females leave the winter shelter and settle on the lower side of the leaf blades. Soon the females start weaving a thick web of thin, silky threads and laying eggs into it, which are located in the web one by one. For 15–20 days, the female lays up to 150 eggs.
In the spring generation, all eggs are fertilized. In summer generations, females can lay unfertilized eggs. Only males develop from them, whereas individuals of both sexes develop from fertilized ones.
When preparing for winter, females change color from greyish-green to orange-red, stop feeding and breeding, and acquire increased resistance to low temperatures. Thus, summer females die already at 0 ° C, while winter ones are able to survive temperatures down to –27–28 ° C.
Egg. The duration of development of the embryo depends on air temperature.
Larva develops within 8–20 days depending on the ambient temperature. Like adult individuals, the larvae feed on the juice of green shoots, leaves and fruits.
Imago. It takes from 8 to 20 days or more to complete a full cycle from egg to imago. The first generations are developing on weeds (nettle, plantain, field bindweed, quinoa). By the middle of summer, the mite migrates to fruit trees and multiplies on them until autumn. By the beginning of August (Leningrad) or in September (Central Asia) diapausing (winter) females appear in the colonies. The appearance of winter females is observed with the reduction of daylight hours to 16 hours. With a day length of 14 hours or less, only winter females develop.
Development features. The number of generations depends on the climate of the distribution area. The development of 8–10 generations is observed in the Leningrad Region, 12 in the Crimea, and 14–18 in Central Asia. Generations are layered on each other, and during the entire vegetation period, all stages of tick development are observed simultaneously. The most rapid development and reproduction of ticks occur at a temperature of 29–31 ° C and a relative humidity of 35–55%.
Class: Arachnids - Arachnida
Squad: Thrombidiform ticks - Trombidiformes
Family: Spider mites - Tetranychidae
Polyphagous pest infects almost all plants. When damaged by spider mites, small dots appear on the leaves (traces of punctures). This pest feeds on the sap of plants, so if they become defeated over time, necrotic spots first appear on the leaves, and then the leaves die off completely. Characteristic of a pest is the formation of a web in which they are visible.
Spider mites have a small size (0.3-0.6 mm), rounded body, under magnification rare bristles can be seen on it. Females are slightly larger than males. All types of this pest with the defeat of a plant are covered with its light web.
Spider mites live in colonies of hundreds of representatives. Pests are hidden in the soil, on the underside of the leaves, under plant debris. Both larvae and imago are harmful.
The color of the body of spider mites is most often yellow, brown or green. Sometimes have dark spots on the sides of the body. Wintering non-feeding females usually have a red or red hue.
The development of ticks lasts an average of 15-26 days, depending on weather conditions. Adult females live up to 4 weeks and in their life they lay hundreds of eggs. After three eggs lay young eggs hatch. At the same time, eggs can maintain their viability for up to 5 years, which makes the fight against the pest impossible, if not to make preparations acting on the eggs.
All adult spider mites have 4 pairs of legs and belong to the genus of spiders.
Common Spider Mite
Common Spider Mite — Tetranychus urticae Koch
The pest damages almost all types of plants in open and closed soil.
Adult individual spider mite 0.3-0.5 mm long, greenish-yellow in color with dark spots on the sides. Wintering females are reddish orange. Eggs are small, up to 0.12 mm, round, translucent, green with a yellow tinge.
Females in diapause, in the crevices of greenhouses, under plant debris, under pieces of soil, in bee hives, winter. The reactivation period of hibernating females at a temperature of from 0 to +10 ° C is 45-60 days, that is, before the start of the growing season, the tick begins to multiply. When a pest infects winter greenhouses, the first 4-5 generations live in a short day (February-apel). Due to the high daytime temperature (23-25, most of the population does not react to the short day and continues to develop, whereas 20-30% of females that are located in cool places fall into diapause, leave the plants and reactivate. After a period of reactivation (35-60 days) the pest returns to the plants and multiplies.Thus, in the tactics of protection against spider mites in greenhouses during the winter period, detection of the pest during the first colonies and destruction of the first-generation females is of primary importance. To go into winter diapause, it will be very difficult to get rid of them.
