Many people like table grapes - it is healthy, beautiful and tasty. Here are just bones to choose from it bothers. There is a way out - plant grapes in the garden.
Calvish called grapes with underdeveloped bones or devoid of them completely. Translated from the Arabic "Kish Mish" means "dried grapes." This is a natural mutation of ordinary grapes, selected and enhanced by man. The first varieties of raisins appeared in Central Asia. Raisin is grown for making raisins and as a dessert fruit. It also produces juices and wines with good taste.
Raspus grape varieties contain more sugars than usual. Seedlessness makes the raisin a welcome delicacy, it can be eaten even by small children.
Dried grapes are tasty and nutritious, quickly causing a feeling of satiety.
100 g of raisins contain:
- 8275 calories
- a quarter of the daily rate of fiber - dietary fiber
- 762 mg of potassium
- 0.3 mg of copper
- 22 mg of iron
In addition, it contains folic acid, vitamins C, B12, and many other trace elements. Grapes are useful for kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, osteoporosis, anemia, neurosis and depression. It has a choleretic effect. Potassium is necessary for the prevention of heart disease.
With caution you need to use raisins for diabetics - there is a lot of glucose in it. It is undesirable to eat the grapes of raisins with exacerbations of gastritis and stomach ulcers. It is useful in the recovery period.
How to plant a grape raisin
Landing on time
Kishmish can be planted in spring and autumn. Autumn planting is more often used in the southern regions. Usually planted in early October, when there is no threat of frost. For the winter, the seedlings are well insulated: they fill the soil mound, cover it with a film or other protective material.
In the northern zone of viticulture autumn weather is unreliable, so it is better to plant the grapes in spring. Dates vary from late April to late May. Saplings in hibernation are planted before bud break, when the soil warms to 10–12 ° C. Green seedlings, rooted in containers, can be planted in June.
The place for the raisin grapes should be sunny and warm, protected from the wind. Well, if the vineyard is located on the south or south-west slope. It is desirable that from the north side the grapes should be protected from the winds by the wall of a structure. The distance between the seedlings is made at least 2.5–3 m in order for the grapes to grow and the clusters to be well ventilated.
Planting technology grape raisin
For planting a seedling they dig a hole 60-70 cm in depth and width, drainage is piled to the bottom - broken brick or coarse gravel. Dig in support. An ash spade and a glass of superphosphate are added. Further, the pit is filled with a mixture of soil with humus. A deep hole is made for the seedling, planted to such a depth that 2 eyes remain above the surface of the pit. The pit is shed with warm water, the ground is mulched.
In the first year, shoots of a sapling are tied up vertically to a support and only in the following years give them a slope according to the chosen shaping.
How to care for sultana
- Pruning grapes. Most often they cut the raisins, leaving 8–12 eyes on the vine. Remove weak and excess shoots. Load clusters need to be normalized. For each shoot, 1-2 large clusters are left, the rest are removed.
- In the heat requires abundant watering every 3-4 days. The amount of water depends on the soil, an average of 2-3 buckets of water per bush. Two weeks before harvesting, watering is halved to prevent berries from cracking.
- Top dressing bring in moderately. Nitrogen fertilizers, including organic fertilizers, are appropriate in the spring. Liquid dressing is better to add when watering. By the middle of summer, nitrogen fertilizing is stopped, phosphorus and potassium are needed at this time for the vines and berries to ripen.
- It is noticed that the stimulator gibberellin increases the size of the berries and the density of the raisin brushes. For summer residents produced the drug "Ovary". They are sprayed with grapes during flowering.
- Treatment of diseases and pests. The grape raisin needs prevention of fungal diseases. In the spring and in the fall Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate is used, in the summer - Ridomil Gold, Strobe complex preparations. Insecticides are sometimes used, for example, in the case of a spider mite. During the ripening period, the raisins are protected from wasps with the help of special bags or fumigation with smoke.
Variety selection is important
Over the long history of cultivation, various varieties of raisins have been developed. Eastern Central Asian varieties are thermophilic, in most regions they do not ripen and freeze. However, raisins suitable for cultivation in the regions of Russia have been developed.
What varieties of raisins are suitable for planting in the middle lane, the Ural and Siberian regions?
- First, cold-resistant. There are varieties of raisins with frost resistance up to - 23–28С. Some varieties of Far Eastern and American breeding can be grown as nesting, or as gazebos. But in most cases, the raisin grapes should be carefully covered to obtain a stable crop.
- Secondly, rash that can ripen in the conditions of a short northern summer. For growing in the area of risky farming, varieties of raisins are suitable for ripening from superhigh to early medium. In addition, ripening depends on the amount of positive temperatures during the growing season.
