General information

Philodendron - tropical handsome at home

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Philodendrons are a great opportunity to green the room and turn it into a real tropical jungle. Especially if you grow a variety called lobed philodendron. It is a prominent representative of liana-like plants and most of all resembles the natural type of culture. In the wild, these long snake-lianas grow under trees, climbing them in height in search of light. Although there are bushy flower shape. However, most of the species, including the one mentioned above, also feel well in apartment conditions. We offer today a closer look at one of these plants - lobed philodendron. What does this vine look like and what are its features?

Variety description

The lobed philodendron grows in the form of a rather long liana. In an adult plant, the length of the lashes can exceed 2 m. The stem of a flower is rather thick and very flexible. He lugs well on the support, which must be installed. Large, leathery leaves of beautiful emerald color are located throughout the shoot. True, at first they are light green, but gradually darken. Leaves are fastened with long petioles. The size of the foliage is no less impressive than the overall dimensions of the flower. The length of an adult, fully formed plate may be about 40 cm.

A characteristic feature of the species, which gave it a name, is the shape of the leaves. They are egg-shaped and dissected: first into 3 segments, and with age they become 5 or more. The sizes of the shares do not coincide and may be different in size.

Lobed philodendron: how to care for liana?

Despite the decent size, the root system of the plant is poorly developed. In this regard, in the care of him it is necessary to observe moderation. Excessive care, especially in terms of watering, can destroy the philodendron.

Watering the vine should be only after the ground dries in the pot on top. With a cool winter content watering should be more rare.

Like all vines, the lobated philodendron needs support. The best option is to purchase special facilities. They are made of plastic pipe with holes or mesh and filled with sphagnum. This support can be watered, and it will serve as an additional source of moisture for the shoots.

Not the last role is played by the ground - it must “breathe”. The substrate is easy to make at home, by purchasing and mixing:

With regard to temperature, the boundaries for lianas should not deviate from marks 15-26 degrees Celsius. In the summer, it is better not to take the pot outside - the philodendron is very sensitive to drafts. The rest of the plant is quite unpretentious. So buy, plant and grow lobed philodendron at your pleasure.

What is this plant

Philodendron is an evergreen flowering perennial, which botanists refer to as aoid. There are so many plant species that not all of them are described and thoroughly studied. In nature, members of the family are found in almost all parts of the South American continent. Similar vines are found on the Australian mainland and nearby Pacific Islands. It is believed that mariners brought culture to these regions.

In the majority - it is climbing plants attached to the support with the help of aerial roots. The name "philodendron" in translation sounds like "I love a tree." However, there are subspecies endowed with a short stem and large leaves. At home, grown and the first and second.

In general, members of the family can be described as:

  1. The plant is endowed with underground and aerial roots. The latter are divided into short, hairy ones, with the help of which philodendrons are attached to the support and long, used for additional extraction of nutrients from the soil.
  2. The stem is fleshy, often lignified at the root.
  3. Leaves petiolate, arranged alternately.
  4. Plates of different sizes. There are specimens with leaves up to several meters long.
  5. Depending on the type, the shape of the plates is oval, pinnately dissected or arrow-shaped.
  6. The color of the leaves in different representatives of the aroid is also different, but the top is always darker.
  7. At a certain time from 1 to 10 inflorescences appear in the form of cobs covered with a hood on philodendrons. After ripen, juicy fruits and berries ripen.

At home, grow those varieties that do not take up much space. Even with small sizes, philodendron can become the main decoration of the apartment.

Types and varieties

As already mentioned, the species diversity of the family is very large. But not all representatives are suitable for growing in a room.

The most common in the dwellings of lovers are the following aoid:

  • Philodendron Atom. It is considered the most difficult to grow at home from all varieties. Stem short, erect. Leaf plates in length up to 30 cm, five-lobed, with wavy edges.

  • Ivy philodendron. The room grows a stem up to 6 m long. Heart-shaped leaflets, leathery, shiny. Flowers cobs of a reddish tone are shrouded in a dark green hood.
  • Philodendron Andre or golden black. It is allocated with leaves of a different shade and the size. Young plates are small (5-7 cm in length), heart-shaped, copper colored. With age, the leaves are strongly drawn out and become bronze-green with whitish streaks.

