Asparagus is magnificent representative of subtropical flora. It grows both at home and in garden plots.
Loves a large amount of sunlight, easily tolerates drought.
Some species used in cooking and are considered a delicacy. There are and medicinal subspecies asparagus Their stems contain vitamins and trace elements.
Asparagus (Asparagus) - perennial. Previously, this representative of the flora belonged to the family Liliaceae. But, at the moment, asparagus crops are isolated in a separate family. So now Asparagus belongs to the Asparagaceae family.
Actively grows in Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus, China, Australia, USA, on the Mediterranean coast. It can be a spreading shrub, emerald grass or vine. Asparagus branches reach a height of more than 150 cm. They are endowed with small flattened branches with bundle-like cladodes.
The cladodes are located on stalks and scaly leaves. The leaves are miniature, underdeveloped or absent completely. There are solid spurs on the shtambe. The plant has a well-developed root system.
Asparagus types and names
The genus of this representative flora includes over 300 different species.
They all share a single rhythm of growth. At the starting stage of growth, future shoots are formed in the underground bud. Further, the shoot begins to gradually increase. But new organs on the stem are not formed.
Therefore, when forming the crown shoots cease to grow. The root system will begin to form the underground buds again. This feature when growing Asparagus must be considered before growing. All subspecies of this representative flora are divided into room and garden.
Indoor Asparagus live well at home. Such plants can grow in deep pots, wide bowls on window sills. Basically they are installed next to the windows or in the bright spacious loggias.
Soil for such plants choose neutral or slightly acidic. Top dressing bring along with watering. Watering is done as the topsoil dries. As for diseases that affect asparagus and pests, detailed information can be found here.
The main indoor subspecies include:
Asparagus Meyer (Asparagus meyeri) is a variety of asparagus, which is a small shrub. It grows throughout Asia. It reaches a height of no more than 40-50 cm. It has a branchy structure that grows up to 6 m in width. Side shoots are cladodes. Due to the convenient location of the ovaries, this representative of the flora was called the "fox tail."
Asparagus Cirrus (Asparagus plumosus) is an evergreen perennial. It has elegant curly branches. Leaflets look like miniature scales. Stems curved, are phylloclades, growing in the form of bundles. The flowers are tiny, white. After flowering, blue-black fruits are formed.
Asparagus crescent (Asparagus falcatus) - vine or shrub with climbing stems. With good care in height reaches 5-7 m. It has stiffened branches with small prickles in the form of hooks. With their help, the plant clings to the support and climbs to sunlight. This representative flora grows in the mountainous terrain of Asia.
Asparagus Sprenger (AsparagusdensiflorusSprengeri) - shrub with branched stems. It reaches a height of 40-50 cm. The shoots of the plant are elongated, reaching 1.5 m. Form narrow-cladded cladodes of emerald hue. Leaflets miniature, scaly. The plant blooms miniature white flowers, collected in paniculate inflorescences. After flowering, an oval fruit of burgundy shade.
Varieties for growing at home
You can meet asparagus as an indoor plant in many homes. The most common types of homemade asparagus are:
- Asparagus view. Its homeland is considered the south and east of Africa. It is a grassy vine that has long stems and can reach up to 3 meters. Flowers - white, with a pronounced orange smell. But unfortunately, at home, this plant does not bloom. Also, this view does not tolerate temperatures below 12 degrees, as well as high heat.
- A densely flowered species, or Sprenger. One of the most favorite growers varieties. The plant is covered with small thorns, which are so characteristic of plants in South Africa. Sprenger tolerates drought well, loves the bright sun and unpretentious in relation to the composition of the soil. Yet it responds well to organically rich soil and timely watering. The appearance of this plant may differ significantly from the variety. Twice a year, asparagus is flowering. Small flowers. There are white and pink shades. Does not like cold. Temperatures below 15 degrees will be disastrous for her. It tolerates direct sunlight. If she has little light, the shoots are strongly drawn out, and the greens begin to grow less frequently. An exception is the variety Cwebe, which does not tolerate a bright sun and grows better in partial shade. The color of its shoots is different from other varieties. The photo of the Cwebe variety shows its difference immediately. Its shoots are brown or purple. In no case can asparagus be cut off. Otherwise, the plant will stop growing. When grown at home, this species looks good in hanging pots. But when grown in the garden, it takes the form of a groundcover plant.