Red fruit mite
Red fruit mite – Panonychus ulmi Koch.
This pest is widespread everywhere; it damages almost all fruit crops and many ornamental plants. The greatest harm is caused to apple and plum.
The female is red or brown, up to 0.44 mm long, the back is convex with long pubescent points. The male is smaller, up to 0.3 mm, orange-red, the body of the male is narrowed from the rear edge. Eggs are round, 0,14-0,15 mm, red with long stems. Larva with three pairs of legs.
Red fruit mite overwinters in the egg stage in diapause on the bark, on the branches and shoots. In the pink bud phase, the larvae begin to emerge mass, they crawl to the buds and young leaves and begin to feed. The females of the red fruit mite live up to 39 days, during which time they lay up to 150 eggs. In the temperate zone gives 5-6 generations.
The larvae and adults suck the juice from the buds and leaves. On the damaged leaves, yellow necrotic spots appear along the veins, after the leaf turns gray and falls.
Onion Root Mite
Onion Root Mite – Rhizoglyphus echinopus F. et R.
The most damaging onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, bulbs ornamental plants. It can also feed on potato tubers, dahlia, rotting cabbage heads, radishes, carrots and radish. Onions damage both in soil and during storage.
Onion root mite is oval-shaped, whitish-glassy in color, legs are short, thick red-brown, of this color and mouthparts. The length of the females is 1.1 mm, while the males are 0.78 mm. Can live in the open, and in closed ground, and in storage. The female lays from 100 to 800 eggs. After birth, a tick penetrates under the husk through the bottom of the bulb and feeds there. The damaged bottom lags behind and the bulb begins to rot.
Ways to protect against spider mites
Prevention of pest occurrence is to observe crop rotation, weed control, timely harvesting the field from plant debris. Also, spider mites do not like moisture, so frequent watering or spraying will reduce the possibility of a pest.
When protecting crops from an onion root tick, it is necessary to warm the planting material at a temperature of 35-37 ° C for 5-7 days, just do it with the harvest, so that the tick is not settled in the store.
Marigolds scare away spider mites, they can protect planting of vegetable crops and flowers. For this, the marigolds are planted between the rows or along the perimeter of the plot.
If you want to protect the backyard territory from spider mites, then you can use traditional methods - infusions and decoctions of onions, onion peel, garlic, cyclamen tubers, dandelions, tops of potatoes. These broths are sprayed on affected plants.
The biological methods of control include the use of phytoseiulus predatory mites. Phytoseiulus persimilis. And to protect cucumbers from spider mites, they use the drug Aktofit, ke. 2 ml / m 2.
The chemical method of control include the treatment of plants with insecticides. With the defeat of vegetables by a pest during the growing season, use the drug Talstar, ke. 0.48-0.60 l / ha, Actellic 500 EU, Cand. 3-5 l / ha. The number of treatments - 2-3, waiting lines for 3 days.
On fruit crops, spraying is carried out before bud blooming with preparation 30B, c. 40 l / ha. In the phase of the green cone, before the pink bud or after the flowering of the stone rocks, insecticaroacaricides are used - Bi-58 new, ke 0.8-2 l / ha, Zolone 35, ke 2.5-3 l / ha, Dursban 480, ke 2 l / ha, Commander, vrr. 0.2 l / ha and others.
To protect the storage, disinsection is carried out with sulfuric gas (100 g of sulfur per 1 m 2).
Apollo cv (active substance clofentezin, 500 g / l)
The drug has a detrimental effect on the eggs of spider mites and their early stages of development. Apply on grapes, fruit crops and strawberries. Sprayed plants during vegetation.
Application rate, l / ha:
- Grapes - 0.24 - 0.36
- Apple tree - 0.4 - 0.6
- Strawberries - 0.3 - 0.4
Actofit, k.e. - biological drug. Application rate: tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, fruit crops, grapes, hops, ornamental plants - 4 ml / l, strawberries - 5 ml / l.
Types of spider mites
There are several common types of spider mites.
This pest is from South America. In Europe, it can be seen in homes or enclosed spaces.