  • Philodendron warty. Thanks to the beauty of the variety has gained great popularity among gardeners. Heart-shaped leaves with a "velvet" surface. Veins stand out in a bronze tint. Plate length up to 20 cm. Petioles densely dotted with wart bristles. The flowers are shrouded in a yellow veil.

Attention! Warty specimens suffer from dry air, which requires the maintenance of certain indicators of humidity in the apartment.

Other varieties are successfully grown at home. All share the beauty of leaves and rapid growth.

Growing in a room

In order for the tropical vine to settle in the apartment to look like “one hundred percent,” the following parameters must be maintained:

  • bright ambient lighting
  • temperature +17 .. + 24 ° C,
  • high humidity.

Water the philodendron often and plentifully. Regularly applied to the soil fertilizer.

A flowering plant in the rooms of lovers is extremely rare. Therefore, it is not possible to obtain aroid seeds at home. If you wish to propagate the plant, use parts of the stem or apex. Cuttings are cut with 2, 3 internodes. The material in a horizontal position is deepened into a mixture of sand with peat. Above the capacity equip greenhouse made of polyethylene or glass and put on the bright windowsill. Rooting observed within 14-30 days.

Cuttings with heel and kidney are also well tolerated. If there are air roots in the segment, the process goes faster. Transplantation of philodendron is done when the roots completely fill the pot. It happens about once every 3 years.

With proper care, philodendron does not affect the disease. Among the pests known are scale insects, thrips, spider mites, which are disposed of with the help of special preparations.

Philodendron - a resident of the tropics, who perfectly adapted to the conditions of the room. A huge variety of species allows you to choose a flower for any interior, and ease of care makes it possible to grow beautiful specimens without problems.

And which of the varieties of philodendron do you like?

Philodendron: Is the plant suitable for the home?

Philodendron is one of the most popular plants in home floriculture, belongs to the Aroid family. This evergreen, perennial plant. Since not all species are described, their numbers range from 250 to 900.

The name comes from two Greek words - phileo, which means to love, and dendron - a tree. The name very accurately conveys the main feature of the plant, namely, the ability to attach itself to the nearby trees through roots, which become a natural support for the philodendron. In fact, a philodendron is a vine with a semi-grass or woody stem. There are species that have a fairly powerful, resistant stem that allows the plant to rise to the desired height without support.

With the help of aerial roots, philodendron is attached to trees

The leaves, depending on the species, have different lengths - from 11 centimeters to 2 meters and a width up to 90 centimeters. The location is next. The shape can be ovoid, arrow-shaped, heart-shaped, oval and other forms. Philodendron has an interesting property - the same plant does not have a particular leaf shape. Young leaves at first look like a heart, but change in size and shape as they grow. The color is mostly dark green, and the upper side of the sheet plate is painted more intensely than the bottom. Less common species with purple leaves. Mostly purple leaves have young leaves, which, as they grow, lose this color.

Another interesting feature of the plant is the presence of two types of leaves:

  1. Scaly - it protects the vegetative kidney. Such leaves are called catafillas. They are permanent and deciduous.
  2. Normal leaf, located on a long petiole.
On the trunk of the philodendron are visible traces of dead leaves and cataphills.

The roots of philodendron are of two types: air and underground. Thanks to aerial roots philodendronis attached to the support and receives food and water. Air roots have small differences, it all depends on their purpose. Those who hold the philodendron on the tree are short, numerous and covered with villi. Feeding roots longer and thicker, able to make their way under the soil. Very often, these roots replace the underground root system, which was damaged and died.

The inflorescence is a cob wrapped in a blanket, painted in shades of pink, purple, pale green and red. Flowers bisexual. Under greenhouse conditions, they bloom more readily than with home-grown ones.

Inflorescences of philodendron varied in color

The fruits of philodendron ripen at different times, depending on the species, and represent a berry, inside of which there are small seeds.

The juice of the plant is poisonous, so you should wear gloves when working with it.

Philodendron grows in tropical rain forests

Under natural conditions, the length of a philodendron can reach more than 200 meters.

Philodendron has a beneficial effect on the premises in which it is located, emitting phytoncides that fight microbes. NASA has made a philodendron on the list of air purifying plants.

