General information

Planting and care for perennial gaillardia


Perennial gaillardia very popular with gardeners. The fact is that no other flower can compare with the beauty of this terry and multi-colored chamomile. In addition, gaylardiya way to fit into every corner of the garden and change it beyond recognition.

Even the darkest part of the site will be pleasing to the eye with bright colors if a long-term gaylardia is landed there.

This is an unpretentious plant. However, it requires some attention when growing. Today we will talk in detail about the long-term gaillardy, planting and caring for this plant.

Flower description

Perennial gaillardia is known to domestic gardeners under several consonant names: Gailardia, Gayardia and others. The unusual name of this plant was due to Judge Gaillard from France. This man, in his spare time, was fond of botany and was a patron of the arts for floriculture. Grateful botanists named a beautiful plant in his honor.

Perennial gaillardia belongs to the Aster family. It is believed that this drought-resistant plant initially grew in North and South America, and then spread to other continents.

At the moment, scientists are aware of 24 types of this gaillardia.

Native Americans called this plant "fire wheel" for how it quickly captured the prairies during the flowering period. Thanks to seed multiplication, gaillardia very quickly captures new territories.

In America, the appearance of this plant is associated with a very old legend. According to her, in one of the Indian tribes lived a weaver who weaved carpets of amazing beauty. People loved his products and willingly bought them. But everything comes to an end: the master grew old and could no longer manufacture the necessary quantity of goods to satisfy the demand. Then, before leaving his life, he decided to weave the best of his blanket. It combined his beloved ornaments of red, brown and yellow threads. After the elder's death, people wrapped his body in this carpet and buried it. And in the spring, flowers of the same color as the threads of the carpet appeared at the burial site. Flowers quickly spread around and became popular with people, because they reminded of a good weaver.

Modern perennial gaillardia is a bush with a height of not more than 70 cm with a spreading crown. Its stems are branched, densely covered with foliage. The shape of the leaves look like an oval scapula with a surface covered with small hairs. But they love this plant not for them, but for large terry flowers.

The size of a single bud can reach 15 cm. All the buds are collected in inflorescences, which look like baskets with a convex bed. Depending on the sort of gaillardii, baskets can be semi-double and double.

  • Semi-double baskets are characterized by in-line arrangement of petals.
  • AT terry baskets median flowers grow stronger. In addition, they have a funnel shape.

Perennial gaillardia blooms profusely. The first flowers appear in mid-June, and the last before the first frosts.

Gaillardia beautiful amazes with a variety of color of flowers. They are light yellow, purple, chestnut, brown, etc. Moreover, even within a single shrub, the color of flowers can vary considerably. Such a variety makes the plant even more attractive to gardeners.

Gaillardia, as mentioned above, is an undemanding plant. It survives well in any soil.

Plant propagation

In order to grow this flower on the site gardener does not have to make a lot of effort.

However, it will be useful for him to learn about the main points of reproduction of this plant and its care.

Immediately it should be said that gaillardia loves light very much. Therefore, planting it in a very dark areas of the garden is not worth it. There she will not be able to develop normally.

Planting this plant is best carried out in an easy and pre-prepared soil with good drainage. However, the flower is able to grow on any soil. It will just grow a little slower.

The reproduction of this perennial plant occurs 2 main ways:

  1. Division maternal bush gaylardii.
  2. Growing from seed.

When to plant and divide the plant decides the gardener himself. The fact is that this can be done both in spring and in autumn.

Vegetative reproduction

This is the easiest way to grow gaillardia. But it will suit only those gardeners who have at least one established plant bush on the plot.

Propagation by division involves the division of the bush so that the root system remains intact. This procedure is best done in April, but you can in September. However, in the latter case, because of the cold weather, the plant may not have time to settle down in the open ground.

Before planting should prepare a special way for the soil. For this, the soil is fertilized and the planting holes are made in it, at the bottom of which the drainage is laid. Soil is best fertilize with humus and wood ash.

You can also use mineral fertilizers. After planting in the open ground of a separated bush, the ground around it should be poured abundantly with water. The first flowers will give a new bush only next year. If the separation was carried out correctly, the color will be stormy.