- Crescent (Asparagus Falcatus). It is the largest species of this plant. Its name was due to the leaves curved, sickle-shaped. At home, in South Africa, it is used as a hedge to limit land borders. In height it can reach up to 7 meters. It grows very quickly both in partial shade and in the sun. At home, this species, of course, does not grow so big. On average, its length reaches 50 cm. The maximum length of shoots at home is 2 meters. Crescent Asparagus looks very impressive in a hanging pots. In this case, the pot must be chosen for it large, so that over time a lush “stream” of amazing tender greens will form.
- Ceviform (Asparagus racemosus). Nepal, India and Sri Lanka are home to this species. It can grow up to two meters. This plant is not only very beautiful, but also useful. Ayurveda - the oldest alternative system of medicine - recommends it for preventive measures and even the treatment of stomach ulcers and dyspepsia. Scientists in our time have proved that Asparagus racemosus is able to enhance immunity, as well as remove toxic substances from the human body. Crouse this species of asparagus is named for its flowers, which are collected in the brush.
- Cirrus (Asparagus Setaceus). Or bristly (Asparagus setaceus). Or asparagus plumes. Asparagus is feathery - it is a short shrub. Its stems are strongly branched. Shoots on the sides of the stem are needle shaped. They grow in bunches, which makes this plant very tender and airy. Asparagus Cirrus is often used for bonsai, because it tolerates shaping trims very well.
- Meyer (Asparagus meyeri). It is a shrub whose shoots grow from a single point of growth and grow vertically. In length, they can reach 60 cm. Unusual fluffy branches resemble a fox tail. And so it is often called the "foxtail fern." This plant does not tolerate pruning at all. Asparagus Meier looks very good in a pot, as well as in flower arrangements.
- Medeole (Asparagus medeoloides). Quite a large variety of asparagus. Shoots can reach 2 meters in length. It is more often grown as an ampelous plant, but also looks good tied to supports.
Varieties for growing in the garden
Garden asparagus can grow in one place for more than 20 years.
There are not so many varieties for growing asparagus in the central part of Russia. Among them, the most popular type - this is medicinal asparagus.
- Medicinal asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). This is a plant that can reach 1.5–2 meters. This species is excellent food. In addition, it has many healing properties. Medicinal asparagus can help a person as a diuretic, laxative, vasodilator.
- Turbid asparagus (Asparagus verticillatus). Very beautiful and elegant perennial. It can grow up to 1.5 meters in height.
- Scaraber asparagus (Asparagus schoeberioides). His homeland is the Far East. In height grows about a meter.
Asparagus is not only a beautiful room decor., but also an undoubted benefit for its energy and atmosphere. It cleans and moisturizes the air, enriches it with oxygen. Dust flying in the air, perfectly deposited on its surface. Removes harmful impurities from the air. It has an effect on reducing stress levels due to its soothing look. And also clears the space of negative energy. And, undoubtedly, it is a delicacy product, which is very useful both as a food product and as a medicinal herb.
When growing asparagus at home, it is almost impossible to see it blooming. If this happens, the decorativeness of the flowering plant will still be inferior to the open flower shoots. When flowering, using a brush, you can spend artificial pollination, which will produce fruit.
Protection against diseases and pests
Asparagus is a disease and pest resistant crop. However, with prolonged stagnation of water and a large drop in temperature, the perennial may be affected by root rot, provoked by the fungus.
Among the pests there is a spider mite, whose attacks are associated with low humidity and heat. Often, as a control measure, the flower is rinsed with warm water up to 45 ° C. If bathing does not help, treatment with insecticidal action is carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Use of asparagus
Asparagus is used in various areas of life:
- Floristics. Aerial carved greenery brought popularity to the flower not only among flower growers, but also florists, whose compositions often include plant twigs: often decorated with asparagus trifern for flower arrangement.
Thus, due to the unpretentiousness of the perennial and its high decorative effect, asparagus is popular among fans of tropical flora.
Such spectacular ampelous plants, such as the asparagus rosy Robot or the asparagus of Abu Dhabi with graceful falling stems will add coziness to any room, adding to the interior bright colors of greenery.
Description and origin
Asparagus or asparagus is a perennial plant with very beautiful leaves. Some members of the asparagus family are edible, others are grown exclusively for decorative purposes. Plant It has the appearance of a semi-shrub or creeper, its grassy long stems are densely covered with thin underdeveloped leaves that look like pine needles. In the leafy sinuses are cladodes - needle-shaped processes, collected in bundles. Asparagus rhizomes are powerful, well developed, reaching deep into the soil. Flowers are small, in room conditions rarely bloom. Fruits in the form of small round berries are poisonous.