Location and lighting

The correct location of the philodendron plays an important role in its growth and development. When shaded, the plant will not die, but the leaves will stop growing and will degrade. At home, it is best to place the philodendron in light penumbra - a place not accessible to direct sunlight. The northeast window is the optimal place to place the plant. It is also very important to protect the philodendron from drafts.

Temperature conditions

In summer, the temperature should not exceed +25 ° C. In the hot hot period you need to spray or wash the leaves of the plant with filtered water to prevent them from overheating. In winter, you need to maintain a temperature not lower than +15. +17 ° C. Some species, such as philodendron reddish and climbing, are able to withstand temperatures of +12. +13 ° C.

Watering and humidity

It is necessary to water the plant in spring and summer 2 times a week with filtered water at room temperature, and in winter - no more than once a week. The soil should always be moderately wet. An overabundance of moisture also negatively affects the plant: the leaves turn yellow, and in general, there is a weak development of the philodendron.

Philodendrons are able to grow huge leaves due to the high humidity that is present in the tropics. Under home growing conditions, many cultivated plant species are capable of carrying dry air. However, to allow the soil to dry out is extremely undesirable. In response to a lack of moisture, the plant produces smaller and simpler leaves the first time after purchase. In this case, it is necessary to spray the philodendron more often and create moist comfortable conditions for it.

Fertilization

Feeding philodendron recommended in the spring and summer every two weeks. As fertilizers, those that have an equal content of potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, while reducing the concentration of the recommended by 10-20%, are well suited. Here the main rule works: less is better, but more often. Feeding a plant is important not to overfeed it, otherwise the tips of the leaves of the plant turn yellow or turn brown, the leaves wither and weaken. If the soil was fertilized with a large amount of humus, then it is not necessary to feed them using other fertilizers for about one and a half to two months.

Usually the plant responds well to pruning. In order to maintain the philodendron in the right size, in the spring you need to remove excess shoots. In order to increase bushiness, you need to pinch the growing top of the flower. Philodendron climbing lianas can reach several meters in length, this is inconvenient, so they need to be cut from above.

Support for vines

Many philodendrons grow long and spinning like creepers. Therefore, it is necessary for them to adapt a support for growth. This may be a mossy trunk or a damp vertical wall. Only under the condition of vertical growth young leaves of philodendron are replaced by adults characteristic of this species or variety.

Home Philodendron Transplant

Transplantation of philodendron should be carried out in the spring, when the plant has the greatest vitality. If it is not transplanted in time, the plant will cease to grow, the structure of the soil will begin to deteriorate and accumulate an excess of mineral substances. When replanting a philodendron, each time a pot should be taken 5-7 cm larger in diameter than the previous one. The plant has to be transplanted quite often, since the root system of the Aroids, to which family the philodendrons belong, is developed quite powerfully. On average, this should be done annually, and for old plants it will be enough once every 2-3 years.

The need for transplanting philodendron can be determined by removing the plant from the pot. If the earth lump is closely woven by roots, and the land is practically invisible, it means that a transplant is required. For transplanting, several soil options are suitable, but the best for the plant is a mixture of peat, humus, sod land and sand.

Combating possible pests and diseases

Diseases of philodendron most often occur in violation of the rules and recommendations of agricultural engineering. If the plant is planted in too heavy a substrate, the roots will begin to rot from lack of oxygen, brown spots will appear on the leaves. With an insufficient amount of light, variegated varieties of philodendron darken, brown dry spots appear on the white parts of the leaf. If the temperature is too high, the leaves may fall off. If the plant rots the stalks, it means stem rot has appeared. This happens in the winter with an excess of moisture and cool air, which creates conditions for the reproduction of the fungus. For the treatment of rot, you need to transplant the philodendron into another dish, raise the air temperature and temporarily stop watering.

Among the pests, the most common attack is the spider mite, the scythe, the mealybug and thrips. To destroy pests, it is necessary to wash the leaves of the plant with soap. After that, you can pour the soil with “Aktara” or “Confidor”. If necessary, repeat a week later. Ticks can still be controlled with acaricides.

