General information

Korean fir varieties for landscape design


Fir could rightfully take first place in the beauty contest of coniferous perennial plants. Fluffy fur coat, vertically standing candlesticks with cones - all this makes her welcome guests in many suburban areas. Korean fir is also amazing with the incredible color of the cones. But to get this beauty, you need proper care. Since this tree is considered an aristocrat among the pine family.

Aristocratic family

Silberlok (Korean) fir is loved by gardeners because it does not grow quickly and practically does not need pruning. Its branches and tops form natural beautiful weave. It tolerates the absence of heat and light. It can coexist with other trees, but looks great as a separate decoration of the garden.

Korean spruce varieties:

  • Molly - has a perfectly smooth trunk, a magnificent crown. That allows you to use it as a hedge. Needs good lighting. In the absence of light, the branches are strongly drawn, the aesthetic appearance is disturbed,
  • A diamond is a rare and valuable species of bonsai. After 10 years of life, its height rarely exceeds 40 cm. Therefore, this variety is actively used to create alpine slides. The plant does not like strong wind and shade.

It is better to take all the varieties of these trees for planting with developed seedlings. Plant should be planted in March or September. The soil is acidic, well drained and moderately moist.

The most popular fir for landscape design

Purple-purple ornamental cones, green and white needles - this is how balsam fir looks like. This variety is very resistant to frost, famous for healing power. It has a kind of needles, which is divided into even parting.

The plant prefers a shade, does not take root in a hot climate, needs the damp and friable soil. This variety has many dwarf varieties:

  • piccolo - branches are located radially, slightly deviate downwards. The blue needles have a green low tide,
  • Kiwi - an interesting bluish-green color of needles will make this tree an ornament of any garden,
  • Gudzonia - has a broad crown and thick branches. Supergreen dark green with a touch of black. Down needles are bluish-green,
  • Nana is the most shade-tolerant and frost-resistant variety. Suitable for decorating a rocky garden species.

Fir monochrome - tall and luxurious representative of the pine family. It has a dense crown formed by a pyramid, the branches grow parallel to the ground. The decorative grade (blue) differs in silver color of needles. It is this variety that is highly esteemed by landscape designers. Frost-resistant subspecies of monochrome fir is most resistant to pests.

  • Violacea purple - needles long and large, white and blue. Can be planted singly, or in small groups. It tolerates smoky air, is not afraid of frost and drought,
  • Compacta is a dwarf hybrid fir in the form of a bush, the branches are spread unevenly.

Russian beauty

Siberian fir is known since childhood. This species of coniferous tree is found almost throughout the entire territory of Russia. They can be found even in the mountains, but there these trees are somewhat lower.

Siberian fir is one of the most important forest-forming species. Does not like poor soil and wetlands, tolerates cold. It is difficult to breed in large cities, because it withers away from dirty air.

Description and photos of Korean fir varieties

A brief description of the Korean fir varieties allows you to make the right choice, and the photo will illustrate the external aesthetic properties.

Korean fir "Brilliant" (Brilliant) and "Silberlocke".

Korean fir "Brilliant" is a very valuable plant, as it is not an artificial, but a natural dwarf. Dwarf variety feels great in containers, this plant has a neat cushion-shaped crown.

Its needles are short, but it has signs of thickness and softness. The needles are shiny, painted at the top of a dark green or bright green, and at the bottom - white-blue or silver longitudinal stripes. The needles of this Korean fir variety are quite aromatic, the edges are wrapped to the bottom and reach two centimeters in length.

This is a slowly growing tree, in a year it grows three to four centimeters in length. And in 10 years the height is only 40 centimeters with a width of 60 centimeters. This dwarf plant can live even up to 300 years.

In order to plant it, it is advisable to choose for it semi-shaded or sunny places, while windless. Young plants are recommended to be placed in the penumbra, and in the spring and summer periods to hide from the sun. The soil for planting is better to choose a slightly acidic, with equipped drainage. Fir is sufficiently cold-resistant. The temperature is minus 29 degrees for it is not terrible.

Korean fir "Silberlok" has a cone-shaped crown, often with several peaks. At the age of 10 years in length grows to 120-180 centimeters. Her needles are curved, their lower part is white.

It is a slow-growing fir, as it has too curved needles, which, if you look at it from afar, seem silvery. Hence this variety of fir got its name - “silberblocke” means “silver curl”. In some cases it may seem that the tree is covered with frost. Cones in this variety of Korean fir purple cone, in the form of a cone, 7 centimeters in length.