When breeding by division, one should take into account the fact that the bush of this plant grows rather slowly. For this reason, it does not need to be divided into many small parts. It is desirable to divide the parent plant in no more than 4 parts.

Seed propagation

With the help of seeds gaylardiya multiplies well spontaneously. Naturally, gardeners do not need it.

Therefore, they prefer to control this process in order to prevent the plant from spreading beyond a certain zone.

To prevent self-seeding, faded flowers need to be trimmed in time, otherwise they will form baskets of seeds.

Controlled breeding of gaillardia with seeds begins with the collection of planting material. This should be done in the fall after full seed ripening. The latter should be collected in a canvas handbag. In it, the seeds are dried and stored until planting.

Seed should be sown in a prepared open ground. Depth of landing should be small. In fact, the seeds need only a little sprinkle with soil, so that they are not blown away by the wind. After sowing, the area should be carefully poured with water and covered with a film to create a greenhouse effect. Due to it, the first shoots will appear already on the 12th day after sowing.

Landing is best carried out in the spring in April. Due to the early disembarkation, the bushes will be able to grow so strong by June that they can be cut and thinned. Only after that it will be possible to be sure that the gaillardia bushes will develop properly and will not interfere with each other.

You should not expect that a plant grown from seeds will grow strongly in the first year of life. It will not happen. In the first year, each bush will have an outlet with 15 leaves (this can be clearly seen in the photo), but already next season it will grow well.

After seed propagation, the first flowers can be woken up to see on young gaillardia bushes in a year.

We deliberately did not tell yet about 2 breeding method of this plant:

The fact is that both of these methods are not effective enough and are very laborious. Only enthusiasts resort to them.

Proper care

As mentioned above, this flower can grow in any conditions, but in order for it to develop properly, you need to ensure it has the right care. The latter consists of the following points:

  • Lighting. It is advisable to plant it in the lighted areas. Yes, gaillardia can grow in the shade, but due to lack of light it will bloom rather sluggishly.
  • This perennial is undemanding in terms of soil. But in order that it pleased the gardener with a lush color, it is best to plant it in fertilized soil. It should be aware that manure fertilizer can not be used. Because of it, the root system of a plant can rot. Instead of organic fertilizer, you can use humus, wood ash, mineral fertilizers. Also, to enhance growth you need to mulch the soil around the bushes and regularly loosen it.
  • Watering. Perennial gaillardia does not like excess moisture. No wonder this plant is called drought-resistant. It tolerates drought better than waterlogging, so watering should be moderate.
  • Transfer. Every 5 years should be replanted. This is best done in April. Moreover, most gardeners simultaneously carry out the separation of the bushes in order to obtain young plants. After this new bushes need to provide the appropriate care.
  • Pequal care gailardia cannot be performed without tying a bush. Due to the lack of support, the stems of this plant will break under the weight of flowers. Instead of props, you can use tight strapping of the bush with string. Tie up the plants you need before flowering. This recommendation is particularly relevant for high grades.
  • One of the points of proper care is preparing for winter. Gaillardia tolerates cold quite well, but severe frosts are destructive for her. Therefore, you should prepare for them: cover the bushes with spruce and dry leaves. If the plant grows in a relatively warm climate, it is not necessary to shelter it for the winter.
  • Another mandatory care rule is totop dressing. It is best to apply complex fertilizers to the soil. There are 3 fertilization periods: spring, summer and autumn.

Variety variety

As mentioned above, everything exists 25 species. Not all of them are used in gardening. Most of all gardeners love hybrids obtained by crossing beautiful gaylardii with other species of this plant.

It is worth noting that all hybrids are very similar in appearance and differ only in colors.

  • The most sought after The following varieties are considered:
  • Arizona San. This is a dwarf plant. Its height does not exceed 20 cm. Its distinctive feature is abundant flowering from the beginning of summer to the onset of the first frost. Flowers San San collected in inflorescences in the form of baskets.
  • Primavera. This is another undersized variety, characterized by very large flowers, collected in inflorescences of 7-8 pieces. Plant height does not exceed 25 cm. The beauty of this variety can be seen in the photo.

The varieties described above can be planted both in open ground and in pots.