Reproduction at home

There are several ways to propagate a philodendron. The first is the seed method, the second is grafting and another one with the help of pieces of the trunk. As the planting material take pieces of the trunk, can be without leaves, but always with a bud. Put them in a container with peat ground, cover with foil, sometimes sprayed. As soon as the buds start to grow, they are divided by the number of young shoots and planted in pots.

Cutting involves the preparation of planting material from an existing plant, so that each seedling has a bud. Before cutting a philodendron, planting material must be rooted for a month at +25 ° C, then transplanted into pots. After planting, the cuttings are covered with a film to create conditions of high humidity. Peel off the film after the root system has developed enough. The optimum temperature for germination of planting material is +18. +20 ° C in summer, in winter at night - up to +16 ° C. The following substrate is used for planting the philodendron: humus (2 parts), sod land (1 part), peat land (1 part), sand (1/2 parts).

Secret number 1. Individual approach

The main, and perhaps the most correct advice that you can give (and get) when you buy a philodendron - be sure to learn all the characteristics of a particular type and even variety. After all, these plants and individual varieties are more enduring than other species. And the “variation” in the requirements for growing conditions and care for different types of philodendrons can be very large. Одни растения лучше приспособлены к комнатной среде или отдельным местам, чем другие. Так, теневыносливость – прекрасная характеристика разновидности филодендрона плющелистного( Philodendron hederaceum) – филодендрона лазящего ( Philodendron hederaceum var. hederaceum), which can be used for full gardening in the depths of the room. A company can make him philodendron blushing (Philodendron erubescens), but other species grow better in a scattered bright place and in partial shade. Philodendron bipericular (Philodendron bipinnatifidum) - with its almost meter beautifully cut leaves - not the best candidate for small rooms and apartments. In any case, when buying, it is worth checking how demanding your philodendron is to the humidity of the air, what maximum sizes it can achieve, whether it is easy to control. Such a test will save you from dozens of problems.

Climbing Philodendron, or Philodendron clinging (Philodendron hederaceum var. Hederaceum) Philodendron reddish, or Philodendron reddening (Philodendron erubescens) Philodendron biconseous, or Philodendron twice peristonadrezanny, or Philodendron Sello (Philodendron bipinnatifidum)

Secret number 2. Shadow tolerance of philodendron has boundaries

If your philodendron does not belong to the shade-loving species and varieties that can put up with poorer lighting, you should consider a philodendron a plant that needs good lighting. It is in such places that most species of these plants reveal their beauty best of all. Direct sunlight is contraindicated to any philodendron, but shading can only be easy. When choosing a place in the room for philodendron, try, nevertheless, not to move too far from the window and stay within the framework of locations with good lighting.

Secret number 3. Artificial light and natural light for philodendron

Philodendrons are unique plants. They can grow on fully artificial light in the same way as on a suitable sill. Afraid dostvetki not need. It is better to use this property for landscaping where the light is almost always lit, but there is no source of natural light. In the corridor, bathroom, lobby, offices, transitions between rooms, philodendrons will give you good design prospects.

Secret number 4. Add a couple of degrees to the minimum temperature.

In the recommendations for growing philodendrons, you can often find the minimum allowable temperature of 13 degrees. It is better not to bring the situation to such a decrease. Limit the temperature range in the winter to just 16 degrees. And then you will warn most of the problems and difficulties that may arise in the cultivation of philodendrons.

As for air temperature from spring to autumn, room values ​​for philodendrons will be comfortable (from 20 to 25 degrees). But higher rates - no. In order for the philodendrons to retain a high decorative effect in the heat, you will have to make efforts to control more abundant waterings and increase the humidity of the air. But the main thing - protect plants from temperature extremes. Close to philodendrons do not place any heating devices, protect plants from air conditioners and even airing in cold weather.

Just by stabilizing the temperature and observing the minimum indicators, you guarantee to yourself that the leaves on your philodendron will not become shallow, and growth and development will occur evenly.

Philodendron glorious (Philodendron gloriosum)

Secret number 5. "No" fly on the balcony

Despite the fact that many indoor vines become even more beautiful after the summer spent in the fresh air, you are in no hurry to attribute the philodendron to such cultures. Even curly philodendrons do not like moving under the open sky or on the balcony, which is to say about the giants. The fact is that philodendrons do not tolerate drafts at all. And in the open air they will be permanent even in the most protected places.