Kishmish №342 (Kishmish Hungarian)
Widespread hybrid form. Ripens very early - 110-115 days. Berries are golden-green, of medium size, without seed rudiments. The flesh is juicy, high sugar content, taste is pleasant. The clusters are medium to large, 300–500 g each. The resistance of the raisin No. 342 to fungal diseases is high. Frost resistance to -24–26С. Yield, vigorous grapes. Can be used as a dessert and for drying on raisins.
Early maturity (110–120 days). The clusters of this variety are large, up to 900 g, of conical shape. Berries are purple-red, oval, weighing 2–2.5 g, juicy, fleshy flesh, with a harmonious taste. Extremely harvested, requires rationing of clusters, otherwise the bush is overloaded. Disease resistance and frost increased.
Ripens in early-medium terms. Grapes weigh 200–600 g. Berries are very elegant, pink-red, large, elongated. Taste is excellent, with nutmeg aroma. Berries are transportable, suitable for storage.
Frost resistance up to - 23С. Kishmish radiant disease-resistant, requires repeated treatment during the season. Responds well to caring care. Variety for experienced growers, but it’s worth tinkering with: radiant sodder is considered by many to be the most delicious among the raisins.
Rusbol (Kishmish Mirage)
Ripens within 115–125 days. Clusters are conic, large, can reach 1 kg. Berries are white, oval, pleasant taste, there are rudiments of seeds. The fruitfulness of the shoots is high, so the vines can be shortly cut by 2-3 eyes. Overloaded crop requires normalization. Cuttings root well. Frost resistance -25С, moderately resistant to grape diseases. Rusbol is suitable for drying and as a table variety, its disadvantage is the presence of seeds. Recently, the grade-analogue of Rusbol improved (Elf) is more common.
Grape care in the first year after planting
From the care of the grapes at a young age depends on the growth of the bushes, the time of their entry into fruiting and crop yields.
In the first year after planting, care is directed at growing strong plants. Following planting, longitudinal and transverse deep cultivation is necessary to loosen compacted soil in rows and rows. During the summer, the soil in young vineyards is loosened several times (4–6) in about 15 days to destroy weeds and crusts after rains. After 15–20 days after planting, it is necessary to check the mounds and facilitate the growth of shoots where too much land is poured. In June and July, in cloudy weather around the plants, the holes are made 15–20 cm deep and destroy the larvae of the wireworm and caterpillars of the winter moth. For a better development of the lower roots, the root roots of the vineyards in their own are removed, and on the grafted plantations, shoots from rootstocks and roots from grafts are removed. After this, the plants again pile up, but the height of the mound is made smaller. After the second hilling, shoots become quite strong and the plants are left open.
Young plants need enough moisture and good nutrition. In areas of non-irrigated viticulture, especially in dry years, it is necessary to give young vineyards 2-4 irrigation.
Watering is carried out on the furrows on both sides of the bushes, at a distance of 40–50 cm from them, at a rate of 600–800 cubic meters. m of water per 1 ha. In non-irrigated areas, watering is done in holes. As soon as the soil dries from above (1–2 days after watering), the rows are loosened with a cultivator. To improve the nutrition of young plants 2-3 times during the summer when minerals are applied mineral fertilizers. At the beginning of growth, 2–4 shoots are left on each plant, the rest are broken out. Growing shoots are tied up vertically to the pegs. With a strong growth of shoots, they are pinched for the formation of stepsons and the accelerated formation of the bush.
When the leaves are 5–8 cm in size, the vineyard is sprayed with a 0.5% solution of Bordeaux mixture against mildew. Then the spraying is repeated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture, depending on meteorological conditions, up to 10 times a summer. In the fall, plantings are checked and, instead of fallen or very frail bushes, two-year-old grape saplings are planted.
In areas where the vineyards are not sheltered for the winter, and in areas of the covering viticulture, where there is a danger of kidney damage by low temperatures, the first pruning is carried out in spring. Simultaneously with pruning they make holes around the bushes, remove rootstocks and roots from the scion. On the vineyards own vineyards destroy surface roots.
On young plantings of grapes, in order to increase soil fertility, semi-ripened manure to a depth of 20-30 cm should be introduced in the fall. During winter, a trellis is installed on a young vineyard so that in spring the bushes can be tied up correctly and ensure their proper formation. In dry areas in winter and spring, measures are needed for snow accumulation, snow retention and retention of melt water.
Growing grapes in the northern regions
The areas of northern viticulture include the Moscow, Voronezh, Tambov, Kursk, Orlov, Kuibyshev regions, etc. Natural conditions in these areas are extremely diverse, but the total for all is a small amount and sometimes a lack of heat during the growing season, soil freezing in winter, late spring and early frosts, long light day in summer, etc. All these conditions do not meet the requirements of the grape plant. For areas of central Russia, in addition, there is a lack of moisture, which leads to a decrease in yield and resistance of grapes against frost.