Most of all this insect loves such plants:
The mite itself is small, only 0.3 mm. The body is oval, brown in color with red splashes.
Lives on the bottom of the sheet.
Spider mite, how to learn, methods of struggle:
What feed spider mites?
Spider mites feed on plant cell sap. Their salivary glands secrete an enzyme that destroys the chloroplasts of plant cells. Most often, animals settle on deciduous trees or grasses, but there are also lovers of coniferous flora. Some species of spider mites (polyphages) can feed on hundreds of different plants, others (oligophages) have a limited set of preferred plants, monogoly (monophages) are found, drinking the juice of only one plant flora. Particularly affected by the proliferation of spider mites, cotton, soda, melons, ornamental plants of open ground, greenhouses and indoor crops.
Photo by: Tony Wills, CC BY 3.0
Where does the spider mite live in nature?
Spider mites live everywhere except in Antarctica. Over 100 species of these animals have been discovered in Russia. The boundaries of the habitat of the tetranichid family are limited only by an average annual temperature of 4.5 ° C. With outbreaks and lack of food, the mites migrate in search of fresh plant leaves. At the same time, they accumulate at the edges of the leaves, forming wriggling tangles with rapidly moving individuals. In open places in the resettlement they are helped by the wind.
As a rule, spider mites love dry and warm weather. With increasing humidity, they are depressed. Arthropods are not able to remove excess water from food, as a result of which physiological starvation occurs and intensive reproduction stops.
Author photo: Aleksey Gnilenkov, CC BY 2.0
Author photo: Aleksey Gnilenkov, CC BY 2.0
Types of spider mites, names and photos
Below is a description of some species of spider mites.
- Common spider mite (lat. Tetranychus urticae) - widespread and extremely multifarious species. He lives on all continents except Antarctica. It feeds on hundreds of species of fodder, herbaceous and ligneous plants. Not seen only on coniferous trees. The common spider mite is a pest of berries, grapes, stone fruit, fruit, cereals, legumes, ornamental and houseplants. Intensively populates crops in July and August. The size of the spider mite depends on how much food it eats. Females reach lengths from 0.4 to 0.6 mm, males - from 0.3 to 0.45 mm. On the part of the body of the tick, containing the first pair of legs, there are 2 pairs of simple eyes.
Adult ticks are greenish-gray, dark green or yellow, with a convex upper and flat lower surface of the body. They inhabit the lower part of the leaflets, covering them with a thick layer of cobwebs. The common spider mites live in colonies. A female under favorable conditions lays over 100 greenish-transparent spherical eggs for three weeks. During the year, animals can leave from 8 to 18 generations. By the time the molt, spider mite eggs become pearl. Tick larvae are transparent, light green or greenish brown in color with two dark spots on the sides. Three weeks the young go from egg to adult, during this time there are new generations that overlap each other. In the colony at the same time there are common spider mites at all stages of development: eggs, larvae, nymphs, sexually mature females and males.
In the second half of summer, in the conditions of a temperate climate, fertilized females appear in the colonies. They acquire an orange-red color, stop feeding and go into the soil or under the exfoliated bark, leaving a trail of cobwebs in the way. They winter, gathered in dense groups, in leaf litter and soil. In southern areas, common spider mites multiply constantly and do not hibernate, bringing up to 20 generations per year.
The common spider mite especially damages cotton, soybeans, and cucumbers, but also other garden, garden and melon crops get from it. He loves apple trees, currants, strawberries, gooseberries, and all stone fruits. On the leaves of cotton purple-red spots are formed, they are abundantly covered with cobwebs, and over time the leaves completely change color and fall. The buds of the plant also fall, which significantly reduces the yield of cotton. Such a picture in Central Asia is called "Canas", "Urgamchak", and in the South Caucasus they call it "Chor".
Author photo: Gilles San Martin, CC BY-SA 2.0
- Atlantic spider mite (lat.Tetranychus atlanticus) the structure is close to the ordinary and lives in Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Yugoslavia, USA, Japan. It damages cotton, clover, alfalfa, strawberry, apple, pear. Its adults are distinguished by a yellow-green body color. The pest settles on shoots, fruits, branches, on the upper and lower parts of the leaf of palm trees, citrus. Atlantic spider mites are tolerant of high humidity, can multiply and develop in such conditions. Their length varies from 0.3 to 0, 45 mm.