Prefers acidic soil with a small amount of alkali. He loves the light, but in turn, and shade-tolerant. Cold-resistant plant. During the snow-covered winter periods, due to the fact that snow sticks to the branches, they can break, therefore a support frame should be installed.

Korean Molly Fir (Blue Molly) and Blue Magic

Korean fir "Molly" can grow in length up to seven meters with a three-meter crown. Trees of this variety are sprinkled with cones in large volumes. They have a blue-purple hue. Their length is 5 centimeters.

It grows quite slowly. For the year - 6-7 centimeters adds, no more. The trunk is straight and level. The crown has a conical shape and does not require pruning, since it initially forms independently of the correct shape. The needles of the plant is flat, but thick, has a bright green color with a bluish tinge. The lower part of the needles bluish-white. Cones have large, blue-purple hue.

The plant feels much better in lighted areas and does not like sudden jumps in ambient temperature. If it is in a dark place, the shoots begin to stretch, and the crown becomes loose.

Cold resistant. Needs a moist soil equipped with drainage.

Korean fir Blue Magik is a dense shrub that grows every year by 6-10 centimeters, and in 10 years its height is 1 meter with a width of 80 centimeters.

Crown in the shape of a pyramid. The needles are dark blue-green hue, its lower part is silver. Cones are purple. Prefers a semi-dark spot. The soil should be acidic or slightly acidic, hydrated and equipped with drainage. The place where it grows should be protected from the wind.

“Dark Hill” (Dark Hill), “Oberon” (Oberon) and other varieties

Korean fir "Dark Hill" prefers to be under the direct sun or in partial shade. The soil should be equipped with drainage, slightly acidic and moderately moist. It is frost-resistant. For 10 years it reaches 40 centimeters. The diameter of the crown - 50-70 centimeters at the age of 10 years. Dwarf, shaped like a pillow, asymmetrical. The needles are hard, short, dark green, with glitter.

“Oberon” is a dwarf variety of Korean fir, its crown has the shape of a dome. Needles have a bright green color. At 10 years, its height is approximately 40 centimeters with a width of 60 centimeters. Needs a moist soil. Prefers semi-shadowed territory at first, and after that it is desirable to provide it with full coverage. It grows well on soils equipped with drainage, without excess moisture. The size of the cones is small, but they are quite a lot, and they all grow vertically. Cones are thickly saturated with resin, they appear already in the first year.

Land in the ground preferably in the spring or autumn. To do this, it is initially recommended to dig a hole twice as large as the volume of the entire fir root system. Put compost on the bottom and then place a pre-moistened lump with roots in it so that it is level with the ground. Around the trunk it will be necessary to make a hollow of a small size, through which it is good to water the sapling so that the soil near the roots is sufficiently saturated with moisture. Finally, the land is desirable to mulch.

Korean fir "Doni Tejaso" (Doni Tajuso) prefers sunny or semi-dark places. The soil should be equipped with drainage, slightly acidic and hydrated. Hardy. At 10 years, its height is a maximum of 30 centimeters. The diameter of the crown about 30 centimeters at the age of 10 years. The shape of the crown resembles a pillow. The needles are not soft, short, light green, with shine.

Otto Strasse (Ottostrasse) prefers a sunny or semi-shaded place to the soil, there are no special requirements, moderately moisture-loving, frost-resistant. In height grows up to 50 centimeters. The crown is 120 centimeters in diameter, in the shape of a cone. Every year it grows by 3-5 centimeters. The needles are soft, short, in the upper part - bright green, shiny, in the lower part - two longitudinal silver stripes. The cones are arranged vertically, in color, about seven centimeters in length, and up to two centimeters in width.

Korean fir "Select" (Select) prefers sunny or semi-shaded areas that are protected from the wind. It grows well in slightly acidic, equipped with drainage soils. It grows up to 4 meters. Crown in diameter up to three meters. It has the shape of a wide cone. In the year grows by 10-20 centimeters. The needles are short, 2-3 centimeters in length, soft, the upper part is dark green and glossy, the lower part is with two silver stripes. Cones purple-blue, up to three centimeters.

Korean fir "Cis" (Cis) loves sunny or semi-dark places, it is not demanding to the soil, it is cold-resistant. In height reaches 80 centimeters. The crown in diameter grows to 120 centimeters, so it has the shape of a ball. Every year it grows by 3-5 centimeters. The needles are soft, the upper part is green, glossy, and the bottom is with two silver stripes. Cones violet-purple hue, 5-7 centimeters long and about 2 centimeters wide.

Korean fir "Kristallgel" (Kristallkugel) grows well in sunny or semi-shaded areas. The soil is not demanding and frost resistant. Its height is up to 50 centimeters, dwarf. A crown in diameter of 2 meters can be. Form - pillow.