Growing grapes in the Moscow region
The main condition for success is the correctly chosen varieties and the observance of the agrotechnics of grapes. In recent years, scientists and amateur breeders have developed very early interspecific hybrids of grapes, for which 95-110 days of vegetation are enough, with an average daily temperature of the warmest month (July) only 18 degrees, and for laying the fruit buds of these hybrids a day temperature of 21-23 degrees is required .
In the gardens of the Moscow region, you can grow varieties: Moscow sustainable, Jubilee Novgorod, Northern Early, in film greenhouses - Cardinal, Queen of vineyards, Frankenthal, Krasa Don, Aleshenka, Muscat Moscow.
Grapes saplings in the Moscow region is better to plant in the spring. The plot for planting is prepared in the fall - digging up the soil to a depth of 50-60 cm, making humus (1 bucket per 1 sq.m.), sour soils are lime, making heavy sand, crushed stone. Before planting, seedlings are pruned, leaving 2 shoots of 2 eyes each, the ends of the roots are also pruned. In the spring they dig holes 40-50 cm deep, 20-30 cm wide, make humus, soil and water. To one of the sides of the pit put a peg, and when planting shoots lean against it.
For the convenience of hiding the grapes for the winter and keeping the no-shtamper forming, the sapling is planted when sown in a planting pit so that the shoots are below the soil surface. When the soil is filled with soil, shoots are deformed, therefore it is important that they are close to the peg, then when loosening the soil, young germinating shoots will not be broken. As the shoots grow, the knolls break out and make holes 20-25 cm deep.
The soil is kept loose and wet, and watered if necessary. As the shoots grow, 2-6 strongest are left (with a length of 8-10 cm) in order to ensure good development and shaping of the bush. Abandoned shoots are tied to a peg and pinched at the end of July for better aging. In the autumn before the onset of frost grape bushes harbor. Before shelter shoots bend down to the ground. If there are several of them, then they are tied up in bunches and sprinkled with earth, so that there is a layer of earth at least 30-40 cm above the shoots.
In the spring, in the first year after planting, leave two shoots and tie up in a horizontal position to the wire at a height of 15-20 cm from the ground. On each shoot leave 4-6 eyes, depending on the development of the bush. During the growing season, stunted sprouts are broken out, leaving 8–10, of which fruit links are formed on the branches of the bush, on the one and the other.
Grapes require compulsory annual pruning. In the second year after planting, a bush is formed using a no-stem two-sided shaping with one sleeve on each side. On the sleeve leave 2-3 fruit arrows (shoots) with 6-8 eyes and a knot of replacement for each of them (shoot with 2-3 eyes).
Reproduction of grapes cuttings
Cuttings of grape shoots in most species and varieties easily form roots from both nodes and internodes. However, a stalk consisting only of the internode (without knots) does not develop an escape, since there are no accessory buds in the internodes of the grapes. Therefore, these cuttings are not suitable for reproduction.
The shoot on the stem cutting is formed only from the kidney (central or replacement), embedded in the leaf axil, i.e. on the escape node.
Hence the conclusion: for the vegetative propagation of grapes, it is possible to take only cuttings with the presence of at least one node with a normal bud. Normally ripe shoots usually creep, but green shoots are sometimes used.
To protect the grapes from winter frosts, a set of measures is applied, which includes the selection of resistant varieties, as well as a number of agricultural practices.
- choice for planting grapes protected places
- deep preplant tillage,
- deep landing
- potash fertilizers for autumn,
- pruning, debris, pasynkovanie, chasing, etc.,
- grafting on frost-resistant rootstocks, direct protection of the above-ground part and roots from the destructive effect of low temperatures: grape shelter for the winter, snow retention and snow accumulation, mulching between the rows with organic materials, and broiling.
Shelter grapes spend everywhere where the average of the absolute annual minimum temperature below minus 15 degrees.
Ways to shelter grapes
Hilling, half-cover and full cover. Spud usually bushes young grapes.
Acceptance of half-bushes, i.e. leaving part of the sleeves without shelter, was used in the Krasnodar Territory in the Anapa district as a way of insuring bushes from two misfortunes: from winter frosts and from vypryvaniya eyes when sheltering bushes. The bezshtambovy fan formation is well suited for the half-cover.
Full shelter of grapes for the winter is widespread. The following methods of shelter are known: earth, two-layer - with organic materials and earth and three-layer - with earth, organic materials and earth. Most often, grapes are covered only with earth.
The method of shelter should be differentiated depending on climatic and soil conditions according to this principle: in the northern regions of viticulture with harsh winters and little snow cover, especially on sandy soils, it is necessary to lay bushes in 15-cm-deep grooves and cover them with a three-layer cover (ground layer 12 -15 cm, a layer of dry straw, dung or peat or fir-feet and a layer of earth on top of 15-20 cm).