Secret number 6. Stable soil moisture for philodendron at any time of the year.

The substrate for any philodendron, regardless of the type, should always be slightly wet. Stable, constant soil moisture is the main guarantee that the plant will not give you any unpleasant surprises. The main rule of irrigation of philodendrons is: the next watering is carried out after 1-2 cm of substrate has dried at the top of the pot. And this rule is relevant both for summer and for winter. But since the rate of drying (and plant consumption) of moisture will be different, respectively, and the frequency of irrigation will vary significantly. Make it a rule to make the watering of the philodendron in the cold season less abundant, to use less water compared with the summer and the phase of active development of the plant. Water from pallets is always drained immediately after watering.

Philodendron (Philodendron)

Secret number 7. Humidification support and air

Most indoor philodendrons are vines. And to succeed in their cultivation, you should not forget to moisten and support (if you, of course, use the usual support for these plants, covered with moss or synthetic substitute material). To dry completely support should never.

But this is not all the measures for moistening: philodendrons also like the increased humidity of the air, therefore additional measures should be taken for the plant. Spraying is not the best option. For philodendrons, it is better to choose a simple way with a “handicraft”, or a home-made humidifier — placing supports or trays with water-holding materials.

Do not forget to wipe leaves from dust - any philodendron responds to such care with a brighter color.

Secret number 8. Do not rush to transplant philodendron

Philodendrons belong to those indoor crops that do not need to be transplanted annually, even at a fairly young age. The growth rates of the aerial parts do not always correspond to the growth of rhizomes. Increasing the size of the pot during transplantation of 3-4 cm ensures that the philodendron will need to be transplanted only after a year. And more mature plants can be transplanted 1 time in 3 years. The optimal period is not February - the beginning of March, but the end of March - the beginning of April. During transplantation, care is taken to ensure that the level of burial remains the same and lay a new drainage. And for climbing philodendrons, any transplantation is completed with a very simple procedure - by pinching the ends of all stretched or just too long shoots.

In the years when philodendron transplantation is not performed, replace about 5 cm of the top of the substrate.

When choosing a substrate for philodendron, give preference to special mixtures for decorative leafy crops. Other subacidic or neutral, coarse-grained, light, nutritious and loose earth mixtures will do as well.

Secret number 9. Be careful with Philodendron fertilizer

Philodendrons fertilize and often, and for a long period. Feedings for this plant are carried out every 2 weeks, from March to September. But if the philodendrons are transplanted, then fertilizing is not carried out for another 4-6 weeks after the procedure. The first feeding is carried out in half the dose and then, before resuming the normal schedule of these procedures, another pause of one month is made. To find the perfect schedule, you need to follow the plant. With a shortage of fertilizers, philodendron becomes smaller, the leaves turn yellow and dry, the growth is clearly slowed down, the stem is thinner than usual. When overfeeding, the tips of the leaves turn yellow and turn brown, the leaves become sluggish and lose their elasticity. Especially dangerous for the philodendron is excess nitrogen, which causes rapid growth (respectively, and vice versa, if you reduce fertilizing with nitrogen, plants can be controlled in growth).

When choosing fertilizers for philodendrons, one should not be deceived by the beauty of their leaves: for this plant, not fertilizers for decorative and deciduous crops, but complex universal fertilizers are better suited.

But the main rule of fertilizer application for philodendron relates to the procedure itself: always feed the philodendron after heavy irrigation. This is the only way to protect the plant from high salt concentrations and the only way to feed the philodendron so that it does not perceive the feeding procedure as an excess of fertilizer in the soil.

Secret number 10. Problems are always visible on the leaves of philodendron.

If you improperly water or re-feed the philodendron, if there are no measures for moistening or improper selection of conditions (including lighting), your failures can lead to problems with the health of the plant. They manifest themselves in philodendrons always the same - on the leaves. Withering, discoloration, or other lesions in the form of yellowing or drying out, rotting, and discoloration are signs that you have made a mistake. And it's time to analyze your care and make adjustments to it.

Secret number 11. Avoid black spots on philodendron leaves.

