For a novice farmer who has recently equipped himself with a quail farm, it is very important to know how to distinguish quail males from females. Not only the egg production of chickens directly depends on this, but also the viability of the eggs produced: the unfertilized are suitable only for table consumption. If you are going to engage in breeding, the choice of producers should be treated with special care.
Manning quail family
For the full functioning of the farm, a bird is selected at the rate of one male for 3-5 “girls”. Of course, the results and gives shift, cross-fertilization. However, feeding extra quails is economically disadvantageous. On the other hand, the lack of males will affect the idleness of the females, which means a decrease in the "harvest" of eggs. If you consider the cost of quail eggs and carcasses, you can greatly reduce the profitability of the farm.
Leaving or buying cockerels by strict calculation is also not worth it. You should have a kind of bench in case of a sudden death of the manufacturer, his illness or low activity. In addition, the tendency to mate lower in his youth, when the quail has not yet entered into force, and at the age when he begins to lose it.
The main ways of how to distinguish male quails from females work with birds from three weeks of age, when chicks molded from down to feather. Breeders with some experience cope with the task, having a 14-day brood in front of them. Farmers with decades of experience can separate boys from girls when they are only a week old. However, at first it is better to focus on the grown quail, there will be fewer errors.
By the way, some breeds acquire pronounced sexual characteristics much later. If you intend to start breeding an American white albino, manufacturers will have to be procured in a month and a half. Until this age, having no skills, you will not understand who is in front of you - a cockerel or a hen.
Quail: a general description will take
Let's stop for a start on the signs characteristic of all breeds. The main ways to distinguish male quails from females include:
- Coloring plumage. In males, it is always more catchy.
- The weight of the bird. Chickens from the age of three weeks, gaining weight faster. And this is clearly noticeable, since the difference by six weeks sometimes reaches 15 percent.
- Palpation. The "boy" has a special gland between the cloaca and the tail. Even an inexperienced sparrowhacker quickly learns to define it by touch. If you click on it, a frothy whitish secret will appear. Naturally, “girls” do not have such an organ.
- Color cloaca. Its males have a pronounced pink color, the females have a bluish color.
- The pubes of the hens are somewhat divorced to the side.
There is still a way to distinguish male quails from females by behavior, if there is time to observe the already feathered brood. Males from time to time emit loud sharp cries. Females never scream like that. However, such a definition still requires observation and experience.
Some individual breed differences
The sex of some species of quail can be determined even soon after two weeks of their existence by the difference in color. When choosing chicks breeds of quails "Japanese", "Pharaoh" and "Estonian" need to pay attention to the "facade". In males, the front part of the head and chest are even brown, in the hens, black small specks are scattered along the breast.
The golden male Manchurian stands out well against the background of the "ladies" as an obligatory mask, which chickens lack.
Daily quail: folk omen
The older the brood, the more the breeder requests for it. This is natural, since the investment in the bird grows with each week spent on its feeding. Because farmers and tend to buy livestock early. Daily quail chicks, for example, are not much more expensive than eggs. And even if natural losses are possible (no one is insured against the death of young stock), they will be financially much lower. Remember how much quail eggs cost: four rubles a maximum, and you are given a guarantee that they are fertilized. A chick grown to 21 days, will cost 20-30 rubles.
The method of how to distinguish male quails from females, proposed by an experienced sparrowhater, has been tested by him on personal experience and helps to accurately determine the sex in 96 percent of cases. You need to watch the daily chickens: the most vociferous grow into females. The method is not suitable for more adult birds: in two weeks, the behavior changes to adult.
Who is a quail
Quail (the Latin name is Coturnix coturnix) is a small bird of the family Pheasant (or Galliformes), subfamily Kuropatkovy. The length of the bird's body is no more than 20 cm, weight - up to 160 g, which is at least 20 times less than the weight of the average chicken. Note that of the variety of representatives of the quail family are the smallest.
Despite a very short history, breeding quails as a poultry is becoming more and more popular every year.
And it is not surprising, because, on the one hand, the tiny size of the bird does not require large areas, on the other hand, quails are known for their precocity, which ensures high profitability and quick payback of such a business. Both eggs and quail meat are considered to be a very valuable and useful product, which also distinguishes these birds from their heavier relatives.