When grapes are sheltered for the winter with earth, it is necessary to take into account that the frost resistance of the covered parts of the plant decreases. Therefore, in the northern zone, if it is not possible to cover with organic materials, the layer of earth should be 30-35 cm.
To make the bushes easy to cover, they are shaking out the no-shtamp formations with sleeves that extend obliquely from the underground trunk below the ground level by 10-15 cm. substances from the leaves. Therefore, shelter bushes here should be a few days before the onset of frost.
Для защиты корней от вымерзания проводят: подзимние поливы в засушливые годы, что способствует меньшему промерзанию почвы, снегозадержание, прививку неморозоустойчивых сортов на морозоустойчивые подвои, создают благоприятные условия для развития корней.
Посадка винограда должна быть несколько глубже промерзания почвы. Мелкая посадка в районах промерзания почвы возможна только при культивировании морозоустойчивых сортов или на морозоустойчивых подвоях.
Катаровку, т.е. the removal of all the roots extending from the underground shtamba within 15-20 cm from the soil surface is carried out with the aim of transferring the shrub to the roots that extend more deeply from the bole. If these roots with their further growth will be in the upper horizons of the soil, then it is not as dangerous as the existence of shrubs based on the roots that develop from the upper part of the underground trunk. Katarovka is necessary not only in the northern areas to protect against low temperatures, but also in the south against drought.
Katarovka carried out annually in the fall or spring simultaneously with pruning and opening underground bushes bushes and removal of shoots. In addition, on young grapes, should be carried katarovka and among the summer.
In the northern regions, where there is little heat and only the upper soil horizons are well heated, the root system of many plants develops almost on the soil surface. Making the roots grow in the deep layers means cutting the growing season and not getting mature grapes. Therefore, in the northern regions, it is necessary to warm up the soil in winter and summer by all possible means, to carry out shallow crocks, to cultivate frost-resistant varieties and to accustom the roots to the conditions of the surface soil horizons.
The frost resistance of grapes largely depends on the conditions of the growing season. Shrubs weakened by drought, fungal diseases, or other environmental factors are less frost resistant. It is known that frosts have the most detrimental effect after dry years. This happens because the lack of moisture in the soil reduces assimilation and transpiration, in connection with which the total supply of organic substances is reduced and the shoots mature poorly.
Fungal diseases and pests that reduce leaf surface and weaken the bushes, also reduce the frost resistance of grape bushes.
Types of grapes
Of the grape family, only about 20 species are introduced into the crop for the use of fruits or as rootstocks. All of them belong to the same genus Vitis - grapes, numbering about 70 species.
The genus Vitis includes grape varieties cultivated for the sake of bunches. For plants of the genus Vitis, in contrast to other genera of the family of grapes, the following main characteristics are characteristic:
- wood biennial shoots yellow-brown,
- bark on the shoots is separated in the form of strips,
- the rim opens at the bottom,
- plants dioecious (only cultivated varieties and some wild forms have a bisexual flower).
All types of grapes once had a common ancestor, but later, after the continents were disconnected and after the ice age, the range of the genus was broken. Currently it consists of three groups:
- Euro-Asian (1 species),
- East Asian (over 40 species),
- American (28 species).
All species of the genus Vitis, despite the long disconnected existence, have many common features and biological properties. All of them easily interbreed with each other and grow together during vaccination.
Significant differences between grape species are observed in relation to those biological properties that are due to different environmental conditions of habitat.
An extremely interesting example of the value of natural selection of grapes is the resistance acquired by American species against phylloxera and mushroom. The homeland of phylloxera and many fungal diseases (mildew, oidium, etc.) is the southeastern part of North America, where they found themselves in very distant times favorable environmental conditions and adapted to feeding on a grape plant. The parasites and the plant on which they ate were in constant relationship and changed, adapting to each other.
At the same time, natural selection contributed to the creation of forms of grapes, more and more resistant against phylloxera and fungal diseases. Filoxera lives on American grape varieties mainly on leaves and on roots, without causing significant harm to the plant. Fungal diseases (mildew, oidium, etc.) that live on the leaves, shoots and berries of these species do not cause them serious harm. Therefore, European and East Asian grape species, after they were infected with these parasites, turned out to be completely unstable to them.
East Asian grapes
In East Asia, there are many species of grapes that have survived from the tertiary period. Almost all of them are little studied and not used in culture. There have been attempts to introduce some species into the culture, but the low quality of the berries limits the possibility of their wide distribution.