Inspection of a plant and constant monitoring of its condition should, among other things, manifest itself in a constant inspection of the reverse side of the leaves of the philodendron. And if during the monitoring you find black spots, try to immediately analyze the possible cause and take action. There are several reasons for black spots:

  • excessive moisture
  • tick or aphid infestation,
  • defeat soot fungus.

If you make misses with watering philodendron and other measures, just adjust the care, but insecticides and acaricides will help to fight pests.

Philodendron (Philodendron)

Secret number 12. For breeding philodendron, select the cutting method

It is the rooting of the apical cuttings or parts of the stem with side shoots - the easiest way to get a new philodendron. In the second method of cutting, make sure that leaves develop on the lateral branches. At first, cut not short cuttings, but tops 12–15 cm long. In any case, rooting cuttings is best done in wet peat or peat substrate in greenhouse conditions and with very strict temperature control: the allowable range is from 20 to 22 degrees.

Philodendron (philodendron) —description of a flower

This is a houseplant - Liana, striking a variety of forms.

They are both thin, and rather thick, fleshy, there are long semi-grassy and short trees. There are also stemless species, in which the leaves form a rosette, but they are rarely found in ornamental flower growing.

Most philodendrons have a sign that unites everyone: aerial roots growing from each node on the stem, because in the native jungle it is an epiphyte plant. This makes the philodendron look like a monster.

They also have not only a different shape and size, but also texture. The leaves of some philodendrons may be small, while in other species they reach a meter in diameter. There are even rounded leaves, but more often deep-dissected.

Although philodendrons do not differ in the variety of colors, but in addition to the traditionally green one, there are more saturated emerald, soft olive tones. Less often you can find leaves with a reddish tinge or leaves, each half of which is colored in its own color: light, closer to dull white and dark green.

All philodendrons leaves alternate. Young leaves appear inside the sheet-scales, which for a long time does not fall off on an already formed sheet.

It has long air roots, the number of which depends on the ability to cling to the support, the underground root system is small.

Features of growing

Philodendron does not belong to the category of difficult-to-care plants. But all the same for the successful cultivation and preservation of decorative flower must have certain knowledge.

The plant is not always possible to make at home, because many species reproduce only by the apical shoots. The plant is most often purchased at the store; recently, seeds of some varieties of philodendron have appeared on the market, which has facilitated its cultivation.

Landing Philodendron

Liana planted:

  • after the purchase, when the term of acclimatization passes,
  • after a young plant gives roots,
  • two or three leaves will grow in seed reproduction.

Location and lighting for the plant

Philodendron attracts lovers of home gardening with the fact that it can constantly grow under artificial light, and if the electricity in the room is not turned off throughout the day, then it does not even need additional lighting.

But this does not apply to species with variegated leaves. Such lianas need bright natural light, but not the sun. When choosing a window sill, it is worthwhile to dwell on the northern one; a vine that grows in nature in dense thickets of tropical trees is not genetically adapted to bright, especially solar, lighting. In the summer you should not take them out, because they are ill from the smallest temperature drops and drafts.

Air humidity

These plants start up in rapid growth with high humidity. They should be sprayed daily with warm water, if the size of the liana allows, then constantly arrange a warm shower, and if it is impossible to bring the vine to the bathroom, then wipe each sheet twice a week with a well-moistened rag. If in winter the plant is kept in a cool room, then of all procedures, you can leave only wiping.

Top dressing of a flower

Making a top dressing for philodendron is not easy. The slightest excess of the dose can cause yellowing of the leaves, they can lose the rot and fall off. Therefore, it is better not to feed this plant, but to make an annual transshipment into fertile soil mixture in the spring and pour the humus into a flower pot in the fall.

In addition, if there is a lot of nitrogen in the fertilizer, the stem will be pulled out, losing decorativeness.

But it must be remembered that the plant suffers from a lack of nutrition, the lianas must be constantly monitored, and if signs of a lack of nutrients appear (growth slows down, new leaves will be small, the stem will start to grow thin, the tips of the leaves will dry) proportions specified in the instructions, if it happened during the growing season. And in the winter half of norm undertakes.

But in any case, it is possible to irrigate the philodendron with fertilizer only after the soil in the pot is saturated with moisture.

Trimming philodendron

The plant does not need pruning. Only in too long plants, in order to restrain their growth and force them to increase the leaf mass more intensively, they cut off the crown. Sometimes the plant is cut to provoke flowering.

