Ash is an absolutely affordable and highly effective phosphate-potassium fertilizer containing a lot of substances and trace elements necessary for the development and growth of plants. It does not need to buy, do not need to use transport for transportation - such fertilizer can be made independently. The availability and benefits of ash are beyond doubt! Although it should be noted that the quality characteristics and the mass fraction of certain trace elements may vary depending on the raw materials used to produce the ashes.
Important! When using ash as a fertilizer, it should be remembered that when burning raw materials, nitrogen evaporates, respectively, its shortage must be compensated by any nitrogen-containing additives.
The average indicators of the main elements in the ash after combustion:
- conifers - about 8%,
- deciduous - 14%,
- grape vine - 40%.
- Herb raw materials:
- straw - about 20%,
- potato topper - 40%,
- sunflower (stem, leaves and head) - 40%,
- dried grass (nettle, quinoa, sow thistle, etc.) - 30%.
- Buckwheat, sunflower husk - 35%.
- Peat - 10%.
- Slates - no more than 2%.
- conifers - 6%,
- hardwood - no more than 10%.
- Herb raw materials - 1%.
- Peat - 1%.
- Slates - 1.5%.
- Wood - 45%.
- Herb raw materials - 10–20%.
- Peat - 20–50%.
- Slates - about 70%.
Important! In no case should ash be used as a fertilizer after burning: polymers, household garbage, rubber, colorful glossy magazines, colored paper and synthetic materials. When using such a "fertilizer", you can forget about the crop altogether - the earth will be poisoned for many years.
The use of ash on different types of soil
- Agrotechnics do not advise using ash as a fertilizer on soils with high alkalinity. This is due to the chemical characteristics of the ash prepared from any raw material - it additionally alkalizes the soil, which can significantly impede the nutrition of plants.
- Loamy and clayey soils - adding only 300–500 g / m² of ashes, significantly improves the fertility and structure of the earth. Even after a single fertilizer application, a positive effect can last up to 4 years.
- Acidic soils - when making wood ash as fertilizer, creates a certain balance between the natural reaction of the earth (acidic) and the alkaline component (ash), which has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of plants. The exception is the crop, initially, preferring the acidic soil: potatoes, radishes, melons and some others, as a result of which it is necessary to fertilize these plants with ashes very carefully, after weighing the possible benefits and the probable harm.
Ways to use ash as fertilizer
In practice, ash as a fertilizer is used in 3 ways:
- Dry scattering in tree trunks, under bushes, in between rows of garden crops and in the holes before planting seedlings.
- Spraying or watering the plants with a concentrated solution and / or infusion prepared from ordinary water and ash.
- Bookmark in the compost pile (2 kg / m³). Subsequently, compost is used traditionally.
Practical advice to farmers
How to use ash as fertilizer?
How much ash is needed for a particular culture?
How to prepare a solution of ash for watering and spraying?
Familiar questions? Well, experienced gardeners and agronomists recommend:
Tip! The ashes diluted in water, during watering, must be constantly shaken slightly or stirred, in order to exclude its settling to the bottom.
- Before planting seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, you must add 5 dessert spoonfuls of ash to each well and mix it slightly with the ground or add it when digging at the rate of three 200-gram glasses per 1 m².
- Lawn grass - before sowing seeds, add a top dressing to a selected area, 300 gr. on 1 m². It is not recommended to sprinkle already germinated seeds.
- Fertilization with ashes of cucumbers, tomatoes and cabbage during the growth period can be carried out with a pre-prepared solution: 100 g / 10 l (ash / water), after mixing the ingredients, the infusion is ready within 24 hours. Pour 500 ml of infusion under each plant or make longitudinal grooves and shed them evenly.
- For a good harvest of cabbage, it is recommended to apply fertilizer repeatedly, and every 10–12 days. The procedure should be carried out during the entire growth period.