Of greatest interest is Amur, or the so-called Ussuri grape, which was first used for breeding purposes by I.V. Michurin. In the writings of I.V.Michurin, the description of four forms of Amur grape, which were identified in the Far East by N.N.Tikhonov and sent to Kozlov, is given. These forms were named: Eastern grapes, Kabany grapes, Siberian grapes, and Grape Taigovy. I.Michurin estimated the Amur grape as a frost-resistant type and used it to produce new varieties. Thus, the well-known varieties Buytur, Russian Concord, Metallic and others were obtained.
Amur grapes have been most fully studied by Soviet scientists. They have identified the most valuable forms, in particular, Amur grapes with bisexual flower, which is widely cultivated in the Primorye Territory. Amur grapes are widely used by Michurins to produce new frost-resistant varieties.
Amur grapes grow wildly in the deciduous and coniferous forests of the Far East and Manchuria. The plant is dioecious, with male and functionally female flowers. The leaf is bubbly, dense, coarse, with stiff bristles on the underside and with weak teeth at the edges. The cluster is small (10-15 cm). Small berry (7-11 mm), round, black, juicy, sour. In the wild Amur grape many fruitful shoots develop (about 60%), for a fruitful shoot there are 1.7 inflorescences. In culture, the percentage of fruitful shoots increases to 90, and the number of inflorescences on a fruitful shoot to 2.5. The shoots that develop from replacement buds are mostly fruitful. The average weight of a bunch is about 12 g, and in a culture of 20 g.
Amur grapes to a greater extent than the Euro-Asian, adapted to grow in more northern areas. Sap flow starts in the second half of April at a temperature of 5 degrees. It starts growing season in May with an average daily temperature of 8-10 degrees. and ends it before other types of grapes. Early end of growth contributes to a good maturation of the shoots and an increase in their frost resistance. Flowering takes place in the second decade of June for 5-12 days. The beginning of ripening berries in early September. Falling leaves in early October.
Berries in Primorsky Krai ripen every year, they contain 10-12% sugar and have high acidity - about 20%. Seeds in case of incomplete ripening berries do not lose their germination. Amur grapes grow well in the south. At home, the Amur grape receives about 700 mm of precipitation per year. Therefore, when cultured in the middle lane, especially in dry years, it grows poorly and the shoots do not mature properly.
Amur grapes are affected by anthracnose, cricosporia and the local mildew, although they are relatively resistant to the American form of this disease.
According to de CANDOL and N.I. Vavilova, the southern republics of Transcaucasia and Central Asia, as well as adjacent areas of the east (Iran, Afghanistan, Asia Minor) are considered the birthplace of the cultivated grapes. The surviving monuments of writing, painting, sculpture and relics, as well as archaeological finds of grape seeds and ancient wineries indicate that the areas in the basins of the Caspian, Black and Mediterranean seas are the oldest centers of grape culture and winemaking. Approximately 4-6 thousand years ago, grapes were cultivated in the Caucasus, Central Asia, as well as in Syria, Mesopotamia and Egypt. About 3000 years ago, viticulture flourished in Greece and began to spread along the Mediterranean coast to the west, in Rome (Italy), and somewhat later (in the 15th-19th centuries) the grape culture penetrated South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea , to the Hawaiian Islands, to North and South America and has spread widely in almost all countries of the world.
Viticulture and winemaking reached its most powerful heyday in Europe at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries. At this time, many Western European countries (France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hungary) became monopolists in the wine trade.
Great disasters for the viticulture of all European countries caused diseases imported from North America and pests of grapes. In 1845, the mushroom oidium was introduced, which in a short time reduced wine production in France by 4 times, in 1853 anthracnose appeared, in 1863 - mildew and phylloxera. For 15–20 years after the appearance of phylloxera, this smallest aphid damaging the roots of grapes, France lost more than half of its vineyards.
Large areas of vineyards were killed by phylloxera in other European countries and, in particular, in Russia (Moldova, right-bank Ukraine, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in Georgia, Northern Armenia and the western part of Azerbaijan).
Expeditions to North America were sent to study the causes of the death of vineyards and the search for ways to combat mushroom diseases and phylloxera from France. These expeditions established the resistance of a number of local American grape species against fungal diseases and phylloxera. Pathogens and pests were discovered and effective ways to control them were found.
The main wine-producing countries producing 80% of world wine production: Italy, France, Spain, Algeria, Argentina and Portugal. The bulk of the vineyards is concentrated in the northern hemisphere (95%). In Europe and Asia there are about 85% of vineyards, in America - 8, in Africa - 6 and in Australia - 1%. Most of the vineyards are between 20 and 52 degrees. north latitude and 30 and 45 degrees. southern latitude.