The needles are soft, the upper part is bright green, the lower part is with two silver stripes. Cones purple-purple hue, 5-7 centimeters long and approximately 2 centimeters wide.

General characteristics

Most natural species of fir are large trees.

The majority of the representatives of the Fir genus (Abies) combine such morphological and ecological features as follows:

  • large trees with a crown in the shape of a regular cone
  • many species have bark smooth, light gray
  • root system - rod structure, deeply going deep. The largest mass of fibrous roots, located in the upper layers of the soil

At first glance, the appearance of fir resembles spruce. Especially they are similar to each other from afar. Coniferous trees are similar not only in appearance, but also in their names. In the Old Slavic spruce called "Yalina", and fir "Yalitsya." But there are still significant differences between them:

  • most species of fir have smooth gray trunks with thin bark and numerous resinous nodules
  • branches form a crown of the correct conical shape, narrower and neat than that of spruce
  • needles on the ends of the dull with white longitudinal stripes

Fir is easy to distinguish when it has fruits.. At the fir-tree, the cones hang down, and the fir cobs stick strictly upwards. When the seeds ripen, they immediately spill out. It is impossible to lift a cone full of grains from the ground. If they are needed for sowing, they are searched for below or cut off along with the cones, until they fall.

Fir cones are directed upwards, unlike other conifers whose fruit hangs down

Most species of fir need fertile, well-aerated, moist soils.

Ornamental varieties are extremely sensitive to an excess of harmful substances in the air, especially carbon dioxide and automotive exhaust smoke. This is the reason why, in urban areas, they are much less common than other conifers.

In landscape gardening, most often use 9 well as their selection varieties that are similar in life conditions.


In the first five years of life, fir needs a lot of light.

  1. Fir trees belong to shade-tolerant plants.but it is better to grow yourself with enough light. They need a lot of light in the first five years after landing. Optimal conditions - the sun in the morning and light penumbra in the afternoon.
  2. Belong to windproof plants, although it is better to protect them from severe turbulence. In the draft it will survive, but it will suffer and will lose its decorative effect.
  3. Need high humidity.
  4. Plants are demanding to soil conditions..

Fir will grow well in fertile and rich soil

The life span of most cultivated species and varieties is several decades. For their normal growth requires fertile rich soil with good drainage. They absolutely do not tolerate stagnant moisture. Even with short-term flooding, the plants die quickly.

Terms and features of landing

The optimal time in spring is April. Another term is the end of August, the beginning of September. Although, trees with a lump of earth can be planted at any time of the year when the earth is being dug.

Better rooted seedlings from 5 to 10 years.

The size of the landing pit should be twice the size of a coma, but not less than 60 cm in diameter and 60 cm in depth. When planting the plant is positioned so that the root neck is flush with the edge of the pit.

The soil mixture for planting fir consists of the following components:

  • medium loam - 2 h
  • leaf earth or humus - 3 hours
  • grass peat - 1 h
  • coarse river sand - 1 h

When planting, they add a complete mineral fertilizer to a nitroammofosk, at the rate of 250 - 300 g in each pit, as well as 10 kg of forest land or sawdust.

If the fir is planted on heavy natural soils, drainage at the bottom of the pit is required. It is formed from crushed stone or crushed brick, a layer of 15-20 cm, and only then fill the pit with nourishing soil.

Feeding is carried out in 2-3 years after planting. Usually used universal fertilizer for conifers - 150 g per 1 m2.

Fir is watered as needed when the top layer of soil dries out, at the rate of 15-20 liters per tree. In the hot season they spend sprinkling the crown once every two weeks.

Fir favorably loosens the soil and removes weeds. Recently, this process successfully replaces mulching. It is better to use forest litter, bark, chips, cones, sawdust of coniferous species as a protective material.

Thanks to the natural shape of the crown, Fir trimming is not necessary. with the exception of dry, broken and diseased branches.

Most of the ornamental varieties are cold-resistant plants that do not need protection for the winter. But in the first years of life, young plants should be covered to protect them from low temperatures. For this purpose, apply modern material called "Spunbond."

Fir shelter for the winter

Any of the listed types is a non-woven fabric of white color that passes air and moisture well, retains heat, raising the temperature inside the shelter from 2 to 9 degrees compared to the environment.

In areas with a cold climate, the material is often used to protect thermophilic fir varieties from severe frosts.

Description of species and varieties

About 10 plant species are used in ornamental gardening.