- Red spider mite (lat. Tetranychus cinnabarinus) likes to live on many indoor plants. Это частый гость на каллах, бальзаминах, лимонах, цинерариях, розах, паслёновых и орхидеях. Пурпурно-алые самки крупнее красных самцов, их длина достигает 0,5 мм. Размер самцов составляет 0,3 мм. Животные не переносят влажности и предпочитают тепло.
Отложенные яйца красных паутинных клещей красноватые, блестящие, прикрепляются к листу или паутине. По мере развития они мутнеют, сквозь просвечивающие оболочки начинают просматриваться красные точки – глаза эмбриона. Перед линькой яйца становятся опаловидными. Six-legged larvae hatch from them. First, they feed, and then freeze in the form of chrysalis, from which the nymph I, the protymph, hatch. She also feeds and then freezes in the form of nymphochrizalides I. When molting, a nymph II comes out of her - a deuterronymph. After a period of feeding, she turns into nymphochrizalide II, from which an adult female or male subsequently emerges.
Author photo: Merle Shepard, Gerald R.Carner, and P.A.C Ooi, CC BY 3.0 US
- Hawthorn tick (lat. Tetranychus viennensis) - the usual inhabitant of Germany and Austria. It is also found in other European countries and in the Middle East. Found in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia (in Primorsky Krai), Moldova, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, China, Korea, Ukraine, etc.
The hawthorn mite lives on Rosaceae: plum, cherry plum, hawthorn, mountain ash, apricot, irghe, apple, etc. The leaves of fruit trees are first covered with yellow-gray spots, and then fall. Fruits on damaged shoots grow smaller than usual. Crop losses can reach 40%, especially in dry years.
The females of this species are dark red ticks with white legs and white gnatosome, their length is 0.5–0.6 mm. The life span of females is about 3 weeks, during which the animals lay up to 100 eggs on the surface of the leaves, covering them with cobwebs. They overwinter under the bark of trees.
Author photo: Art-de-Viant
- Date spider mite (lat. Oligonychus afrasiaticus) prefers heat and dryness, therefore it lives in tropical areas of our planet: in North Africa, Iran and Saudi Arabia. It feeds on the juice of melons, eggplants, date palm, various cereals. From May to September he lives in palm trees, melons and garden crops, because during this period their fruits are very juicy. The rest of the time, the palm mite propagates and feeds on cereals (on Bermuda grass, sugar cane, sorghum).
Pale green females reach a length of 0.3 mm. In favorable conditions, animals give up to 10-12 generations per year. In summer, females live 2-3 weeks, in winter - a few months.
- Turkestan spider mite (lat.Tetranychusturkestani) - wide polyphagus, damages various plants of both open and closed ground. The typical habitat of this spider mite is Uzbekistan. But a pest was found in 25 other countries on 207 species of forage plants. Turkestan spider mite is found in Japan, North America, Europe, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia. Most often it settles on such plants as: Abutilon (Teprastra hop ordinary, white willow, cane, plum, nightshade, clover, eggplant, corn, grapes, elm.
Bulged above and below the ovate body of the tick is 0.3–0.6 mm long, colorless and covered with soft cuticle. A greenish color appears in the Turkestan spider mite because it eats plant cell sap with chlorophyll. The spots on his body are remnants of indigestible food, translucent through the integument.
Wintering females are red. They spend the cold season under fallen leaves, maintaining a temperature of -25 ° C, but dying at -29 ° C. In summer, female Turkestan spider mites live an average of 30 days, up to a maximum of 80 days. They lay 3-20 eggs per day, and in total they make at least 400. Of the fertilized eggs, both males and females emerge, from parthenogenetic only males.