The benefits of grapes
Grapes - one of the oldest cultivated plants. The fruits of grapes are very useful for humans. When fully ripe, the grapes contain 65-85% water, up to 30% sugars (glucose, fructose and sometimes a small amount of sucrose), from 0.5 to 1.4% organic acids (tartaric, malic, etc.), 0.15-0.9% of proteinaceous substances, 0.3-1.0% of pectins, 0.3-0.5% of mineral substances - potassium, phosphorus, iron, etc., and vitamins per 100 g of raw material account for: A (carotene, anti-xerophthalmic) - 0.02-0.12 mg, B1 (thiamine, aneurin) - 0.25-1.25 mg, B2 (riboflavin) - traces, C (ascorbic acid) - 0.43-12, 2 mg, in very small quantities there are B6 (adermin), P (citrine).
Fresh grapes - a nutritional product that has dietary and therapeutic value. Academician V.R. Williams spoke of grapes as a plant with the highest efficiency. It captures the kinetic energy of sunlight and turns it into the potential energy of organic matter in the form most valuable to humans - carbohydrates (glucose and fructose).
Agronomy grapes vary depending on the biological characteristics of cultivated varieties, on the direction of use of grape production, as well as on the climatic and soil conditions of individual areas.
The value of a variety in viticulture is so great that there is a varietal agricultural technology, that is, an agricultural technology that takes into account the biological characteristics of a variety and its requirements for environmental conditions.
Agrotechnics of grape culture varies considerably also depending on the areas of culture (district agrotechnology). A large imprint is imposed on climatic conditions on agrotechnics (for example, the agronomy of grapes in the southern and northern regions differs sharply), soil conditions (agrotechnology is built differently on sandy and saline soils), the topography of the place (on the plain and on the slopes is different).
It follows from the above that in agrotechnology there can be no templates. When growing grapes should be guided by the general principles of agricultural technology.
Climate is one of the main factors determining the possibility of the culture of grapes and affecting its growth, development and fruiting. The most favorable for the grape temperate, warm and subtropical climate, which is characteristic of the areas of distribution of grapes in the wild.
The main elements of the climate are light, temperature and moisture. Light is of great importance in the life of a plant. Grapes - light-loving plant. He is very sensitive to light. With slightly dimmed lighting, as is the case in greenhouses, the leaves increase, their color becomes more intense, with insufficient lighting the internodes lengthen, the leaves shrink, the shoots become thin, yellow in color (etiolated), they do not lay fruit buds and do not develop normal inflorescences and clusters Change of day and night is a prerequisite for the normal development of grapes. Experiments on photoperiodism have shown that under conditions of a long northern day, the plant grows long and produces long, poorly matured shoots. With artificial shortening of the day shoots grow less intensively, mature earlier and better. With a short day, there is also a more powerful development of the roots. In the conditions of the northern regions, the length of the day has no significant effect on the ripening of grapes.
The temperature of the air most strongly affects the grape plant. Requirements for temperature and heat vary during different periods of the growing season. Day and night temperature fluctuations also have a great influence on the growth and development of plants. Dissolving of buds begins depending on the type and variety at an average daily temperature of 10-12 degrees. Rapid growth and the formation of fruit buds occurs at a temperature of 25-30 degrees, below +14 degrees prevents normal flowering of grapes.
Temperature conditions during ripening determine the quality of the grapes. At temperatures above 20 degrees, the ripening process goes quickly, a lot of sugar accumulates in the berries and acidity is significantly reduced. The optimum temperature for ripening berries 28-32 degrees. At lower temperatures (14-16) the berries ripen very slowly. Therefore, in the southern regions, grape juice turns out to be sweeter and less sour. On the contrary, in the northern regions, the juice is less sweet and more sour.
The adverse effect of temperature on grapes in different periods of plant life manifests itself in varying degrees. Young seedlings are more susceptible to this than old, fruiting plants. During the period of shoot growth, temperatures below 10-12 degrees are unfavorable, during the flowering period - below 14 degrees, during the period of ripening - below 16-14 degrees. When the air temperature is above 40 degrees, the edges of the leaves turn yellow and then the whole plate, the berries turn brown, begin to shrink and dry.
Humidity matters a lot. Water is an integral part of the plant; it serves to transport various substances in it. Without water, it is impossible for the plant to absorb nutrients. Wet weather and prolonged rains that fell during the flowering period of the grapes, prevent normal fertilization, cause great shedding of the ovaries and poor fruit set. In addition, when there is an excess of moisture in the soil, the rains have a negative effect on the initiation of fruit buds, the accumulation of sugar during the ripening of the berries, and the maturation of the shoots. Rains during ripening also contribute to cracking and rotting berries. This is also observed with excessive watering of vineyards before the grape harvest. In cases where groundwater is at a depth of 1–1.5 m from the soil surface and is poorly mineralized, the harmful effect of excess moisture does not affect the plants.