  • Kobold This is a hybrid of average height. It has branched stems up to 40 cm long. The plant gives large flowers of orange color with a yellow border.
  • Sonne. This hybrid grows in height to 60 cm. It blossoms in two-color flowers. The color is usually golden yellow, turning into orange.

Gaillardia Spinous is the most popular type, which is usually planted only in open ground because of its height: it can reach 75 cm. Such a plant must be tied up. Characterized by litter with large flowers in the form of tongues with bright colors, which varies from the base of the bud to the tip.

The best-known varieties of gaylardii spiny:

  • Dazzler.
  • Wirral Flame.
  • Croftway Yellow.
  • Mandarin.

The one-year gailardium variety stands apart. Speech diets about Lorenzian. This plant has a height of 60 cm and fairly large flowers. Gardeners love it for bright, contrasting colors of inflorescences, which also do not fade in the sun with time. Caring for this flower is traditionally simple.

The one-year Gailardia Lorenzian starts to bloom in early June and ends in early September. Because of this, it is great for growing in garden plots as a decor for borders and flower beds, as evidenced by numerous photos. Also, this plant can be grown in vases and containers.

Diseases and pests

As a rule, this plant becomes ill only if it is improperly looked after. Especially often gaylardiya more when gardeners fill it with water. Excess moisture leads to the appearance of diseases such as: gray rot, powdery mildew and white rust. When the first signs of these fungal diseases appear, the plant should be treated with a weak solution of manganese and fungicidal preparations.

As for pests, this plant is very fond of aphid and whitefly. You can cope with them through any insecticide.

Brief description of the plant

Gaillardia is a medium sprawling bush, growing from 25 to 70 cm in height. Branched stem literally covered with leaves, which have an oval shape with teeth on the edges. Leaves over the entire area are covered with thin fibers. Flowering plants begins in June and lasts until frost. Flowers grow quite large and can reach up to 15 cm in diameter.

A large variety of colors are represented by them. Here there are representatives of yellow, orange, purple and other shades. Sometimes on one bush you can see flowers of different colors. The middle of the petals are usually darker than at their edges. Such a transition makes the flower even more attractive.

Gaillardia retains a fresh look for a very long time, even in a cut state.

Varieties and types of gaillardii

Currently, more than twenty species of this plant are known. The most popular of them are:

  1. Burgundy It has beautiful flowers and is widely used for decorating garden plots, and is also suitable for cutting. The stem is quite tall and thin, so it must be tied to a support. Flowers have a red color, comparable to the color of wine.
  2. Gaillardia Spinous It is distinguished by a straight stalk, reaching up to 80 cm in height. The leaves are oval-shaped, dentate or even along the edges. The lower representatives grow on petioles, and the upper ones - sessile on the stem. All garden forms have the common name grandiflora.
  3. Arizona San - a type of undersized plants, reaching no more than 25 cm in height. It has a rather long flowering.
  4. Gaillardia is beautiful is a bush with flowers of yellow color in the center of the petals, turning into purple-pink along the edges.

Gaillardia: plant description

The dense and pubescent straight shoots of the plant form a very dense lush bush. Elongated toothed leaves usually pointed at the end, with the next arrangement. During flowering, it throws out long, thin flower stalks with single basket inflorescences, which are formed by three-toothed yellow or red flowers on the edge, and tubular flowers of dark red tones - in the center of the basket.

A flower can have a simple inflorescence, a semi-double one with two or three rows of reed flowers, and also a double one with thickly expanded funnel tubular median flowers. The blooming of solar chamomile is abundant and long - almost the entire summer season. Gaillardia is valued for resistance to frost and drought, and cut flowers will form a beautiful bouquet that will decorate any room for a long time.

What you need to know about planting gaylardii in the garden

Perennial gaillardia does not require much effort for planting and subsequent maintenance. Bright sunny daisy is thermophilic, prefers a temperature in the range of 12-24 degrees. Before planting gaillardii in the garden, it is advisable to drain the soil well beforehand, and to add organic and mineral fertilizers to the soil in small quantities.

Lighting for gaillardia

Perennial solar daisy prefers a well-lit and open place for growth, so you should carefully choose to plant it. sunny plot away from drafts. It is advisable that the place where the gaillardia flowers grow will be illuminated by the sunlight as long as possible. When planting gaillardii in the shade, the development of the plant will be weak, and the flowers - small and inconspicuous, devoid of the usual bright colors.