Of the dozens of natural species in ornamental horticulture, the most commonly used of these are botanical species of fir:

  • European or white
  • Balsamic
  • Monochrome
  • Korean
  • Mountain or subalpine
  • Caucasian or Norman
  • Tall or tall
  • Spanish
  • Wich
  • Arnold

Some species have breeding varieties of different sizes, shapes and colors. More information about those that are successfully used for landscaping parks, squares and garden plots.

European - Abies alba

Botanical synonyms of the species - P. white or P. comb. In nature, most often found in most parts of Europe.

The average life expectancy is 350 - 400 years. There are many cases of fir long-livers, which are more than 700 years old.

Average height - 50 m.

The diameter of the crown 7 - 8 m.

The bark is smooth, light gray.

Needles, 2.5 cm long, dark green in color. The bottom side of the plate has two longitudinal strips of white.

The size of the cones - 15 - 16 cm.

The view has a good winter hardiness, which is gaining momentum as the tree matures. In especially cold winters, young plants are frozen. In this connection, in need of shelter.

Сильно страдает в условиях повышенной загазованности воздуха, вплоть до полного отмирания. В массовых насаждениях отсутствует, проще встретить вид в ботаническом саду или на хорошо ухоженном участке, где работает профессионал.

Горная – Abies lasiocarpa

Другое ботаническое название — П. субальпийская.

В озеленении используются селекционная форма «Compacta»:

Дерево средней величины высотой 2 - 3 м.

The maximum width of the crown in the lower part 2 - 2.5 m.

The shape of the tree is cone-shaped. The degree of overgrowing branches - high.

The needles of a green shade at young age get a silvery raid at full blooming.

Flowers and cones inconspicuous, decorative values ​​are not. growing conditions.

A characteristic feature is slow growth.

Requirements for growing conditions:

  • It develops well with sufficient lighting on humus-rich soils.
  • Tolerant of short-term drought, but responsive to soil and air moisture.
  • Reacts negatively to soil compaction and salinization.
  • Suffering in a strong acidic environment, until death.
  • Normally grows in 4 - 5 - 6 climatic zones.

In landscape compositions used in rock gardens, container plantings, as a soliter.

The main types and varieties of fir with a description and photo

Fir is a coniferous evergreen with a conical crown. The crown of the fir starts from the stem. In adult trees, the top of the crown is rounded or notched.

The color of the periderm is gray, it is not wrinkled in most species of fir. The periderm of mature trees becomes thicker and cracks over time. Some species of garden fir have needles of green-gray or green-blue color. The needles of most trees are flat, dark green in color with milk stripes below.

Fir has a pleasant coniferous smell. There are about forty species of fir, but not all of them are suitable for landscape gardening design, since individual plants grow to sixty meters. Cones are located at the top of the crown. The development of cones takes decades. Fir cones fall to the ground with stiffened parts. The fir root is strong.

There are firs with decorative cones, these include the following species: Korean fir, Wichi fir, monochrome fir, Fraser fir, Siberian fir. Fir is divided into species, which, in turn, have a variety of varieties. Below are the most popular and common varieties of fir.

Balsam fir

The homeland of balsam fir is North America and Canada. The top of the tree is symmetrical, dense, and pinned, low. Plant height - from 15 to 25 meters. With age, the periderm changes its color from ash-gray to red-brown, and shoots from ruby ​​to red-brown. Branches are placed ring-shaped in tiers. The needles are shiny, poisonous green, with a pronounced balsamic smell, small cones of lilac color. Cones cylindrical, up to ten centimeters. This species of fir is shade tolerant, frost-resistant and fast-growing. The branches of the lower tier well take root. Balsam fir is represented by several ornamental garden forms such as Nana and Hudsonia.

Balsam fir variety Nana is a slow-growing plant in the form of a dwarf shrub. The bush is down-to-earth, pillow-shaped, the height does not exceed fifty centimeters, and the diameter is eighty centimeters. The needles of the bush are short, ruby-colored, heavily knocked down, pleasantly smelling. Nana is winter-hardy, but does not tolerate high temperatures and droughts.

Fir monochrome

The homeland of the monochrome fir is the mountainous regions of the USA and northern Mexico. Trees grow up to sixty meters. The crown is wide conic. Periderm dense, light gray color with oblong cracks. The needles of monochrome fir is the largest among the other species, its length is about six centimeters. The color of the needles is gray-green matt on all sides, they are soft and have a pleasant lemon scent. The cones are dark purple in color, their length reaches 12 cm, the shape is oval-cylindrical. Monochrome fir is a fast-growing tree, resistant to winds, smoke, droughts and frost. Lives about 350 years. Fir monochrome has several decorative forms, among them popular varieties such as Violacea and Compact.