Growing grapes in rainfed conditions (without irrigation) has shown that it is a relatively drought-resistant plant. Due to deep roots penetrating the soil, it is more tolerant to drought than other crops. However, in very dry years, grapes give a low percentage of sugar. Droughts greatly weaken the plants and do not allow them to prepare for winter. It is known that the influence of winter frosts after a drought is the most destructive. Therefore, after a dry summer in areas where there is a significant drop in temperature, it is necessary to apply autumn watering, especially for young plantings. Subwinter irrigation increases the heat capacity of the soil, decreases its thermal conductivity and prevents the shoots from drying out in winter. With a good ripening of shoots and an adequate supply of moisture, the plants are more enduring in winter.
Rains are good for vineyards if they are heavy enough. Small rains in the summer bring more harm than good. They moisten only the surface layers of the soil and contribute to the development of weeds and fungal diseases. Heavy rains in the form of showers, often accompanied by wind, cause great harm to the vineyards: they break down shoots, erode the soil, especially on the slopes, and bring it in other places. Particularly useful are rains in vineyards during the winter and spring periods before the beginning of flowering and then during the period of berry growth and after the grape harvest. Понятно, что условия орошения вносят большие коррективы в только что высказанные положения о значении дождей при культуре винограда.
Полезны осадки в виде снега, так как наряду с увеличением запаса влаги в почве они защищают почву от промерзания. Конечно, в этом случае очень важно, чтобы снег имел достаточную толщину и лежал продолжительное время. Слой снега в 5 см способствует повышению температуры почвы на 4 градуса, а в 20 см препятствует её промерзанию.
Hail falls most often in river valleys and is of local importance. Nevertheless, it often causes great damage to vineyards. The damage from hail depends on its intensity and the state of the plants. Severe damage can cause severe hail during a period of intensive growth of shoots. New shoots, developing from the spare and axillary buds, can restore the bushes, but will give a small crop. At a later time in summer, hail is even more dangerous, since, striking shoots, it forms so-called city walls, which are overgrown with difficulty. The crop is almost completely destroyed. Leaf surface is not restored. Bushes go to winter in poor condition, which naturally affects their winter hardiness and yield next year.
References: "Viticulture with the basics of breeding and ampelography and breeding.", A.M. Negrul.
Kishmish 342: variety description
Berries of Hungarian grapes are small, their weight is two to three grams. The peel has a light shade, delicate and delicate in taste. In order for the berries not to damage the wasps, a bunch of mesh bags are put on the bunch. There are no seeds in the berries, as well as rudiments.
The taste of berries - sweet with nutmeg notes, the flesh is elastic, sugar accumulation is about nineteen twenty one percent. Clusters of medium and large size.
The grade accumulates wood, therefore on adult bushes brushes up to one kilogram often meet.
Hungarian raisins ripen early, from the time when buds bloom to ripening takes about one hundred and ten - one hundred and fifteen days. Grapes 342 can be eaten fresh and for drying raisins. Grapes for a long time well preserved in the refrigerator.
The raisin crop brings high, from one bush you can get up to twenty-five kilograms. This variety fruits steadily. On the branches, ripe bunches are better not to overdo it, although some gardeners manage to keep it until early September. Transporting Hungarian grapes tolerates well, this variety can even be used in baby food. Grape 342 is frost-resistant, withstands a temperature drop from twenty-two to twenty-six degrees.
Choosing a place
Grapes should be planted on the west or east side of the building. in a well-lit and spacious area. The distance between the bush and the support should be at least one meter, and the seedlings should be planted at a distance of three meters from each other.
Grapes are planted with seedlings or grafted to another plant. You can start planting from the beginning of April or in October - November a week before the start of frost.
Soil preparation and landing
- It is necessary to dig a hole one meter deep and more than half a meter wide.
- At the bottom it is necessary to fill a drainage layer of expanded clay or crushed stone, then fill it with a half-fertile and fertilized substrate (to do this, mix turf soil, sand, humus and wood ash).
- In the recess should prikopat peg, and also a pipe made of plastic for irrigation.
- Seedlings must be placed in a hole, prikopat earth, plenty of water and mulch.
- After planting, grape seedlings should be cut into two peepholes, the place of the graft is left on the surface.
Description of diseases and pests
If the grape raisin 342 is processed in a timely manner for the purpose of prophylaxis, then the plant will not be able to damage many diseases and pests. But the minimal risk of infection still remains.
- In the spring, the plant must be treated with a solution of the Bordeaux mixture and certain biological preparations.
- When pruning the grapes, infection of the slices should be avoided.
- Shrubs should be thinned regularly.
However, in addition to various diseases, the raisin grapes 342 can damage the parasites.
- From wasp bunches of ripe berries can be protected using mesh bags or gauze by placing them in clusters. Also on the territory where the grapes grow, you can arrange sweet stickies with a pronounced aroma. Also effective is the treatment of smoke or spraying plants with a solution of vinegar.