Requirement gaylardii to soil type

For successful cultivation of gaillardii the soil type is important - it grows well in light and nutritious landwithout excessive moisture. Sandy lands will be an excellent option for the plant. On loams, soils with high acidity and those areas that have been fertilized with manure, the growth and development of gaillardia will be weak. To create favorable conditions for the growth of this flower, ash and coarse sand should be introduced into the soil.

The scheme of planting gaylardii in open ground

Seedlings of gaillardia are transplanted to a permanent place of cultivation according to a pattern of about 30 x 20, which will ensure that there is enough space for the development of bushes and further care for adult plants. If it is necessary to create a dense planting from gaillardii bushes, 2-4 seedlings can be planted in one planting hole.

Seed propagation

Since growing a gaylardiyu from seeds is even possible for a novice gardener, this breeding method is very popular for annual plant varieties. Let us consider in more detail exactly how gaillardy sows with seeds.

In order for gaillardia to delight the eye with its bright colors, it is necessary to collect seed for spring cultivation from seeds in the fall, and the best time to plant them is the end of February and the beginning of March. For perennial gaillardia, a spacious container should be selected in which seeds will be planted, fill it with nutrient earthen mixture, spread seed material over 10-20 mm over its surface, slightly sprinkle them with substrate and moisten crops with an atomizer with warm water.Cover the seed container with glass or plastic film and place it in a bright, warm room without direct sunlight.

Daily shelter must be removed for several hours for airing and to prevent the drying of the ground. After the emergence of shoots the shelter is finally removed, and the container is transferred to a cool room with high humidity. Gailardia grown seedlings are recommended to dive into separate cups or small pots, or at least transplant into a larger container. And in May, there comes a time when you can plant seedlings of gaillardia grown by seeds in open ground at its permanent growing place, where it will bloom after successful rooting.

Methods of vegetative propagation

Perennial gallardia can be propagated vegetatively. To do this, a five-year mother bush should be dug out in spring, divided into several parts so that they have both roots and shoots. Each of the separated parts is planted in a permanent place of growth. It is recommended to divide one mother bush no more than by 4-5 parts, thus each new plant will have enough strength for active growth after transplantation.

Some gardeners use another vegetative propagation method - grafting.

For this method, you need to dig up an adult gailardium shrub, choose the most powerful healthy root, divide it into cuttings approximately 6 cm long, which are subsequently rooted in greenhouses.

Features of care for gaylardiya on a garden flowerbed

After the planting has been successfully carried out, the next task of the gardener is to provide the plant with proper attention and simple maintenance for favorable development in the open field. The main stages of care are periodic loosening of the soil around the plant, removal of weeds, as well as watering and fertilizing the beds where the chamomile grows.

How often to water the plant

Solar daisy does not tolerate excessively moist soil, therefore watering should be very moderate. Usually, the plant has enough rainwater, but during long dry periods it should be watered no more than twice every 8-10 days, and five liters of warm water will suffice for each adult bush.

Fertilizers and feeding

Often the question arises among people who first planted a gaylardia on their plot: how to fertilize this plant so that it will bloom beautifully and for a long time. As a fertilizer solar chamomile is recommended to use mineral complex fertilizer, rotted humus and compost in small quantities. The first stage of feeding is carried out in the period of tying the buds, the next - during the active flowering of the bushes, the final stage - about 30 days before the onset of frost, and it is desirable to pre-cut off all the shoots and stalks that will contribute to a good hibernation of the bush.

Garbage flowers gaylardii

Since gailardia flowers are large and heavy, they are recommended tie up to a wooden peg or a piece of plastic pipe at the very beginning of the flowering period, it will save the plant from broken flower stalks and shoots. If gaillardia participates in a composition of several flowers or grows in a flowerbed next to more powerful and strong plants that will help to keep the shape of the sun daisy, the garter is optional and is made at the request of the grower.

