Novice gardeners, many issues in agricultural engineering seem quite understandable. But some procedures due to lack of knowledge and information are ignored or performed with violations. This article will tell you how to stick tomatoes, reveal the essence and importance of the event.
What does pasynkovanie tomato mean?
The procedure involves the removal of stepsons in order to properly form a bush. By cutting off the excess step by step, many varieties have the opportunity to unleash their full potential, and the period of fruiting begins at the time stated by the breeders. If the shoots are left, the plant begins to branch and thicken, which leads to the grinding of the fruit. This is due to the lack of nutrients for inflorescences of each branch. Therefore, it is necessary to tear off the stepchildren from the point of view of the agrotechnical cultivation of tomatoes.Here it is, stepson to be removed
What do stepchildren look like
Pasynka are called shoots that develop in the sinuses. They represent a kind of competition to the main stem, they also form leaves and flowers, as well as tie fruit. At first glance, we can conclude that their significance is great, but it is not. If you do not care for the bush and do not participate in its formation, the plant turns out to be too thick, which becomes attractive for pests and fungal infections. In addition, a large number of ovaries reduces the quality of tomatoes, they turn out to be small, more often they are exposed to various diseases due to a weakened immune system.
How to distinguish the leaf to be removed from the desired fruit branch of the bush?
It is necessary to remove extra shoots very carefully, there is a high probability of damage to the flowering brush.that will lead to lower yields. Before the procedure you need to carefully inspect the bush in order to identify stepchildren. You can recognize them by the following features:
- the beginning of growth comes from the bosom of the leaves (the fruit branch grows from the stem),
- sheets are viewed on the stepson shoot (on the fruit branch the beginnings of flowering).
Time to start cutting off the shoots, which one to leave, and which one to clean
It is necessary to form bushes when the plant is already strong and has begun to grow intensively. It is necessary to remove a scion from the first blooming brush, as soon as the length of the stepson reaches 5-7 cm. It is better to do this in the morning in dry weather. Then the cut will have time to dry in a day. Excessive moisture can trigger fungus development.
All any noticeable stepchildren who have grown below the flowering branches to the very roots are subject to removal. Those that are located above the flowering brushes, you can leave for more yield.
The first procedure is sometimes carried out on seedlings. When planting seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to tear off the excess shoots, the length of which reaches only 1 cm. The work is painstaking, but it will relieve the extra load when caring for the bed. Paceniks are formed on young shoots rather intensively, so pruning should be done at least once a week.
A shrub of plants whose height does not exceed 180 cm, is formed with two or three stems. After pasynkovany culture can stop growing, so leave a spare 1-2 shoots. On the formed branches leave 4-5 fruit brushes. With more, there is a shortage of food.
In undersized varieties after the formation of 4-5 brushes pinch the top. All flower ovaries formed at the beginning of August break down. Fruits on them will not have time to ripen anyway, and nutrients will be taken away from ripening tomatoes.
The pinching technique is performed in this order:
- thumb and forefinger clamped escape,
- swinging in opposite directions to the steep from the stem.
Cutting the germ with a sharp instrument is also allowed. It is necessary after each plant to dip the blade of the knife or scissors in a disinfectant solution (weak concentration of potassium permanganate, 1% bleach). The cut should be done so that the tail remains 1.5 cm. This will prevent the stem from damage, and will slow down the development of new shoots in this place. Sometimes you have to re-staving, a new sprout is formed from a sleeping kidney, located in the leaf axil.
Plant residues after the procedure must be removed from the beds or greenhouses and disposed of.
The scheme of removal of shoots in the greenhouse
The principle of removing stepsons from a tomato bush does not differ significantly when growing vegetables under the protection of polycarbonate and in open ground. However, the procedures for greenhouse care continue even after the start of the harvest.
Bushes of tomatoes are formed according to three schemes.
- The one-stem method involves the removal of almost all lateral shoots. There remains one stepchild, on which inflorescences are tied, and later fruits. With this arrangement, tomatoes are large and have an early ripening period. That the plant did not break, it is necessary to dig in support for a developing bush.
- The formation of a plant with two stems provides for the removal of all stepsons, except one, located under the inflorescence. Such a plant requires a garter so that the fruits do not knock it to the ground when ripe.
- The three-stem method involves the removal of all lower shoots, except for the stepson under the first flowering brush and the most powerful of the lower shoots. Each stem must be tied to a separate support.
What happens to tomatoes without processing?