According to external signs
Let's start with the secondary sexual characteristics, that is, everything that will help determine the sex of the bird, without looking under her tail.
First of all, pay attention to the color.
Differences in coloring between male and female quail are given in the table:
With the so-called colored rocks (for example, Lotus, or English white, Turedo, or white-breasted, smoking, marble and others) things are more complicated, such birds have almost no differences in color. As a hint, you can use such a parameter as the size of the bird. Quails are usually much larger than quails (the difference is on average 20–22%, that is, it is very tangible, it can be detected both visually and by weighing).
But despite this, the female does not look ponderous at all, moreover, she is much more graceful and sleeker than the male, her physique seems very proportional.
It must be said that quails initially grow much faster than quails, therefore it is possible to distinguish chicks by comparing their sizes at the age of one and a half months, and an experienced poultry breeder will cope with this task even earlier.
Another indicator is character. Girls, as befits the fair sex, have a quiet and calm disposition. Restlessness and passion for clarifying relationships, often in the form of a fight, are the notable traits of males. Before an attack, males usually pull their necks out, as if getting up "in front of them" and thereby giving out their sex.
Thus, trying to separate boys from girls only on the basis of the behavior of birds is a thankless task, and you should not trust the results of such a “survey”. But this indicator can be used as an additional hint to check yourself once again.
Another way to establish the sex of a bird is to study the primary sexual characteristics, that is, strictly speaking, the genitals. In males, the skin in the area of the cloaca has a pink color with a thickening in the shape of a bean in the upper part (this is the secretory gland). In females, the same area has a dirty gray tint, however, it must be borne in mind that this “blueing” in girls occurs with age, so this method is not suitable for determining the sex of chicks.
Certain differences exist in the structure of the pelvic bones: in the pubic region of females, the bones are arranged in the form of a distinct "fork", while in males they are almost parallel to each other.
As it was said, quails were very quick.
They reach sexual maturity by the age of one and a half months, and at this age the sex of the birds can be determined even by voice:
- males make quite sharp, hysterical, shrill and not too pleasant sounds for our ears,
- the females are either silent or whistling melodiously.
However, the most reliable way to determine the sex of a quail is considered to be “analysis” of secretions of the secretory glands, and to be more precise, the very presence of such quails. This method is applicable only to sexually mature birds and young animals that have reached the age of 40 days; the secretory glands of young individuals are not yet developed.
- We catch the bird, carefully turn its breast upwards and with our free hand move the feathers in the lower region of the tail.
- Slightly above the cloaca in boys, there is a subtle tubercle (growth, "knob").
- Girls do not have it, we will see only a flat surface of dark pink or blue color, depending on the age of the bird.
- To check, gently and easily press a finger over the area over the cloaca. If at the same time there is a release of white foam (not to be confused with dung!), There is no doubt: we have a boy in front of us.
To summarize: most breeds of quails have fairly obvious secondary sexual characteristics: in order to determine the sex of a bird, it is enough to consider its plumage. The exception is the category of color quail.
Representatives of these birds are painted the same, so you need to be guided by a combination of the following sex differences:
- females are always larger than males, but at the same time they look more elegant,
- adult males are scandalous and pugnacious, females behave calmly, but the chicks behave mirror-like opposite,
- males utter harsh cries, females are silent or melodiously sing,
- the cesspool of adult males is pink, in females it is blue,
- in males, near the cloaca, there is a secretory gland, when clicked, the release of foamy white matter occurs; in females, when clicking on the cloaca area, only litter can be released.
What individuals are in demand?
The need to purchase female or male livestock depends on the purpose of breeding:
- Farmers are more interested in purchasing females. Because they often breed birds to produce eggs. They are deposited in a separate cell and provide special nutrition to increase egg production.
- When breeding birds for decorative purposes, more prefer males. Such individuals are less restless, do not create noise.
Usually, when incubating 100 eggs, only half of the chickens can be obtained. Some farmers prefer to breed young quail with an older male. It is believed that as a result of such a cross a larger percentage of females hatch.