Violacea - purple monochrome fir. The crown of the tree is wide, conical, the height does not exceed eight meters. Needles oblong, white and blue. This form of fir is rarely found in ornamental plantings. Campakta is a dwarf, slow-growing shrub with randomly placed branches. The length of the needles reaches forty centimeters, the color is blue. Just like Violaceu, it can be met very rarely.

Important! Fir needles change every few years and does not rust, which makes it attractive for use in landscape design.

Kefallin fir (Greek)

Kefalli fir lives in the south of Albania and in Greece, in the mountains at an altitude of up to two thousand meters above sea level. In height, the plant grows to 35 meters, the diameter of the trunk reaches two meters. Crown is thick, tapered, low. The periderm becomes cracked over time. The young growth is naked, feels as polished, shiny, bright brown or red-brown in color. Kidney cone-shaped, tarry red-lilac color. Needles up to 3.5 cm in length and a width of not more than three millimeters. The tops of the needles are sharp, the needles themselves are shiny and thick, dark green above and pale green below. The needles are arranged in spiral form, closely to each other. Cones narrow, cylinder-like, tar, large. First, the bumps are lilac-colored, and as they mature, they turn brown-purple. Greek fir is drought-resistant, growing slowly, afraid of cold winters.

White Fir (Manchu Black)

The homeland of whole-leafed fir is south of Primorye, North China and Korea. The tree grows up to 45 meters. The crown is thick, wide pyramidal, loose, lowered to the ground. A distinctive feature of this type of fir is the color of the bark - first it is dark gray and then black. In young saplings, the periderm is yellow-gray in color. Needles tight, tough, sharp, solid. The top of the needles of dark green color is shiny, and the bottom is lighter. The needles are arranged on the branches in waves. Black Manchurian fir changes needles every nine years. Cones of a cylindrical shape, light brown color, tar, velvet-pubescent. The first ten years of life grows slowly, and then the growth is rapidly increasing. The lifetime of a tree is 400 years. The tree is winter-hardy, shade-tolerant, wind-resistant, requires high soil moisture and the environment.

Evergreen conifer fir and his photo

Fir tree in the photo

Fir - cousin ate, a genus of monoecious evergreen trees, height from 25 to 50 m. Motherland - North America, countries of the East - China, Japan, Korea, the Far East.

When describing a tree, fir is worth special attention to the crown - it is pyramidal, with one trunk-axis and branches arranged in tiers. The needles are flattened, dihedral, with stomatal stripes on the underside. Due to the wax coating, the needles seem whitish. At the top of the needle there is a notch, which is characteristic only of fir. The needle is attached to the branch by a disk-shaped, extended base in the form of a sucker, therefore, when it falls off, a trace remains in the form of a scar. The needles of the evergreen conifer tree fir live without falling for several years. The root system of fir deep, but not branched.

At the age of 30 years or more, fir is decorated with cones. They appear in the upper third of the crown, usually darker in color and stand on the branches with candles.

The genus fir has more than 50 species, in the natural conditions of Russia eight of them are found. With photos and descriptions of species of fir, especially popular in the middle lane, you can find on this page.

Siberian fir tree: photo and description

Siberian fir tree on the photo

Siberian fir is common in the north-eastern regions of the European part of Russia, as well as in Siberia. In the mountains it can rise up to 2 thousand meters above sea level. The tree is tall, with a pyramidal crown, durable - the maximum age is 200 years, but even then it dies not from old age, but from root rot.

As can be seen in the photo, Siberian fir needles have narrow needles, 2-3 cm long:

The root system is deep due to the taproot, but not branched and without visible root hairs. They are replaced by mycorrhiza fungus, with which the fir forms a very productive symbiosis.

The buds are resinous, the resin is abundantly secreted and the bark. Resin has a beneficial effect on the plant, reducing evaporation.

Winter hardiness of Siberian fir is high, which cannot be said about resistance to air pollution. She also does not like overmoistened soils, and marshy ones kill her.

Spanish Fir

The depth of the landing hole for fir is 50-80 cm, depending on the plant type. The more massive his crown and more roots, the deeper and wider you need to make a hole. It is important to carefully straighten the roots of fir and not to deepen the root neck. Otherwise, the tree will stop growing and may die completely within 3-4 years.

The crown is symmetrical and compact, with a height of no more than 80 cm. The maximum increase for the year is 5-7 cm.

Nordman fir (Caucasian)

(L. kaempferi), which differs from other species, as you probably know, by beautiful blue needles. Pay attention to its following varieties: Bambino, Blue Dwarf, Blue Croc, Madurodam, Blue Rabbit. It is not scary to experiment with larches, including the standard forms of all the mentioned varieties - as mentioned above, they are very reliable in our conditions.