If you ignore the procedure for removing side shoots, the bush will acquire branches with which fruits can be tied. But the quality of tomatoes will be low in terms of taste and size. Among other things, a dense plant will create a shadow, and in combination with humidity and warm weather, favorable conditions are created for the development of fungal diseases. Also the thickness of the beds attracts pests that choose such places for the laying of larvae and eggs.
The essence of pinching is to enrich the main part of the stem and ovary with nutrients in sufficient quantity. Then the yield will not suffer, and the fruits will meet the product criteria.
Based on the above information, any gardener will draw conclusions about the feasibility of holding a pinch. This will enable the selected varieties to show their best qualities, to ensure high yields.
Removal of stepsons is usually provided by hands without using a cutting tool. When using knives there is a risk of transferring infection from one bush to another and the appearance of a wound at the site of the cut. However, with a large greenhouse, it is not possible to do without a tool. In principle, it is possible to cut off the stepsons, but with the observance of precautionary measures.
Before stepson tomatoes in the greenhouse (step by step) by cutting, you must remember the following:
- The tool is sharpened to a sharp razor.
- Disinfection of the cutting part with a solution of bleach or manganese is carried out.
- A quick and precise movement cuts off the stepson at a distance of 10-15 mm from the base, without damaging the main branch.
- All stepchildren on one bush are cut off, and the removed stems are immediately folded into a separate container and removed from the greenhouse, thus avoiding rotting and the spread of infection.
- New disinfection tool is needed. This operation is carried out each time you switch to a new bush.
When providing the necessary care for tomatoes, it is important to clearly distinguish the stepson from the fruit-bearing stem. There are such important differences:
- on the stepson immediately visible sheets, while on the stem there are flower ovaries,
- the stepson grows out of the leaf billet, and the fruiting lash branches off only from the stem,
- the most obvious difference is when the length of the stepson is about 4-5 cm.
Pasony is rightly considered an important agrotechnical measure when growing tomatoes in greenhouses and in the garden. This simple, but painstaking work requires utmost care and caution, but a pasynkovanny tomato gives a bountiful harvest and tasty, full-fledged fruits.
The rules of the formation of a tomato
Proper pruning will not harm the plant, and will promote the growth of fruits. The term of vegetation and harvest in the open field is slightly different. The formation of bushes is carried out approximately in July and August, when a harvest is already beginning to form on the bushes. The procedure is carried out in several stages.
Removal of axillary shoots
The first step is to remove the stepchildren tomato. This is done regularly about once a week. Paceniks subsequently develop into full-fledged shoots that bloom and tie fruit. But since the harvest season in the open field is not long, these fruits will not have time to ripen. At the same time, their formation consumes water, nutrients and plant energy. Therefore, on the bushes leave a certain number of brushes, usually 3-4 on the stem of a bush of tomatoes.
When you first remove the stepsons form the required number of stems. If you plan to leave one stem, then all stepchildren are removed, if there are two, then the stepson nearest to it are left under the first brush.
To form three stems, do the same. All other stepchildren are periodically deleted. Pasynki from the bush can be removed by hand. They just break off, leaving hemp 2 cm.
After that, begin removing leaves. First, remove those that come into contact with the soil. Such leaves begin to rot and ache in the first place, and then the disease affects the whole plant. Yellow leaves located on the stem below should also be removed. Gradually, the whole shrub is freed from the foliage so that as much heat and sunlight can fall on the fruit. Removing the foliage can be done with tools or also with your hands. Used tools must be sharp, well sharpened.
Before use, they must be disinfected. Do this with the help of potassium permanganate. After removing the stepsons and leaves on one bush, the blades are disinfected again and only then proceed to work with the next plant. Some gardeners immediately remove almost all the leaves, believing that this will accelerate the ripening of the fruit. Melting pruning should provide a balance between the number of leaves left and the amount of light. Too bare tomato bushes can be weakened due to reduced photosynthesis.
This procedure is carried out to limit the growth of the bush up and increase tillering. Usually the tops pinch in tall varieties, as they are usually unlimited in height and can reach a height of more than two or three meters, forming at the same time a lot of inflorescences and stepchildren. Pinching is done on each stalk. At the same time, you need to leave about two centimeters above the last pair of leaves.
Removing leaves and removing stepsons properly hold in the morning. During the day, the wounds will have time to dry up, and infection will not get into them.
Observing all the rules for the formation of a tomato bush, you can not only accelerate the ripening of fruits, but also save them from infection with diseases. In general, the bushes should remotely resemble palm trees, that is, all the greens they have focused above, and the stems are almost naked.