Homeland asparagus - forests of Africa, Asia, North America. In the wild, plants reach impressive sizes. In Europe, edible varieties of asparagus are common; in central Russia, it is more commonly grown as a room-growing ornamental plant. There are more than 200 species of perennials, but 7-8 varieties, differing in the shape and color of leaves, size, and development features, are especially popular in indoor floriculture.
Advantages and disadvantages of decorative asparagus
Asparagus are decorative foliage plants, they are grown because of the beautiful evergreen leaves. The plants have many advantages. Among the main ones:
- spectacular appearance
- resistance to pests and diseases
- the flower does not need winter rest, preserving decorative throughout the year,
- it is not required to form a bush, because of the specific nature of the formation of new shoots, it acquires a beautiful look on its own,
- possible reproduction at home.
There are no major flaws in the plant. The only noticeable minus is poisonous berries that can be dangerous for children and pets. However, asparagus has features that must be considered when growing. The flower is very picky about the level of humidity and does not tolerate drought. Does not like too bright sun and feels better on the windowsills, facing south-east or south-west. Asparagus of all kinds prefer warm, not too dry air; the rooms where they are located should be aired often.
The most interesting species
At home, grow the most unpretentious varieties with spectacular greens. They are suitable for creating mini-gardens, greenhouses, interior decoration. Among the most popular varieties:
- Asparagus asparagus. Perennial with long curly stems covered with bundles of cladode up to 3 cm long.
- Asparagus pyramidal. Half-shrub with straight, upward stems. The cladodes are very densely located, from a distance the plant resembles a thuja or cypress.
- Asparagus raceme. Differs in the long falling escapes with cladodes of a light green shade. The name of the variety was due to the lush inflorescences of bright pink color, having a strong pleasant aroma. At home, the plant does not bloom.
- Asparagus is crescent. Liana with shoots reaching 4 m in length. On the stems there are thorns, thin leaves of dark green color look very decorative. It needs a strong support.
- Asparagus densely flowered or Ethiopian. Creeping plant with sprawling branches, covered with rounded scales up to 4 mm and cladodes, collected in small bunches.
- Asparagus is feathery. Lush shrub, slightly resembling a fern. Very thin leaves are arranged in a horizontal plane, numerous lateral shoots grow quickly and retain decorativeness for a long time.
- Asparagus Meier. Original plant with single falling shoots, densely covered with bright green color phylloclades.
In addition to indoor varieties popular asparagus ordinary or garden. The plant feels great on the beds, used to decorate the garden, the stems are cut for bouquets. Care of this species is simple, smooth, strong stems reach 1.5 m in height, forming a lush bush. Threadlike light green cladodes are located very often, in the middle of summer the perennial is covered with small yellowish-white flowers.
In the gardens, you can grow asparagus and edible or green asparagus. In the food are young shoots, they are boiled, pickled, used for cooking soups, salads, side dishes.
Currently, more than two hundred species of asparagus are known, distinguished by their decorative properties. This makes it possible to create excellent floral arrangements, stunning vertical phyto walls, or to decorate the interior with single graceful specimens. Of all the diversity can be identified a number of perennials, the most suitable for home cultivation.
Proper care of asparagus
This tropical plant can not be classified as particularly demanding, but care is needed. To a greater extent, this applies to irrigation, since an increased or decreased level of soil moisture can lead to various kinds of diseases and death. It is also necessary to observe the temperature regime and regularly feed the culture.
Asparagus is simply vital to bright diffused lighting, without which the processes of synthesis will be suspended. With its deficiency can be observed yellowing of foliage and poor growth. In this case, the movement of the flowerpot to the sunny side will save, without long direct sunlight falling on it (tulle or blinds are well suited for protection).
Fertilizers and feeding
Fertilizers are applied to the soil year-round. In the spring-summer period, asparagus needs to be fed every week, and with the onset of autumn the frequency increases twice - fertilizer needs to be applied twice in 7–8 days. In winter, feeding is reduced to once a month.
As fertilizers used mineral compositions for indoor plants. Organic additives will be a real “delicacy” for asparagus - a mullein infusion (1 tbsp / 1 liter of water) or bird droppings (1 tsp / 1 liter of water). Periodic dressing with organic matter will make the plant luxurious and improve the quality of the soil, turning it into a light, loose, breathable.