In the photo: A. Egg, V. Lichinka, S. Protonymus, D. Deutronimfa, E. Adult female, F. Adult male. Author of the photo: Systematic & Applied Acarology Society, all rights reserved. www.bioone.org
- Petrobia is a multi-tier (lat. Petrobia latens) - Cosmopolitan, who lives everywhere. It attacks more than 200 economically important plants for humans, including various cereals, onions, garlic, asparagus, strawberries, cucumbers, spices, clover and other legumes. Pest settles on indoor plants. Ticks feed only on leaves, which are covered with yellow spots and fall prematurely. Mass reproduction of these arachnids is possible in dry and hot weather. Multicore petrobias are carriers of the barley tobacco mosaic virus. The virus also infects wheat.
The tick has a red-brown or black body 0.5 mm long with yellow paws, the front ones of which are much longer than the others. During the growing season, it brings up to 3 generations of juveniles. In the fall, the female lays eggs on the soil that will hibernate.
Author photo: Frank Peairs, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, CC BY 3.0 US
- Red fruit mite (lat. Panonychus ulmi)mainly found in Germany on elms. It affects more than 144 forage plants. It lives in Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Latvia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, the Caucasus, Finland, Sweden, Japan, South Africa, New Zealand, North America, Australia, and the island of Tasmania.
Settles mainly on deciduous trees of the Rosaceae family, also infects grapes, alder, elm, mulberry, oak, and linden. It is most numerous on apple trees at the beginning of summer. In summer, ticks have a green torso; by autumn, females turn red.
A predatory mite (left) attacks a red fruit mite (right). Photo author: CSIRO, CC BY 3.0
Red fruit mite eggs on an apple tree. Author photo: University of Georgia Plant Pathology Archives, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org, CC BY 3.0
What garden plants does spider mite infect?
- The common spider mite (lat. Tetranychus urticae) loves berries, grapes, stone fruits, fruits, grains, legumes, decorative street and indoor crops.
- Atlantic spider mite (lat. Tetranychus atlanticus) damages cotton, clover, alfalfa, strawberries, apple trees, pears.
- The red spider mite (lat. Tetranychus cinnabarinus) is a frequent visitor to balsam, lemons, nightshade, callas, roses, cineraria and orchids.
- The hawthorn mite (lat. Tetranychus viennensis) is found on rosaceae: plum, cherry plum, hawthorn, apricot, mountain ash, irga, apple.
- Date spider mite (lat. Oligonychus afrasiaticus) eats juice of melon, eggplant, date palm, various cereals.
- Turkestan spider mite (lat. Tetranychus turkestani) often settles on the abutilone (teplum), theophrastus, cuff, acacia, cotton, sunflower, lucerne, burdock, field bindweed, swan, melon, cucumber, and oregano, and arcanum, and red beetroot, and red beetle, and red beetle. quince, hop ordinary, white willow, rush, plum, steed, clover, eggplant, corn, grapes, elm.
- Petrobium is a multicore (Latin Petrobia latens) affects more than 200 economically important plants for humans, including various cereals, onions, garlic, asparagus, strawberries, cucumbers, spices, clover and other legumes.
- Red fruit mite (lat. Panonychus ulmi) is mainly found on deciduous species of trees of the Rosaceae family, and also attacks grapes, alder, elm, mulberry, oak, and linden.
- Red citrus mite (lat. Panonychus citri) prefers tangerines, lemons, oranges and other citrus crops.
Sign: The photo shows how the spider mite looks on indoor and garden plants: cucumbers (1), rose (2), cactus (3), lemon (4). Photo 3 is taken from www.cactusnursery.co.uk. Author Photo 4: Paramecium, CC BY-SA 3.0.
What plants does not like spider mites?
Spider mites are not found on wormwood, pharmaceutical chamomile, celandine, mustard, cyclamen, yarrow, aloe, basil, parsley, marigold, calendula, dandelion, tansy. Not very fond of the parasite and pubescent species: Saintpaulias, Gloxinia, Calceolaria, Colonies. Placing pots with “tasteless” plants on the windowsill will protect other flowers from spider mites, and the pest will not attack them.
Symptoms of spider mites on plants
Spider mite damages the plant by piercing the parenchymal cells of the photosynthetic tissue and damaging the chloroplasts. The reaction to such an invasion in plants may differ somewhat. Symptoms of a spider mite are as follows:
- Light or brown spots appear on the underside of the leaves, over time they merge, the leaf dries out completely and falls off.