- For trees, it is useful to feed at least 1 time in 3 years:
- adults - 2 kg under each tree, bring it into the area of the circle of the trunk circle in its pure form, you can make a special groove (10 cm recess) around the circumference and apply additional feeding there. In dry weather, subsequent abundant watering is mandatory,
- seedlings - pour 1 kg of ash into a pit prepared for planting, where it is mixed with soil, then it is traditional to plant.
- Fertilizer is also widely used in houseplants. To do this, the tool is poured into a flower pot (1 tablespoon. Per 5 liters. Of land) or an infusion is prepared (2 tablespoons. Per 6 liters. Of water), which is used for watering.
Tip! Feeding trees and rooted seedlings can be infusion prepared from 1.5 kg of ash and 12 liters of water. The resulting composition, simply, uniformly poured around the plant, not further than 0.5 m from the trunk.
The use of ash for plants as protection against diseases and pests
The use of ash for plants is not only reduced to fertilizing the soil, it is also an excellent remedy against many pests and diseases:
- Treatment of cruciferous flea - mix ash and tobacco dust in equal proportions and pollinate the resulting plant composition.
- Ash infusion is very effective when used in the fight against powdery mildew, as well as aphids. It is prepared very simply, for this mix: 12 l. cold water, 110 g of household soap and ash, 20 g of urea. All ingredients are thoroughly mixed and infused for 2 days.
- It is believed that the regular addition of ashes to the garden land contributes to the destruction of the wireworm.
- As a preventive measure for various fungal diseases, plants are also pollinated by ashes.
Tip! Spray the ashes only when there is complete calm on the street, this will guarantee that the remedy will fall on the plants that were planned for. The best results are obtained by pollination in the early hours, when the dew was still awake.
Ash as fertilizer
Ash is a residue resulting from the burning of various organic substances. These can be: firewood, straw, dried tops of garden plants, conifer needles, coal and other materials.
Plants infected with various diseases cannot be sent to compost, but ash is allowed to be used after burning!
The properties, the chemical composition of the future mineral fertilizer will depend on the feedstock.
Ash is obtained from:
- Hardwoods and crops with thick stems (sunflower, buckwheat).
This ash contains a lot of calcium, potassium. These minerals will serve as a good fertilizer for garden crops and will ensure that the pH level will be restored to acidified soils.
This ash, in addition to a high content of calcium, is rich in phosphorus irreplaceable for plants.
Wood ash is considered to be one of the most valuable types of mineral fertilizers of natural origin.
Peat ash is not as common, it has almost no nutritional value for garden crops. And because this ash is less in demand among gardeners. Basically it is used as an impurity to maintain the optimum pH of the soil.
Ash based on it is not very suitable for fertilizer, because it contains a small amount of useful substances. It is used on alkaline soils for the purpose of their acidification.
Autumn biomaterial is conveniently stored and then burned in barrels. Leafy ash can be used both in the form of self-feeding, and as a mineral additive for compost.
Separately, it should be said about the ash remaining after smoking cigarettes. It is used as a fertilizer for indoor flowers. In addition, the ash perfectly protects home plants from small midges and fungal diseases.
Collect ash should be immediately after cooling. Soaked ash is not endowed with useful qualities. And because it should be protected from moisture.
Composition and properties
Ash is famous for its beneficial properties and rich mineral composition. Due to this, it is able to improve the qualitative composition and structure of the soil, saturate it with irreplaceable elements, improve air exchange, strengthen the immunity of plants.
The ash contains:
- calcium (in different compounds: carbonate / silicate / chloride / sulfate),
- potassium (in the form of orthophosphate),
- sodium (in the form of chloride)
- magnesium (in the compounds: silicate / carbonate / sulfate),
- Able to improve the structure of the soil - to make it more loose.
- Increases fruiting on heavy soils.
- It improves the air permeability of the soil, thanks to which the plants grow and develop better, and the simplest inhabitants are able to simply fully exist.
- It accelerates the decomposition of organic matter, because it is always added to the compost heaps as a separate layer.