- Spider mite also affects grape bushes. There are about forty species of this pest. The mite lays eggs in the bark of the plant near the roots and entangles the shrub with a sticky cobweb. Subsequently, the plant dies. The mite is located and becomes clearly visible on the inside of the leaves. At the initial stage, damage by the parasite manifests itself in the form of dark blotches on the leaves. When a spider mite is found, the bush must be immediately treated with insecticides, and folk remedies can also help in the fight against parasites.
- Sheet wrench - a butterfly beautiful and safe for Hungarian grapes, but its caterpillars are capable of destroying seventy-five to ninety percent of the vineyard, eating the green part of the vine and the grapes with berries. As a preventive measure, butterflies should be regularly treated with chemicals and bio-substances during the summer period.
- Chafer - by itself, it does not pose a threat to grapes, but its larvae that live in the soil can cause great damage to the root system of the shrubs, feeding on its tissues. As a preventive measure for the reproduction and spread of larvae, the soil should be carefully dug up before planting and checked for pests. If the grapes begin to wither and hurt, then it is damaged by the larvae of the May beetle. To save the plant it is necessary to conduct deep soil treatment with insecticides.
Immediately after planting, young seedlings should be provided special care:
- regular watering
- loosen and fertilize the land,
- to treat the soil with pests,
- after three months after planting the grapes at the end of the branches should be cut apical shoots.
Rules for caring for an adult plant:
- annually on grapes cut up to ten formations that combine the kidneys and ensure their full development,
- In the summer period, the stepchildren are cut off, the rods to eliminate the unnecessary growth of the plant.
- To increase the size of the berries, the plant should be treated with gibberellin solution.
Hungarian kishmish 342 has a strong immunity to fungal diseases, however, it is often subjected to attacks of various parasites.
For this method, use cuttings prepared in the fall.
- The vine must be cut into several parts at an angle of forty-five degrees and treated with iron sulfate. By rooting the cuttings will be ready in February - March.
- Planting material should be healthy looking, with eyes, bark - brown, cut - green.
- Selected planting material should be soaked in a solution of manganese, then placed in water with honey and cover with plastic wrap.
- After completion of the soaking process, the cuttings should be planted in containers with substrate prepared in advance and watered abundantly.
When caring for cuttings, it is necessary to observe the optimum temperature regime, water it abundantly, loosen the soil, pinch the plant, and also remove as the inflorescence appears.
Before planting sprouts should go through a period of adaptation. To do this, they must be taken out to the open air every day.
The meaning of the inoculation method is to plant a seedling to an adult vine. In this case, the maternal trunk must have a strong immunity to disease.
- the process of growing plants together is due to the formation of new cells between them,
- the lower cut of the seedling should be made in a wedge-shaped form and placed in the split of the maternal trunk. Then they must be firmly fixed to each other with a cloth.
- When the sap movement begins, you need to wrap the paper. If the grafting is done in the summer, the place of accretion must be regularly moistened, covered with polyethylene, and covered with paper on top. If condensate does not form on the surface of the polyethylene, it should be removed, re-moistened and the polyethylene replaced.
- when the shoots grow on the inoculum and become stronger, the wrapping material should be removed.
The success of the vaccination method depends on stock quality - It must be healthy and resistant to diseases. Stock and graft should be of varieties with the same maturity. When conducting vaccinations, it is necessary to use a sharp and disinfected instrument.
This method can be applied in the fall or spring.
- near the bush should dig a trench half a meter deep,
- add fertilizer to the recess,
- lower annual vines should be bent down, sprinkling it with soil,
- above the ground, it is necessary to leave the tops, on which there are several leaves and points of growth,
- cuttings must be regularly and abundantly watered.
If you create a favorable environment, then sprouts with roots will sprout from all nodes. This method of reproduction is quite effective when it is necessary to replace the old bush with a young one.
Description of the monthly grape care
- May - the bushes should be cut off, and the grown vine tie up,
- June - planting of young shoots, pinching and preventive treatment of plants,
- July - carrying out fertilizer and processing plants from fungal infections,
- August - tying grapes, removing shoots, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. In the second half of the month, stop watering and harvest.
Hungarian raisin 342 is not without reason so popular among gardeners, because it is unpretentious in care, frost-resistant, has a high yield and excellent fruit taste.
Agronomy cultivation of grapes raisins: planting and care
Kishmish is a collective name for a huge number of different grape varieties, distinguished by their small size and sweet taste of berries, as well as the absence of seeds in them. This point must be taken into account when choosing grape raisin for planting in their area, since the agronomist cultivating the raisin grapes, the taste qualities of its berries and the characteristics of caring for the plant can vary greatly depending on the particular variety.
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