- Leaf blades turn red, take on a bronze or marble look.
- The web weaves around the underside of the leaves or other parts of the shoot.
- With a strong reproduction of the parasite, the plant is completely covered with cobwebs, and at the tips of the leaves a mass of actively moving mites accumulates. So they are going to switch to new, food-rich plant species.
- The leaves are deformed: their edges are rolled up, the scapes twist.
- Spider mite can also be determined by withering buds and slow growth of the plant.
Spider mite on orchid
Where does the spider mite on plants come from?
The female spider mite and the eggs it laid overwinter in the soil and under the bark of trees. In the spring, they colonize nearby suitable weeds, and later cultivated plants.
A spider mite is an animal, which means it has the ability to move actively. Even if he leads a sedentary lifestyle, sooner or later food ends at his old place, and he sets off in search of a new place of residence. Spider mites travel on their webs with the help of the wind, slowly creeping over short distances.
How does the spider mite appear in the apartment? We bring the pest with new saplings, soil, with things to indoor and greenhouse plants. Spider mites can get into the apartment and independently: through the open sash windows, descending from the upper floors or closely spaced trees.
Author photo: Olllli, CC BY-SA 3.0
Prevention of spider mites
If you take some precautions, you can prevent the appearance of a pest. And yet, home plants are much easier to protect from the attack of the tick, in the open field it is more difficult to do.
When buying new types of plants, they need to be held separately for some time (in quarantine), having followed their safety.
Sills, tables, shelves and pots that are in contact with or are in close proximity to houseplants should be wiped with alcohol or another disinfectant.
The soil mixture for planting crops must be disinfected. It can be spilled several times with boiling water, calcined in the oven, steamed on a stove or a water bath.
It is necessary to maintain high humidity in the room. To accomplish this task, you can purchase an aerator or continuously spray plants from a spray bottle.
In the garden and gardens you need to remove all the weeds, dig up the soil in the fall, remove crop residues, and follow other agricultural practices.
In a greenhouse, you need to establish a climatic regime in which pests do not live: humidity 80-90%, temperature up to 25 degrees.
As a preventive measure, it is possible to treat plants with acaricidal preparations, as well as plant a number of flowers on which spider mites never settle.
Is spider mite dangerous for humans?
This arachnid brings only indirect harm to man. It does not bite him, does not infect with diseases, but destroys the plants he planted. At the same time crop failures can reach catastrophic proportions. Spider mites promote the dispersal of spores of gray rot, viruses that infect the flora, thereby causing additional damage to the crop.
Destruction of spider mites by mechanical means
If one plant is affected, it is necessary to isolate it from others or only to remove damaged organs. At the initial stage of infection, you can manually remove the spider mites from the leaves or wash them with soapy water. Ticks do not like excess water, which means water procedures and an increase in the humidity level up to 80-90% will help to get rid of them. To do this, the plant should be dipped in warm water or spray well with a spray bottle, not forgetting the underside of the leaves, and placed for 2-3 days in a transparent plastic bag, securing it above the pot with the ground.
Biological agents from spider mites
- Using natural enemies that spider mites fear
The enemy of spider mites in nature is the predatory phytoseiulus (Latin: Phytoseiulus persimilis) mite from the family of parasitiform mites (Latin: Phytoseiidae). This predator feeds exclusively on spider mites. It usually lives in the tropics, from there it was introduced to other countries, including Russia in 1963. It is actively used in order to get rid of spider mites in the greenhouse.
In addition to phytoseiulus, spider mites destroy Amblyseius (Latin Amblyseius), western metasaulus (Latin (Metaseiulus occidentalis), ladybugs (Latin Coccinellidae), etc.
Author photo: Mick Talbot, CC BY 2.0
- Biological preparations
Today, the most popular active drugs to combat spider mites, produced using strains and spores of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. They are safe for humans, plants, warm-blooded animals, birds and beneficial insects. Domestic drugs produced on the basis of this soil bacteria are called Entobacterin, Dendrobacillin, Biotlin, Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin. Foreign analogues - Trikhodermin, Bicol and others. By the way, these funds also help in the fight against various caterpillars that eat the leaves of plants.