- The ability to maintain a positive impact on the soil for 2-3 years.
Is it possible to use?
Wood ash in the role of mineral fertilizer can be applied on any type of soil. In this case, the pH of a little or strongly acidified soil will try to correct. Neutral soil ashes enrich the full range of mineral elements.
It is used to fertilize houseplants and a large number of garden crops: zucchini, tomatoes, potatoes, pumpkins, eggplants, and many others.
Ashes are introduced mainly in autumn when preparing the land for winter.
Do not use ash for fertilizer:
- Berries loving acidified soil: lingonberries, blueberries, cranberries.
When ash is introduced, the soil becomes neutral, and therefore these berries simply stop growing.
These crops react to ash by rapidly releasing arrows, as well as by stopping the growth of root crops.
- Flowers: camellia / rhododendron / azalea.
They immediately stop blooming and stop growing.
These plants grow well only on acidified soils.
Before applying the ash must be adapted. It is usually used in three ways:
- By placer on the beds, between the rows, holes, under shrubs and trees.
- Through watering or spraying (pre-prepared infusion based on the ash).
- As a component for compost. The optimal dose is 2.5 kg per cubic meter.
Gardeners mainly use straw, hardwood and wood ash. Strengthen the degree of its effectiveness will help mixing with other organic fertilizers. Together with humus or peat, ash is a powerful mineralizer. The average mixing ratio is 1: 3. This fertilizer can be immediately used, evenly distributing the plot. Plants will not be difficult to assimilate all the nutrients from such a complex.
It is also good in composts. Moreover, no full-fledged compost is possible without its introduction. Ash has the ability to accelerate the decomposition of organic matter. So, peat compost will require 45 kg of wood ash per ton of basic raw material. It perfectly neutralizes peat acidity.
Ash is not desirable for mixing with fresh manure, chicken manure due to possible loss of nitrogen. And its combination with superphosphate will reduce the access of horticultural crops to phosphorus. For a similar reason, do not mix ash with lime.
Rules for making clean ash:
- Prepare small grooves (approximately 15 cm deep).
- Ash is poured into them. One adult plant consumes about 2 kg of this mineral supplement per season.
- An ash-based water solution is prepared (at least 2 glasses are needed for the bucket), which is then shed in the ground.
- The grooves are buried.
For the garden
When planting spring seedlings of vegetables, wood ash is used directly in the wells (9 g per furrow), not forgetting to mix it with the soil.
Bean crops and greens are very responsive to ash: they are able to assimilate up to 200 grams per square meter per season. m
Squashes and pumpkins are fed with ashes at least 3 times per season: during the spring preparation of the beds, before planting, approximately in the middle of the growing season along with watering. Each time used 200 g per square. m
Peppers and eggplants are fertilized twice: when digging in the spring (600 g per meter), when planted (100 g per well).
Cabbage and turnips are fed with ash 2 times: during planting (a handful per well) and in the form of a solution for spraying during active growth.
Under the garlic in the fall make 400 g of substance per square meter. m
For carrots, celery, beets, one spring dressing will be enough - a glass of ash per meter.
Potatoes are fertilized with ashes 3 times: with spring digging (200 g per meter), directly into the wells when planting (3 large spoons each), with secondary hilling in the form of a solution (400 ml per bush).
For cucumbers, 2-3 additional feedings will be needed: spring - using the method of scattering ash in between rows (50 g per meter), while growing and the appearance of ovaries - when watering with the addition of dry matter (1/2 liter per bush).
Tomatoes require 4 supplements: 2 dry and 2 wet. The first time the ash is used when digging the ground under the beds (1/2 cup per meter), the second - when planting by spreading between plants. The next 2 wet dressings are carried out during the period of active growth and in the process of fruiting (up to 1 l per plant).
Responds well to the introduction of ash currants. Up to 600 g of dry matter is required for an adult shrub. In the process of growing season, you can shed the bush also with an aqueous solution of ash. Because of this, currants bear fruits better and become more resistant to diseases and some pests.