Pests and diseases
The main cause of the disease of this representative flora is improper care.Increased or reduced soil moisture, accompanied by disturbances in temperature, often lead to yellowing and falling of leaves, rotting of the root system. The way out is to create a favorable microclimate.
Often the yellowing of asparagus can be observed in the winter, when the light day is much less than in summer. In addition, heating devices create too hot conditions. To avoid yellowing, it is necessary in the winter to organize additional lighting with fluorescent, LED or fitolamps.
Great damage to asparagus can also be caused by pests, the most dangerous of which are spider mites and scale insects. The presence of a tick can be recognized by the appeared yellow and brown spots, thin web on the foliage. This insect feeds on the sap of the plant, as a result of which it can die. It will require treatment with chemicals (Fitoverm, Vermitek) not only of this pot, but also of neighboring ones, as the tick can easily migrate through the air.
Wax drops of yellowish and brown color on the leaves indicate the presence of a scytum, which also feeds on the plant sap. You can get rid of it by irrigating the soil and spraying the pot with Aktara.
How to Replace Asparagus
Asparagus rhizome develops quite rapidly, increasing in size, so it must be replanted annually. This should be done in early spring. The rhizome must be carefully removed from the pot, shake off the remaining soil, cut off the old shoots and roots. It is necessary to transplant into a larger container (a tight pot may burst under the pressure of a growing root).
Soil for planting can be purchased ready-made in the store, or you can make the mixture yourself by combining sheet, turf soil and sand in equal proportions. At the bottom of the pot must be laid drainage from pebbles or expanded clay. After planting part of the soil, the plant must be put in a pot, sprinkled with the remaining soil and watered.
Reproduction of asparagus seeds
Material for planting can be purchased at the store or collect yourself when asparagus has faded and small berries appear. Keep the seeds better in a dry place. You can sow at any time of the year, but given the fact that young shoots will need a lot of light, it is better to carry out the procedure in the spring, saving on additional lighting. In a small container you need to pour the soil mixed with fertilizer. In order to protect the seedlings from pests and diseases, the soil should be thoroughly warmed up before backfilling, and the seeds treated with potassium permanganate.
Seeds of asparagus are seated in the soil at a distance of several centimeters from each other and lightly sprinkled. The container must be covered with glass or film (plastic bag) and put in a warm place with an air temperature of + 21 ... + 23C. Regularly need to ventilate and spray the bed, using distilled water.
The first sprouts will grow in a month. When their height reaches about 10 cm, it is possible to make a pick on small tanks. After another 3-4 months, the plants are transplanted into permanent pots filled with drainage and nutritious soil.
Reproduction of asparagus by division
Some flower growers consider this method the easiest. The difficulty is only to carry out the separation carefully, without injuring the rhizome. Each received bush must be shaken off the old soil, it is good to inspect and, if necessary, remove the damaged stems. The beam is planted in a moistened soil with fertilizer. It is better to place the flowerpot at first in a cool (with a temperature of up to + 15 ° C), slightly darkened place and water regularly. A month later, you can transfer it to a permanent place of residence.
Reproduction of asparagus by cutting
This method is considered the most difficult, since the planting material does not always take root. In fact, from the cuttings, you can also get a new plant, if you follow some rules, namely:
1) When cutting material, use an extremely sharp knife, since, working with scissors, you can squeeze the place of the cut, and the stalk will start to rot,
2) Cut last year's processes not more than 15 cm long, leaving several leaves on them,
3) Treat the roots with a growth stimulator.
The right time to prepare the material is from July to February. It is also important to choose the right soil, which should include peat, wet sand and perlite. Cuttings are best planted in plastic cups (you can observe the development of the root) or small pots. Planted processes are dropped and covered with a package to create greenhouse conditions. Next, you need to air and spray the landing daily. A month later, when the roots appear, the plant is transplanted into a permanent container.
Asparagus - photo
Excellent decorative characteristics of asparagus, giving it the appearance of light lace, allow you to adequately decorate any interior. The plant is perfect for placement in the conditions of apartments, terraces, balconies, design of cascading and vertical compositions, as well as drawing up flower bouquets. You can visually get acquainted with a wide variety of species, assess their beauty and elegance in the pictures presented in the photo gallery of the article. Enjoy watching!