Philodendron Transplant

A young liana is transplanted almost every year, because it loves spacious pots, then the growth of rhizomes slows down with age, and such frequent transplants are not required. Difficulties begin when the plant reaches a considerable size. In this case, just take out the soil to half the capacity and replace it with a new one.

Breeding methods

At home, the philodendron is almost impossible to cross, since several flowering plants are required at once. Therefore, we are talking only about purchased seeds.

They are laid out on the surface of the sterilized soil and covered with a layer of 5 mm. Further capacity is determined in a very warm, with a temperature not lower than 25 degrees, the place and after watering is covered with glass. Shoots will appear only in two months, and the vine will acquire the characteristic form only in the second year after planting.

Barrel slices

Cut the segments of the trunk so that everyone has a kidney. In a box with wet sand and peat, pieces are laid, ensuring that this kidney is on top, then covered with a layer of soil, creating a greenhouse effect, covering it with glass. Regularly air the greenhouse and monitor the soil moisture. After rooting, small vines can be planted in pots.

Problems diseases pests plants

On a healthy pure plant rarely pests appear, they mainly affect the weakened specimens. For creepers, the main enemies are scale insects, thrips and spider mites.

It is difficult to fight with him, the main thing here is to be patient, because the philodendron has to be processed several times. Do not immediately grab the chemical means. In most cases, people should help:

  • a very well-known way — thoroughly wash each leaf and stem with thick suds and then keep it under the shower for a long time, the procedure must be carried out several times, even if it seems that the danger has passed,
  • wipe the affected areas with a swab dipped in vodka, then act on the first recipe,
  • carefully wipe all the leaves with a solution of dry mustard (a tablespoon per liter of hot water and insist for a day).

And only if none of the methods helped, then the plant will have to be treated with chemical means, but even in this case it is not enough one time.

There are also such problems:

  • dark spots on the leaves may appear as a result of sunburn,
  • the roots start to rot from moisture stagnation and at too low temperatures,
  • small leaves grow: from excess nitrogen in the soil.

Popular species (varieties)

There are about 700 kinds of philodendron, here are the most famous in indoor floriculture:

  • climbing philodendron: it is a very powerful liana with one long climbing stem, orescent over the years, it does not branch at all, the leaves are 45x50 cm in size, dark green, pinnately-dissected, very decoratively long, up to 15 cm, cream-colored cover with a pink edge,
  • Philodendron Xanadu: it is a woody philodendron with large lobated leaves on long stems, when flowering it throws out a beautiful red-purple bedspread,
  • Philodendron blushing: свое название получил из-за красивых стреловидных листьев, которые снизу окрашены в медный цвет,сверху листья обычного зеленого цвета,
  • филодендрон чешуеносный— стебель этой лианы опушенный,красно-коричневый и выглядит очень декоративно, красные жилки имеются и на пяти пальчатых темно-зеленых листьях,
  • филодендрон блестящий: unpretentious liana with small velvety brownish leaves.

Useful tips (florist note)

  • In no case can not trim aerial roots. They are tied to the stem of the plant, and with their help it receives additional nutrition.
  • Philodendrons with thin stems and convenient to grow in hanging pots.
  • This vine is considered the best plant for air purification.
  • The choice of a pot is influenced by the size of the plant and the fact that the liana feels better in clay tanks, its roots must breathe.

Botanical description

Philodendron - evergreen or semi-deciduous tropical perennial. Translated from the Greek name sounds like "love the tree." It is connected with the growth feature of philodendron - with its aerial roots it clings to trees growing nearby, using them as a support. The genus is dominated by vines with woody or herbaceous stems. Some species have a powerful main stem, they can grow without additional support.

The size of the leaves, depending on the species, varies from 11 cm to 2 m. On the stem, they are arranged alternately and have a different shape. The young leaves of most varieties are heart-shaped, as they grow, the structure changes. The upper side of the sheet is usually painted more intensely.

An interesting feature of philodendron is two types of leaves on a single plant. Ordinary leaves sit on elongated petioles, scale-like - cover the vegetative bud. For additional nutrition and fixation on the tree, the vine uses aerial roots. The processes for the extraction of food - long and thick, they reach the soil and root in it next to the main stem. Roots for fixing more thin and short, covered with fibers.