Strawberries are fed in 2 ways: root and foliar. The first do 2 times a year - before the rapid flowering, after the end of fruiting. Ashes are simply scattered between the rows (65 g per meter). Foliar fertilizing (spraying method) is carried out in the process of setting berries. Enough half a cup of dry matter in a bucket of water. Spraying produced at the rate of 1 l per square. m
Fruit trees are often fed with a liquid ash solution about once every 2-3 years. Enough 2 kg per bucket of water. This is a portion for one adult tree. For seedlings enough 1 kg. Ash helps to resist attacks of pests and gives the plants the necessary mineral feed.
Potted flowers periodically fertilize at the rate of 3 large spoons per 200 ml of water, garden ones twice a season. First, when preparing the beds in the spring (200 g per meter), then - a glass of dry mixture per well when disembarking.
Especially love ash roses. It stimulates the development of future inflorescences, protects against diseases, strengthens their immunity, making them more resistant to temperature shocks.
- Ash is good to use on clay soils and loams in the process of autumn digging. On sandy soil, it is better to transfer top dressing with ashes to spring.
- If the ash consumption is 300 g per meter, you can forget about the additional mineralization of the soil in the next couple of years.
- On acid soils, the ash is good in the autumn - it will help the plants to better endure the winter.
- Depriving the ash fertilizer compost is like leaving a chemical reaction without a powerful catalyst.
- It is good to use an aqueous solution of ash for soaking the seeds before sowing. Ash is a powerful growth promoter.
- It is better to store it in a closed container that does not allow moisture to pass through.
- At the same time with the nitrogen can not be ash. These two substances neutralize each other. You must wait at least about 30 days.
If possible, it is best to spread 2 of these substances in different seasons: nitrogen - in the spring, ash - in the autumn.
- If household waste or plastic gets into the barrel when the biomaterial is burned, the ash becomes useless due to its high toxicity.
- In fresh manure, the ashes are not appropriate - it will reduce the nitrogen content and will promote the formation of compounds that the plants simply cannot absorb afterwards.
- It is forbidden to fertilize saplings with ashes until the first leaves appear. At this point, nitrogen fertilization is more relevant - to stimulate growth.
- When fertilizing tomatoes or crops of the pumpkin family, the ashes are thoroughly mixed with the earth in order to avoid burns of their root system.
- If the acidity level of the soil is 7, the introduction of ash is unnecessary. Acidification and alkalization of the soil always leads to worse absorption of nutrients by plants.
It is used for feeding trees, shrubs, vegetables, home plants. It loosens the soil well. So thanks to this fertilizer can reduce the acidity of the soil. Ash is an excellent fertilizer very rich in trace elements. It is very rich in calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, sulfur. But nitrogen is absent. The value of the composition of the ashes depends on what material is burnt. This may be ash, resulting from the combustion of paper, leaves, grass, dead wood. В таком удобрении преобладает калий. А фосфора содержится мало.
Очень хорошим удобрением является древесный пепел. Так в золе вяза, дуба, ясеня, бука, клена, тополя, лиственницы содержится большое количество калия. In the ashes of linden, spruce, pine, alder, aspen, this element contains less. The ashes received from a birch possess unique properties. It is extremely rich in phosphorus, potassium, magnesium. The ashes of young trees are richer in potassium than the ashes of older trees.
This fertilizer has another plus: chlorine is completely absent in the ashes. And this is important. After all, there are a number of plants that suffer and die from chlorine. This applies to raspberries, currants, blackberries, grapes, strawberries. When feeding seedlings ashes are very suitable. To apply ash in this case without additives is impossible. And another valuable feature of this amazing universal fertilizer is that it can be easily prepared by yourself, while also clearing the yard from dead wood, cut branches. Pleasant with useful, as they say in the people.