Of these discoveries for the Russian garden, I would like to mention the variety of common spruce (P. abies)

Wicha - Abies veitchii

The area of ​​natural growth is the Far East, where it forms pure stands or adjoins to other coniferous trees:

  • spruce barbed
  • hemlock
  • other types of fir

Tall representatives of the genus "Fir", over 25 m in height, with a crown diameter of up to 5 m.

During growth, it is interesting to observe the change in the shape of the crown. In youth, the branches form a narrow pyramid, and later grow into a wide column.

The location of the needles on the shoots is unique not only for the fir, but also for all conifers. The needles are directed upwards, so that their lower part is visible with a white patina. This creates the impression of silver.

The view requires the following conditions:

  • Fresh, fertile soil with good drainage.
  • It grows well on loamy soils. Trees planted on sandy soils need frequent watering.
  • Does not tolerate excessive alkalinity. Soil acidity should not exceed pH 7.
  • Extremely negative reaction to excessive heat and dry air.
  • For normal growth requires sufficient moisture of the soil and crown, but without stagnant water.
  • Attitude towards light changes with age. In the first years of life it is better to place the fir in the penumbra. Over time, when the tree gets stronger, it will need more sun.
  • Good winters in the fifth climate zone, withstands the conditions of the south-eastern part of Europe.
  • It does not tolerate pollution of the environment, and therefore does not occur in urban areas.
  • It is better to use Vici for suburban areas of a large area.

Arnold - Abies arnoldiana

The species was obtained by crossing Korean fir and Wich fir in 1953 in Switzerland. Similar work was carried out in Denmark. In ornamental horticulture used grade "Jan Pawel 1".

A tree of average size over ten meters high.

The crown is formed in the form of a regular cone.

The branches are arranged in a circle with a slight slope upwards.

Wide needles up to 3 mm, grow to 2.5 - 3 cm in length.

The color of the needles on top of the green, shiny, on the back of the white matte like chalk.

When choosing a species or variety of fir from the proposed range, it is important to remember that any of these plants does not belong to the category of unpretentious crops. To get a full-fledged decoration for many years, you need to be prepared for the fact that planting and care will require a lot of time and effort of the gardener.

Feedback from our readers is very important to us. If you do not agree with these estimates, leave your rating in the comments with the arguments of your choice. Thank you for your participation. Your opinion will be useful to other users.

Fir equalischeyuchaya

The needles are dense and long (up to 4 cm), blue.

Preferred growing conditions

In most cases, the Korean fir crown is a cone or pyramid. In this case, the color of the plant depends not only on the varietal characteristics, but also on the age of the tree. Young copies are painted in light yellow or light green. As they grow up, needles, or rather, succulent-like leaf blades, become emerald, bluish-green or saturated green shades, often with a whitish or silver patina on the bottom of the needles.

Overview of new varieties of pine, spruce, larch and fir

Soil for stunted bush varieties are based on the general rules. The bottom of the pot or container equip drainage of the shards, covered with soil from above. Shrub fir roots also need to be well straightened, and then covered with the remains of the soil flush with the root of the neck.

Cones on this variety are extremely rare.

Brilliant (diamond)Due to the slow growth of the fir looks very dense and fluffy tree(A. lasiocarpa) hails from the highlands of western North America. From nature it has bright bluish needles that protects it at home from excessive sunlight. Therefore, it is quite resistant to sunburn. This type of fir is frost-resistant in central Russia, but after 15-20 years the lower part of the trunk is exposed to it, which should be taken into account when placing the seedling. Compacta variety is mainly used, but new cultivars such as Duflon, Lopalpun, Green Globe, Prikly Pete, Utah would be worth planting. Find them in European nurseries is not easy, but they are worth it.

(Abies alba) - European species. Fairly cold-resistant fir, but prone to spring burning. Therefore, you should pay attention to its dwarf varieties that can be pritenit in case of unfavorable spring weather: Bystricka, Hana Balatka, Hedge Franz.. This is an excellent creeping groundcover variety, which will perfectly decorate any retaining wall or slope and will not only fix the disadvantages of the relief, but also strengthen the slope. Yes, and it looks amazing. From the new amusing dwarf fir trees of this species you should definitely pay attention to the Hasin, Hiiumaa, Hocksteins Iseli, Klucinicece, Ziecice Balatka, Dumpy varieties. All of them are stable in central Russia and practically do not burn in the spring sun.It is very interesting to experience in our conditions.