How to distinguish the female from the male?
Methods for determining the sex of quails on the external characteristics
There are various ways to distinguish individuals from each other depending on the breed. The most common breed in Russia are Japanese quail.
Have "Japanese women" the color of feathers is similar to ordinary wild quail. Distinguish between birds by sex starts when they are 1 month old. Consider the plumage on the chest:
- only males have bright red feathers without any spots
- males of all breeds have a more uniform color of the body and dark feathers on the head,
- the plumage of females in most cases is motley.
As well as other features that distinguish birds by gender:
- females cheeks and goiter have a more saturated color,
- males have a larger head, a massive dark beak,
- females are distinguished by their great weight, they are graceful, they move smoothly.
Far from all breeds of quail, females and males differ in color. However, this can be done by listening to their voice:
- males often make loud cries,
- females stretch the sounds as if they were singing a song.
Individual sounds begin to emit characteristic sounds at the age of 1.5-2 months. Until this period, it is impossible to distinguish them by voice.
Males make loud noises
How to distinguish quails in adulthood?
It is much easier to distinguish grown quails. Do not have to look at the plumage and carefully listen to their voice. In the mating season, females and males behave differently.
Males exhibit the following features:
- The male strives to capture the female with the help of his beak. If he succeeds, he throws her head back up or tilts to the side.
- The male can snuggle up to the female for a few seconds.
Male and female quail
This behavior is not always noticeable under the condition of a large herd. In addition, female individuals at the time of aggression may acquire the habits of males.
How to distinguish quail chicks by gender?
This method is relevant only for birds that have turned 50-60 days. At external examination in individuals grope pubic bones.
It is necessary to probe the skin on the belly quail. It is quite easy for poultry farmers with great experience to distinguish a female from a male by this principle. That is why newcomers in this field should purchase birds with the help of specialists.
Gender differences are as follows:
- the pubes have divorced bones,
- in roosters, the bones in the area of the cloaca are joined.
In younger quails, these bones are equally spaced. Then it is impossible to distinguish the rooster from the chicken by this method.
Sex determination by the presence of a secretory gland is the most accurate method. However, in chickens under the age of 1 month, it appears rather weakly.
Table 1. Sex determination by the presence of a secretory gland
This method of determining gender is suitable even for beginners. Because the grown-up males clearly see iron.
How to complete the farm?
For the normal functioning of the farm, it is necessary to acquire one male for every 5 females. It is wasteful to feed the extra livestock of males for poultry farmers, especially considering the cost of eggs and meat of such poultry. However, with a shortage of males, the productivity of females decreases.
You should not carry out strict calculations when buying birds. Because there should always be spare males in case of death of existing quails. Too young or old males have decreased sexual activity, this should be considered when breeding.
Quail on the farm
When to buy a bird?
Inexperienced poultry farmers, it is advisable to buy quail at the age of about 1-2 months. It is much more difficult to distinguish birds that just turned 2 weeks old. However, experts will be able to recognize chickens at the age of 7 days.
In order to avoid mistakes, it is advisable to purchase already grown quails. Because in certain breeds, characteristic sexual characteristics appear much later.
How to keep quail?
Such birds are kept not only in conditions of large farms, but also on small personal plots. Some lovers of poultry breeding individuals even in apartments.
However, it is important to observe special conditions of detention:
- Provide a normal ventilation system. This is necessary to increase the productivity of quails.
- Individuals are sensitive to cold and drafts. Therefore, the room should be carefully insulated.
For comfortable living of birds, it is recommended to build a cage for them. Birds are too mobile, they can get stuck in small holes.
You can even keep quail at home.
When breeding birds on a large scale should consider these rules:
- Breeding individuals for meat does not imply the installation of special egg collectors. Although females are also raised for such purposes, this will save the budget.
- However, in the presence of a large number of birds in the cage and growing in order to produce eggs, it is recommended to install an egg collector. So, the probability of their damage decreases.
- At construction of a cell use various laths, bars, a wire. To use a tree for such purposes is highly undesirable. Due to the constant moisture, it quickly deforms and is difficult to clean from contamination.