To obtain high-quality ash, special metal barrels with a stretched hood are used. With this process, the material is fully burned and high-quality ash is obtained. Charcoal can be used as an antiseptic that prevents the appearance of rot. This coal helps plants heal wounds faster. But for the beds of such coal, in the form of fertilizer is not suitable. In the garden and in the garden it is necessary to use ash as a fertilizer.
Coal ash is not used in the form of fertilizers, because calcium, phosphorus, potassium in it is almost minimal. But it contains more than sixty percent of silicon oxides. Therefore, when draining and loosening the soil, it can be used instead of sand. Sulfur contributes to soil acidification, as it is abundant in coal ash. Saline soils need it. Thanks to this element soil acidification takes place.
How to make ash
When loamy and clay soil, ash is best to make in the autumn season. But peaty and sandy lands need an ash fertilizing in the spring season. Ash should be used in the spring. So there is more confidence that it will fall into the ground and will serve as a good fertilizer. Of course, if necessary, it is possible to fertilize the soil with ashes in autumn. Only ash under the influence of precipitation can quickly wash out. Sandy ground suffers from this. There is one good rule that ashes get into the ground during digging.
There is still one option when feeding with ash is carried out immediately during planting. For this, ash is thrown just in the hole itself. You need to know that for a plot of at least one hundred square meters you need to have from twelve to fifteen kilograms of this amazing and reliable fertilizer. And just for information, I would like to note that six grams of ash easily fit into one tablespoon. A faceted glass holds a hundred grams of ash. Two hundred and fifty grams of this fertilizer easily fit into a half-liter jar. In a liter jar of ash is exactly five hundred grams.
For feeding vegetables that are already growing, wood ash is used in certain parts.
- For squash, squash, cucumbers, you must use one glass of ash, which is scattered before irrigation on an area of one square meter.
- Pepper, tomato, cabbage, eggplant is enough for a handful of this fertilizer for each pit. In the spring, strawberries and currants will also need ash. It will require only one glass per square meter.
- For a carrot, beet, parsley, radish, one cup of ash per square meter will also suffice.
- For potatoes, you need to take the ash in the amount of two matchboxes. This amount of ash must be pre-mixed with the soil. To bring this mix under each planted tuber of a potato.
Ash, as a fertilizer, in its dry form can simply scatter on the ground. And under the action of precipitation gradually dissolve and penetrate into the soil. When using the ash must adhere to certain rules. Sandy soils require from one hundred to two hundred grams of ash per square meter. Loamy soils need to increase the amount of such fertilizer from two to four times.
After applying dry ash, watering is necessary, since dry ash is simply carried by the wind. If there is a need for storing ash, then it is better to use plastic bags or bags. It is necessary to keep such fertilizers in a sufficiently dry room, without access of moisture and keep them tightly closed.
Optionally, it is possible to make a universal infusion of ash for plant nutrition.
- Just one glass of wood ash and ten liters of water is enough. Ash should be poured with water, and mix everything thoroughly. This solution must be brewed for six or seven days. Such a solution is also suitable for non-root feeding of various plants, both in the garden and in the garden.
- Urea is also mixed with wood ash. For ten liters of water, one tablespoon of polyurea and one glass of wood ash are enough. Stir the ingredients until dissolved. This composition feeds the roots. But it is necessary to ensure that the solution does not get on the leaves.
- Wood ash is used with compost. This combination neutralizes harmful chemical compounds that occur on time and after rain.
- It is good for top dressing to use the mix consisting of broth of herbs and ashes. This infusion is necessary helps to get rid of powdery mildew, black leg, spots on the leaves. This infusion does not tolerate fleas, aphids, wireworms. With such a need, it is necessary in the morning and in the evening to spray the plant with this miraculous composition.
Plants need fertilizer
If you notice that the edges of the plant on the lower leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow, specks of unknown origin appear, and the leaves become brown, as if someone had burned them. It is this type of plants that lack potassium for specific reasons. It is urgent to save the plants. For this, ash is diluted with water. And this solution is fed plants.