Under natural conditions, fir equichaeucha grows in the central regions of Japan. The tree height is about 25-40 meters, the diameter of the crown is 1-5 meters. The crown is pyramidal, with smooth brown or gray branches.The wood of this fir is white, without resin tunnels, very resistant to rot, perfectly dried, sawn, pricked, planed and veneered, thanks to which it is widely used in construction.The genus includes about 50 species distributed in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere.

Blue Fir emperor prefers lightly shaded areas and moist nutrient soils with drainagePrefers bright places with sandy or loamy soil, filled with humus. Great for planting in a container, as well as for growing in rock gardens, coastal areas of water bodies and for walking areas.Natural dwarf with a pillow-shaped crown with a diameter of not more than 70 cm. The maximum height of the plant is 50 cm.

Fruits with seeds, or simply cones, grow vertically up on Korean fir, which is why they are often compared to candles. On young trees, they are painted in dark purple or bluish-green (depending on the type), in adults - brown-gray or gray-green. During growth, the segments of the cones are tightly closed, and at the time of ripening they open, and the seeds spill out.Siberian firBalsam Fir

Also, Russian breeders will be interested in cushion bluishPine BungeThe needles are about 3 cm long and about 1–3 cm wide, bluish in color, and dark green above.

Great fir in nature grows on the coast of the Pacific Ocean of North America. The crown of this species of fir is cone-shaped, in open areas it can, starts from the ground. The bark is thin, dark brown, with age its thickness becomes 6-8 cm and begins to crack.Under natural conditions, fir grows in the mountainous zones of the temperate and subtropical zones of Eastern and Central Europe, the Far East, Siberia, Eastern and Central Asia (China, Japan, Korea, the Himalayas), North America and North Africa.Regardless of whether Korean fir is growing in the open field or in a container, it is important to follow the general rules for caring for this plant:

Blue Emperor (Blue Emperor)

The needles are thick, saturated dark green color, from the back side bluish or silver-green with longitudinal stripes. Needles are soft, with curled edges, no longer than 2 cm.In any phase, be it winter rest or active growth in summer, the representatives of Korean fir look very picturesque. They are perfectly combined with flower and decorative leafy crops, fruit trees and shrubs. Even planted in a rock garden or on a completely flat lawn, they can bring a certain zest to the landscape of the site.(A. sibirica). For the first time in many years, the Liptovsky Pradek variety, the most stable and reliable in the middle belt of fir, has appeared on the market.

(A. balsamea) is very hardy and stable in central Russia, but grows rather slowly. We recommend using not only the popular varieties Nana and Piccolo, but also the compact Cuprona Jewel, blue Tyler Blue, golden Eugene Gold, almost blue Kiwi, belodonchikovy Old Ridge.Spruce mariorica​(P. bungeana) с изумительной цветастой сквозной ажурной кроной. По некоторым данным, она должна выдерживать климат средней полосы России. Также у нее существуют компактные невысокие сорта.​


​Мужские шишки шириной 7 мм, длиной 1,5 см, имеют яйцевидную форму. Женские шишки - темно-фиолетовые, цилиндрические. Cones brown 3 cm wide and 10 cm long. Lives about 300 years.

Despite its decorative effect, great green fir is used very rarely in landscaping due to the requirements for growing conditions and the climate. The tree is from 35 to 90 m high and with a trunk diameter of 70-120 cm. The shape of the needles is dark green and has a tetrahedral shape. Prefers moderately moist fertile soils. Life expectancy is about 250-300 years.In the western hemisphere, fir is distributed from Alaska to Guatemala and from Labrador to the mountainous regions of North Carolina. Mostly fir grows in a humid cool climate. The highest tree of Russia is precisely fir (Young firs need shading and shelter from frost in the first years after planting.

Compact and very dense crown does not have a pronounced central trunk, because of which the shape of the plant resembles a pillow stretched upwards. The maximum height of this variety is 1.5 m. The average annual increment is 6 cm.Cones are missing.

The landscape design uses many varieties of Korean fir, which can be roughly attributed to two groups:Caucasian fir

Fir monochrome(P. mariorika) varieties Machala. This is a hybrid of Serbian spruce and black spruce. And at its parent Serbian spruce (R. heating) one should pay attention to dwarf varieties such as Pimoko, Peve Tijn.

Unfortunately, even people who consider themselves professional garden designers rarely use very stable and fabulously beautiful pine.It grows in the mountains of North America. Best of all, fir is cultivated in areas with a humid warm climate. It is a valuable decorative breed, used in landscape design.Vicha fir in nature grows in the mountains of Japan, forming mixed or pure stands with other types of fir, spruce at an altitude of about 1300-1900 m above sea level. It is a slender tree with a pyramidal crown. It grows very fast, in 30 years it reaches more than 10 meters in height.