- You can put plywood on the floor, but you need to cover the top with a grill.
- Place the cells at a height of 75 cm from the floor. This greatly simplifies bird care. It is undesirable to construct structures of more than 3-4 tiers.
- Birds living in the upper tier receive too much light, so they are covered with a cloth.
- The feeders are fixed in the side parts of the cage. It is advisable to make them removable and rinse thoroughly before each feeding.
Quails need to be kept clean.
Главное, чего требует от вас содержание перепелов в домашних условиях – сохранение чистоты и гигиены, составление правильного рациона питания и контроль температурного режима. Об этих нюансах мы и поговорим in a special article.
Таблица 2. Условия содержания перепелов
The content of the article
Если заводчик перепелок держит их для получения яиц, то это, пожалуй, обязательное умение, чтобы суметь отсаживать самочек перепелов от самцов вовремя. Of course, for breeding, you also need to distinguish the sex of the bird, but in this case you need to have time to plant the rooster to the females. In the quail family, there are seven to ten males per male.
As a result of observations, it was revealed that out of fifty eggs laid down, half of the boys will be half of girls. The probability of the appearance in the herd of hens is related to the age of the quail. It is necessary that the cock was older than the hens. Remember this fact, if you need to increase the number of quails.
Methods for finding differences
To distinguish between girls and boys in quail farm can be different methods, among which can be noted:
- Sex differences. The best time to determine the sex of a bird by the first signs that appear is when it reaches three weeks of age. During this period, puberty begins puberty and the final plumage is formed. Until then, until they reach maturity, the gender can be determined, but indirectly and far from accurate. For example, the quail is more restless, unlike the male quail, which do not move willingly.
- Definition by color and type of pen. Recognition of poultry by plumage depends on the breed chosen. There are breeds with a wild color, and there are some that are almost impossible to determine by their plumage. At three weeks of age, the bird is completely covered with feathers, and the farmer or breeder can already distinguish the sex even in such chickens. The plumage is different in the chest and around the eyes: the most colorful plumage is on the breast of females, and the breast is covered with many black dots. Male feathers on the contrary, are not as bright and often monochrome. In the rooster, contrast in feathers is observed around the eyes, in hens it is absent. A quail boy has a peculiar mask around his eyes. The cheeks and front throat plumage in males are lighter than in females, but the beak, on the contrary, is darker in males.
- Determination of external signs. Boys are inferior in size and weight to girls, but the beak and head of males are larger. Female quail sex has a more rounded shape, when the strong half has a more elongated body structure.
- Determination by voice. If the color of the bird does not allow to determine the gender due to the monotonous plumage of the breed, then there is another not clever way to distinguish it by voice. Starting at about a month and a half, the females begin to sing. Naturally, their singing is significantly different from the nightingale; rather, it resembles a whistle. If we consider the male singing, then it is difficult to call it singing, rather it is a cry. And the boy constantly screams in contrast to the female. This method is easy to divide the bird before feeding, when the pets are hungry, you can hear them very far.
But it is not always possible to distinguish a male from a female in a quail farm with similar methods. Depending on the breed, the age of the bird and the breeder's experience, wrong conclusions are possible. There are four breeds with which errors will not occur exactly:
There is also a more accurate method of quail separation and, perhaps, this is the surest and most reliable method - looking through the secretory glands. But there is one drawback, to determine in this way the sex, perhaps, only in adult birds. The order of distinction in this way is as follows:
- you must take the bird and turn it upside down.
- have cloaca push the plumage. If the bumps are visible, then it is a boy by the floor. Gently pushing on such a tubercle you can see a white liquid resembling foam. In girls, the surface is smooth and with a pink tinge.
Another way to distinguish a female from a male is to feel around the tummy, but some experience is needed. The bird also rolls onto its back. Belly up and careful movements should try to grope pubic bones. In boys, they are located close, and girls diverge to the sides.
Determination by males' wooing
You can certainly distinguish a male from a female in a more natural way, but he is not very comfortable. When males acquire the ability to mate, the chukar begins to differ from the hen by its behavior, the boys are more active and often “harakhoret” before the opposite sex, trying to show their primacy.