Before planting, you can soak the seeds in a solution consisting of two tablespoons of ash and one liter of water. Such a solution should stand for twenty-four hours. And then you need to soak the seeds in it. This seed bath lasts six hours. After which the seeds can be planted serene. But such an annual feeding potatoes can not tolerate. Frequent use of wood ash from potatoes can cause scab. This disease occurs because the soil has become neutral.
Ash does not apply:
- It is impossible to combine together fresh manure and wood ash. This compound leads to a decrease in nitrogen. The result is a mineral compound that the plant is unable to absorb.
- Until the first true leaflets form on the seedlings, the use of wood ash is unacceptable. But nitrogenous fertilizers are suitable for seedlings at this stage of their development.
- For the cultivation of cabbage and beans using acidic soils. And everyone knows that with ashes such lands are never enriched.
- Simultaneous use of ashes and nitrogen fertilizers is unacceptable. They are best used at different times of the year. So, for example, in the autumn, use nitrogen fertilizers. And in the spring to fertilize the earth with wood ashes. You can, of course, and vice versa. But the ash is easily washed out of the ground by rain and snow. Therefore, it is worth considering what fertilizer to make in the fall, and what to leave in the spring.
- To feed the land, it is necessary to mix the ashes with the ground when the seedlings are planted. This must be done so that the roots of the plants do not get burned. The same rule should be followed when it comes time to plant cucumbers, zucchini and nightshade.
On those plots of land on which the PH is more than seven, the fertilizer is not made with ash. If there is a lot of alkali in the soil, then the plants are not able to completely take nutrients from the earth. Mixing fresh vegetable compost with ash will not bring anything good. Since nitrogen in sufficient quantities can not accumulate in this environment.
Read more about feeding ash here:
This organic fertilizer is rich in various micronutrients. Some of them catalyze growth and development, others help to fight various diseases. Concentration may be higher or lower than stated. The formula below can be oriented to understand what substances in the approximate ratio contained in this organic fertilizer.
The composition of wood ash:
- CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) - 17%
- CaSiO3 (calcium silicate) - 16.5%
- CaSO4 (calcium sulfate) - 14%
- CaCl2 (calcium chloride) - 12%
- K3PO4 (potassium orthophosphate) - 13%
- MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate) - 4%
- MgSiO3 (magnesium silicate) - 4%
- MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate) - 4%
- NaPO4 (sodium orthophosphate) -15%
- NaCl (sodium chloride) - 0.5%
From the presented formula it is clear that wood ash as a fertilizer contains one of the most important plant nutrients - calcium. It is necessary for the normal growth of green mass at the initial stage of development, and provides a balanced diet throughout the growing season. This is especially important for garden crops, which form a large above-ground part, for example, tomatoes, pumpkins, cucumbers.
When ash is used as a fertilizer, active growth is observed, and more compact (in terms of time) ripening of such members of the nightshade family, like tomatoes. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) affects the activity of metabolic processes. It enhances the rate of movement of substances in the cells of the plant organism, and normalizes the flow of biochemical processes. This property allows the use of ash as a fertilizer. This element is especially useful for flowers, as it affects the size and magnificence of the buds.
Cucumber fertilizer with ash, which contains a large amount of carbonate compounds of calcium, helps them to fully develop. This plant is characterized by the continuous growth of vegetative tissues, and Ca serves as a link in the transport of nutrients into cells.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3) - a substance that when combined with pectin constituents, glues the cells, holding them together. Helps to actively absorb vitamins. For example, onions very sharply reacts to a lack of CaSiO3. Drying and splitting of the bulb occurs. This situation can be corrected by watering the plant infusion of ash.
Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) - calcium salt of sulfuric acid. Included in the superphosphate, one of the most popular mineral fertilizers. When used in the composition of ash, it has a less strong, but more long-term effect on plants than in the composition of mineral supplements.