Caucasian firYoung plants and those grown in containers especially need watering. It is important to carry out water recharge once every 10-15 days. Adult plants can be watered 2-3 times per season. In particularly dry years, you can increase the number of waterings up to 2 times a month.

The needles are short and thick, soft to the touch. The upper part of the needles is violet-silver or intensely blue, the lower part is white.Prefers areas protected from the wind. Demanding on the light, but makes a light shading. The soil for this variety should be slightly acidic, air and water permeable, loose and fertile. One of the best varieties for growing in a container. Suitable for rock garden, mixborder and rabatka.

Tall firs with a pyramidal or cone-shaped crown,, Or Nordman (A. nordmanniana) can be used in the gardens of central Russia only as dwarf pillow varieties wintering under snow (Petra, Jakobsen). Large specimens, unfortunately, both burn and freeze.

(A. concolor) - one of the most famous species of our gardeners. Her new varieties Blue Sapphire and Kalous are attractive. Both have a pillow shape. The first has a rich blue color of needles, the second rather whitish-silver. In the garden, they will harmoniously look in the foreground of well-lit compositions of coniferous plants and shrubs. Other varieties would be worth paying attention to the compact Birthday Broom, Conica Witch Broom, Gables Weeping, La Veta and Piggelmee.Larches (Larix) - one of the most reliable coniferous plants for the middle band. Unfortunately, most Russian gardeners know them either as huge trees, which fall asleep in the fall with pine needles all around, or they know only a few weeping forms. However, in fact, this modern range of larches is not limited to this.

RumelianLooks very impressive in group and single landings. From above the needles are dull-blue-green, from the bottom with white stripes. Keeps on shoots 9 years. Lives about 300 years.The needles are soft, about 2.5 cm in length, dark green, shiny above and below with white stripes. In windy weather, it gives the tree a silvery white color.

​).​Korean fir begin to need additional feeds 3-4 years after planting. Fertilize them better with complexes for hvoynik (no more than 100-130 g of fertilizer per square meter).The cones are small, dark blue or purple.

Silberlocke (Silberlock)Undersized firs with a crown in the form of an irregularly flattened ball or pillow.Greening the house and the backyard plot with coniferous plants not only improves the state of the air environment (purification of air from exhaust gases, smoke, dust and other harmful substances), delivering aesthetic pleasure, but also preserves youth if pine needles are added to tea. And if you create with your own hands the compositions of their conifers, it brings double the joy and pleasure. Benches, flowerpots, decorative fences, multi-colored flower pots, wicker fencing, wrought lanterns, glowing bulbs - all this creates a cozy, fabulous atmosphere in the garden.

Sorta, Or Macedonian (R. Pere). Its blue form is very curious, which can eclipse almost all other pines with beauty - this is truly a good discovery of recent years. There is a low grade Arnold Dwarf.

Fir is shade tolerant, but best developed with good lighting. Windproof. Demanding on humidity. Very sensitive to air pollution by gases and smoke.The cones are about 7 cm long, at a young age they are purple-purple, in a mature one they are brown, the scales are wide-cylindrical, about 6-7 cm long. Seeds with a short wing, yellowish. Loves to grow in fertile soils. Lives about 200-300 years.

Fir is a powerful monoecious, evergreen tree with a cone-shaped crown. The fir has a strong root system, pivotal, extending deep into the soil. The fir bud resinous or no resin. Needles of two types.Korean fir grows better on the soil that has been thrashed with half-ripe sawdust or pine needles (previously decontaminated and steamed). This prevents the growth of weeds and makes the soil more permeable to moisture and air.

Prefers slightly shaded places and nutritious wet soils with drainage. One of the best varieties for planting in rock gardens, oriental gardens.

Crown cone-shaped, often without a pronounced main trunk. It grows slowly, the annual growth is about 12 cm.


Despite not so great fame, fir can become decent alternative to the usual spruce. Moreover, it is not a problem that it is not always possible to find this tree for sale. The Korean fir, as well as any coniferous tree, can be grown on the site. The process itself is not very complicated, and for this it is not necessary to find out where the fir is growing. The main thing - to take into account the characteristics of landing. It is very important to ensure that the selected site was moderately wet and had fertile soil.

It also does not hurt before planting to determine the grade of fir, because it provides many varietieswhich may differ not only by the growth rate, but also by their shape. It is enough to take into account these nuances before planting, and then after a couple of years you will be able to meet the New Year holiday at your summer cottage, without worrying about the fact that in a couple of days the New Year tree will lose its attractiveness.