In nature, on the philodendron, bright, cobweb-shaped inflorescences with veils of different shades form. In the cramped conditions of the apartment it is extremely rare to achieve flowering. Fruits - berries with small seeds.

Philodendron care: basic rules

Philodendron refers to the simple to grow vines. But its tropical origin requires the creation of a certain microclimate in the room. How to care for philodendron to its foliage was large and beautiful? Enough to follow a few simple rules.

  • Lighting The apartment is bright, but protected from the sun. Liana maintains a slight shading, but can not grow in full shade. The optimal location - the western and eastern side. From the south put at a distance from the window, from the north - set additional lighting.
  • Temperature . Philodendron grows well in moderate heat, at a temperature of 21–23 C. Withstands a brief increase to 28-30–С. In winter, the temperature is reduced to 14–18 С. During the rest period, some varieties of philodendron partially shed their leaves. In the spring they grow back.
  • Humidity Philodendron needs high humidity. Caring for it includes compulsory spraying, periodically wiping the leaves with a damp cloth. To further increase the humidity, small containers with water are placed directly in the pot next to the plant.
  • Watering Properly water the philodendron with warm, pre-settled water. Stagnation of moisture in the area of ​​the root system is not allowed. Full drying of the soil is also undesirable. Maintain stable ground moisture. According to experienced gardeners, philodendron can be grown hydroponically. In winter, watering is reduced, but not stopped at all.
  • Top dressing. Use standard liquid fertilizer. Bring them at the same time with watering. It is enough to feed the philodendron twice a month. During wintering, feeding is suspended.
  • The soil . The plant is planted in neutral soil. Soil mixtures for begonias or violets are selected from the finished soil mixtures. At home, the soil of the desired acidity is prepared from peat, turf, hardwood and sand.
  • Transplant Young copies pass every spring, from the age of three - once every two years. With the transfer of large vines in large tanks, difficulties arise - they update the upper layer of the earth every year. Take into account the peculiarities of care after the transplant philodendron - watered and sprayed with means "Epin", kept on a diffused light.

Cuttings

In the spring, cut apical or stem cuttings with two or three leaves. For cutting use the sterile, well ground tool. Rooting perform according to a specific scheme.

  1. Sections are covered with coal powder. Leave to dry for several hours.
  2. Fine peat is mixed with perlite and sphagnum. The resulting substrate is poured into small pots and moistened.
  3. The cuttings are buried in the soil by 3 cm. To create greenhouse conditions, the planted pieces of the stem are covered with cans. They put on a bright place, maintain a temperature of 25-30 ° C.
  4. Every two days, banks are removed. Moisturize the soil, airing the cuttings. After the appearance of new leaves shelter removed.

Air layouts

Reproduction by air layouts is an effective and reliable method. To obtain the layering choose healthy lignified stems. The procedure is performed in the following sequence.

  1. A circular incision is made on the stem. Remove the bark, cut the place treated with the means "Heteroauxin" or "Kornevin" to stimulate the formation of roots.
  2. Wrapped with wet sphagnum. Fix the moss on the stem with cling film.
  3. Moss as it dries moisturize. Sometimes a small amount of rooting stimulator is added.
  4. Observe the formation of roots. The roots will be clearly visible through the cellophane film. They are given a little to grow, then pruned escape along with the roots.
  5. Planted in loose substrate. Maintain a constant humidity, keep in a well-lit place.

Growing a philodendron from seed will take longer. It is advisable to use only fresh seeds - they quickly lose their germination. To obtain healthy seedlings adhere to the following planting scheme.

  1. Pre-seeds are soaked. Leave for eight to ten hours. It is advisable to use distilled water.
  2. Mix peat with sand. Fill with soil container. Seeds laid out on the surface. It is impossible to dig in and fill them with soil.
  3. The container is covered. Use for this transparent cover or package. Keep in a bright place. Maintain a temperature not lower than 28˚С.
  4. Periodically shelter is removed. Moisturize the soil. Completely remove the package only after germination.
  5. Seedlings dive. In separate containers, seedlings are planted after the formation of three or four true leaves.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send