How to prepare gaylardiyu for winter

Approximately 3-4 weeks before the first frost, it is necessary to prepare a garden solar chamomile for winter - for this, all flower stalks and faded shoots are pruned and fertilized, this will allow the gaillardy to stock up on nutrients and grow roots. Gaillardia usually tolerates the most frosty winters, but in order to avoid unpleasant consequences for a plant during sudden temperature changes, it is recommended to cover it with dry leaves or a layer of fine peat. In the spring, after the probability of frosts disappears, the organic shelter is removed so that the plant does not grow and develop freely.

Gaylardii description

Gaillardia belongs to the aster family, it is similar to chamomile, sunflower, gerbera, and zinnia ... Initially, this herb was an annual, but the breeders bred several of its species as a perennial.

The gaillardia grows in the most sunny places, tolerates heat and winter cold, has low system of irrigation and belongs to the favorite group of plants called “it grows”.

Several years ago, the flower was described as “a bush 60–80 cm tall, with straight stems, blooming profusely from June to August with large yellow-orange or yellow-red flowers”.

Now the description has become much richer:

  • miniature specimens up to 30 cm tall appeared,
  • The color spectrum has significantly expanded: from apricot to crimson tones,
  • the size of the inflorescences and their fullness have increased: there are many varieties with semi-double and double flowers,
  • the flowering period is now in many representatives from June to frost.

And this is without loss of basic qualities - unpretentiousness, drought and frost resistance. Now it is quite possible to choose a variety that your neighbor definitely does not have!

Unusual raspberry petals.

Luxury terry copy

Growing gaillardia from seed

The desire to grow gaillardia from seed occurs if you like a certain color or quality of the parent plant. It must be said that not every seed of the gaillardy will repeat the necessary characteristics, therefore the best and most reliable option is to purchase selection seeds from proven producers.

You can grow gallardia from seeds in two ways:

  1. Landing in containers at home. This must be done at the very beginning of March in order to plant the seedlings in beds in May. In this case, gaylardiya may bloom in June.
  2. Sowing seeds in open ground. Such work is carried out in April. In August, the grown bushes are transplanted into beds, where they hibernate. Gaylardiya bloom next year.

You can grow gaylardiya and self-seeding, if you are satisfied with the unpredictable qualities of the future bush.

Coloring for every taste.

Growing sowing seeds in the ground

For sowing seeds directly into the ground, you need to choose a plot with well-drained soil, on clay and over-wetted soil you will not get strong plants.

  • Seeds can be sown in winter. They are simply scattered around the site, lightly sprinkled with earth and covered with covering material. In the spring, when the seeds germinate, the material must be removed. During the summer, gaillardia will form rosettes. By the fall they need to land on permanent seats. And next year it will be the already formed young flowering bushes.
  • Spring sowing is carried out in the same way, but without covering material. Make sure that the layer of soil with which you cover the seeds does not exceed 0.3 - 0.5 cm. Remember that this gaillardy easily reproduces by self-sowing, so do not bury the seeds deep into the ground. In August, grown plants need to plant in the beds. Before the onset of cold weather, they will have time to take root well.

Growing through seedlings

The most reliable way is growing through seedlings at home or in a greenhouse.

  1. At home, use landing boxes or containers with a light ground. Moisten the ground, spill the seeds over its surface, lightly press them in and cover the container with a transparent film on top. The coating must be periodically removed, remove condensate.

After 3 to 4 days, the roots germinate, go deep into the ground, then the cotyledons open. After that, the film can be removed. If the seeds sown fall asleep with soil, then the cotyledons may open up directly below the ground and will not germinate outside.

When 2 true leaves appear, the seedlings dive into cups of at least 200 ml, because they grow very quickly. Planted in the garden can be at the onset of persistently warm weather, and immediately to the permanent places.

Seeds germinate from the soil surface.

2. You can grow gallardia from seeds in street greenhouses. Sowing procedure is similar:

  • moisten the soil
  • sprinkle seeds
  • press tight to the surface
  • Cover the greenhouse on top of the film.

The resulting seedlings can sopicirovat or thin out and grow on the same garden until the end of summer. In the second half of August, young outlets need to be transplanted to the prepared permanent seats.

Planting gaylardii in open ground

When choosing a plot in the open field for planting, it is necessary to take into account that the gaillardia is capable of growing in one place up to 4 - 5 years.