Chemicals from spider mites
It is possible to rid the garden of the spider mite with a group of chemicals called acaricides, although other classes of pesticides also have a wide spectrum of action and will help to cure plants.
To use poisons for the treatment of plants is necessary only as a last resort, as this also causes the natural enemies of ticks to die, which may later become the reason for the more widespread reproduction of pests. Spraying is required when there is a possibility that you will not be able to control the spread of a dangerous pest. Currently, insecticides and acaricides are more often sold as emulsions or suspensions. Open-dwelling sedentary mites can be destroyed with system-acaricidal agents of systemic action or with special acaricides safe for insects. Parasites are killed by substances containing phosphorus, sulfur, lime or tin. There are 2 groups of chemical agents that are effective, among other things, and against spider mites:
- substances to destroy the stages of animals preparing for wintering,
- drugs to combat the defeat of fruit and vegetable crops during the growing season.
We give examples of some well-known tools.
- Nitrafen - a drug with the smell of carbolic acid. It contains alkylphenols made from resins. Helps to remove spider mites and their eggs. It also destroys aphids, ticks, chervets, scab, moth, etc. Currently, the tool is rarely used, as it can persist for a long time in the soil.
- Malathion(Malathion) - thick light brown liquid with a pungent odor, well soluble in water. It refers to insect acaricidal pesticides. Kills larvae and adult spider mites. To get rid of eggs, it is necessary to make several treatments in a row. The drug also treats plants for aphids, suckers, weevils, garden moths, whiteflies, etc. At the moment, the drug has been supplanted by more effective and safe pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and diazinones. Karbofos is toxic to bees, bumblebees, wasps and other beneficial insect pollinators.
- Acartan - reliable against all stages of the spider mite. It consists of 2 active substances - karatan and keltan.
- Antio - organophosphate drug. Protects plants for 12-15 days.
- Apollo - acaricide that kills eggs and larvae. Safe for humans and insects.
- Benzophosphate - substance of contact action. It is used to combat spider mites on garden and garden crops. Protects plants from pests up to a month.
- Tedion - A specific acaricide, effective against tick larvae.
Agrotechnical measures to combat spider mites
- Deep plowing
To destroy the wintering stages of spider mites, deep plowing is carried out. In the gardens they dig up the land next to fruit bushes, in the beds, near the berry bushes. This technique contributes to the activation of predatory insects - stafilinid, ground beetles and others, able to climb into the soil and destroy their victims (ticks, including). The positive impact of plowing on the restriction of harmful species is also that spider mites, located in the surface layer of the soil, will die in winter from low temperatures (-29 ° C).
- Soil disinfection
To get rid of spider mites in greenhouses and greenhouses, in the spring they disinfect the soil with bleach or sulfur checkers.
- The distance between the beds
If last year there were recorded cases of infection of plants in open ground, then it is desirable to leave a considerable distance between the beds: it is more convenient to deal with spider mites in one place, preventing the spread of the pest.
Crop change (crop rotation) is another method to limit the number of pests. Constant cultivation of the same crops in one place leads to the spread of parasites. You can change places cucumbers and tomatoes with cabbage, on the last plants ticks settle reluctantly.
- Planting resistant varieties
Currently, all crops have varieties and hybrids that are tolerant or resistant to certain types of pests.
В обрабатываемом открытом грунте нужно убирать все сорняки, чтобы ранней весной самкам паутинных клещей негде было размножаться.
- Продуманное внесение удобрений
На почвах, где азот преобладает над калием и фосфором, численность паутинных клещей возрастает в 3 раза. И наоборот, если преобладают фосфорно-калиевые удобрения, то скорость размножения вредителей ограничивается.
Как избавиться от паутинного клеща физическими методами
Физические методы борьбы с паутинным клещом основаны на губительном воздействии высоких или низких температур на вредителя: осенью грунт в теплице закрывают плёнкой, подводят под неё шланги и пускают горячий пар. Also, plants are treated with ultraviolet lamps: radiation detrimental effect on the spider mite and helps to remove it.