Gaillardy should take the sunniest place and not be afraid that it dries. Even gardeners, who come only for the weekend and have the opportunity to water their seedlings 1 - 2 times a week, successfully grow this unpretentious flower. On the contrary, in partial shade or in high humidity gaylardiya does not bloom and lags behind in growth.

The flower is not demanding to the ground, as long as the soil is light and non-acidic. In the hole under the first landing you need to add a bucket of compost, 30 - 50 g of complex mineral fertilizers and a glass of wood ash. The mixture should be mixed well with the soil.

The wells are placed at a distance of 30 cm from each other. In order for the bush to grow more lush, you can plant 2 - 3 seedlings in one hole, but this depends on the variety.

Gaylordia Care

The traditional set of measures for the care of gaillardia, to our joy, is quite small:

  1. Watering - infrequent, but plentiful. With a long period of drought, it is worth increasing the number of waterings.
  2. Loosening is necessary after each watering. To prevent cracking of the soil and facilitate the delivery of oxygen to the roots.
  3. Feeding is carried out three times per season:
  • during the formation of buds,
  • during flowering,
  • in the autumn, in order to prepare gaylardii for the winter.

For top dressing humus and complex mineral fertilizers are used depending on the phase of plant life.

Please note! Fresh dung gaylardiya not tolerate, in any case should not use it for feeding. You can only make humus.

  1. Tall specimens require a garter so that the heavy stalks do not fall apart in different directions.
  2. Removing dried flowers provides plenty of flowering and well-groomed appearance.
  3. After the first flowering shrub is better to cut at the root. This technique increases the life span of the plant.
  4. Usually gaylardiya tolerates winter cold, but young planting need to cover the winter foliage.
  5. Every 4 - 5 years gaylardii need to be transplanted. So they will remain decorative for a long time. Replanting can be combined with reproduction through the division of the bush.

Pruning dry stalks

Growing in pots

Although gaillardia and is considered a flower for open ground, it grows well in vases. For this, low-growing varieties are used. For a flowerpot just one seedling is enough to make a magnificent lush and long-blooming bouquet.

Patio containers will work too. Here, it can be combined with ampelous flowers or a bouquet of several varieties of gollardiy and colors.

Landing in the tank is carried out in late April - early May.

Particular attention should be paid to drainage, as in a confined space there is a risk of accumulation of excess moisture. The soil requires light, loose, non-acidic.

Caring for gaylardiya in a flowerpot is even more simple:

  • provide the plant a sunny place
  • watering should be very moderate,
  • top dressing - for the same terms as gaylardiy in the ground, but with a conversion to the volume of the soil in the pot.

At the end of the season, gaylardiyu can be transplanted into open ground for wintering and cover it with foliage or spruce branches. Take it to the room is not worth it, gaillardia needs a period of rest, which happens to her in the winter.

Gaillardia in garden design

Tall gaillardias look great as a separate landing against the background of conifers and ornamental shrubs.

The combination of gaylardii with lupins is very beautiful, and the mixture with orebeckia and echinacea is often confusing, because they look like twins, and together form a variegated fun composition.

Borders and mixborders are all for gaillardia. It will stand out everywhere with a luxurious and bright view, there would be enough sun!

Short gaylardiy no less adorable. Even the stones on the alpine hill seem not so gray, if near the bush "colorful camomile."

Convenient and placement gaylardii in a flowerpot, which it can be moved if necessary. Several such mobile compositions will decorate the garden, the patio, the veranda ... Wherever you place your gaillardia, it will liven up the space around you everywhere and create a sunny mood.

How to collect seeds

It is not always that the flower you like that grows from the collected seeds, but it is worth a try. After flowering a fluffy ball is formed, consisting of many seeds. It must be tied with gauze or cloth and left to dry. Autumn seeds to collect, dry and can be used in autumn or spring sowing.

It is believed that the seedlings will turn out stronger if you leave the seeds to hibernate on the bush. But winters are quite harsh, therefore, to reduce the risk, it is better to collect some of the seeds in the fall, and some in the spring and use the one and the other batch.

From the hardworking hands of modern breeders come out more and more new varieties of gaylardii of great beauty. No less hardworking gardeners are fully capable of taking the baton and filling their gardens with these beautiful plants. A sunny flower will certainly respond to the caring care with all its colors, and the dacha life will become brighter and more fun!