Calcium is especially important for seedling growth., in the period of formation of green mass, for example, for flowers and greens, onions and parsley. With age, this element accumulates in the stems and leaves, and after its death it returns to the soil.
Calcium chloride (CaCl2). Many sources claim that wood ash does not contain chlorine. But, in accordance with the formula, we see that its composition includes calcium chloride. Is it dangerous for plants? It is safe to say no. The two ionic elements that enter this compound, on the contrary, are of great importance for healthy nutrition of fruit and vegetable crops.
Almost all the flora known to science uses chlorine to boost growth throughout the growing season. It is constantly contained in the green mass of fruit and vegetable crops in the amount of up to 1% of their total weight. In grapes and tomatoes, its content is somewhat higher.
Calcium chloride activates the formation of enzymes, as well as photosynthesis, helps to transfer nutrients. Rock salt helps to fully utilize a small supply of these substances if wood ash is used as a fertilizer.
Another useful feature of this chloride is that it increases the winter resistance of fruit trees and grape vines, which makes it possible to grow this heat-loving crop even in rather cold regions (Pskov, Leningrad Oblasts). It helps to maintain the uniformity of the soil, avoiding its swelling, which helps protect the roots from the penetration of cold air to them.
- Rotting apples laid for storage.
- Blackening fruit in tomatoes.
- Cracking carrots.
- Blackening and decay of potatoes, both during growth and during storage.
- Premature fall of grapes.
- Strawberry molding at a repeated harvest.
- The appearance of "black legs" in roses.
Due to its “drying” property, CaCl2 helps to defeat many diseases of agricultural crops caused by horse and stem rot. It is very useful for roses. Thanks to this element, the infusion of ash can be used not only for garden plants, but also for indoor plants, for healing the earth and preventing the growth of harmful microorganisms.
The presence of CaCl2 in the soil allows ammonium nitrate to be converted to a nitric acid salt, which is very useful for plant life. This is a very important aspect when fertilizing ashes with cucumbers, as they are sensitive to nitrogen deficiency.
Potassium orthophosphate (K3PO4). This substance helps regulate the water balance of the plant. With a lack of this substance in the leaves and roots of ammonia accumulates, which inhibits growth. Also, potassium salt of orthophosphoric acid helps to increase the winter hardiness of thermophilic plants, such as grapes. Potassium also creates a favorable alkaline environment for garden flowers such as roses, lilies and chrysanthemums.
Ash refers to fertilizers, which include three magnesium compounds, collectively acting on various metabolic processes in fruit and vegetable crops, as well as in cereals. This element, in some way, is a “partner” of potassium, they together participate in the production of energy by the plant organism.
Magnesium sulfate is involved in the formation of carbohydrates, which become the building material for starch and cellulose. For the core root system (in a rose, for example) the presence of magnesium in the fertilizer is very important, since it consumes it in a larger volume compared to the ground part.
The last item in the list, but not the last in importance. It activates a number of enzymes that do not react with other substances from the chemical composition of the ash. For example, tomatoes belong to natherfil, plants that react positively to sodium, especially when they are not sufficiently supplied with potassium. is he improves their water balance.
When should ash be used?
Various chemical trace elements that should be part of healthy plants are contained in this organic compound. Their lack of a negative impact on the development and growth, leads to the occurrence of diseases.
As we found out above, The main element that is contained in the ashes in various compounds is calcium.
Signs of calcium deficiency:
- Depigmentation of leaves from houseplants (they acquire a white color).
- The deformation of the leaves (the tips are bent down, the edges twist up).
- On the solanaceous stalks fall down.
- Dark spots appear on the fruits of tomatoes.
- On the apple tree die the upper parts of the shoots, the taste of the fruit deteriorates.
- On tubers and stalks of potatoes and onions, areas of dead tissue are formed.
The second most important substance that must be used for normal plant life is potassium.. It is contained in the ash in a much smaller volume than calcium, but in sufficient quantity to normalize the metabolic processes in the plant organism. If it is not enough, then this can be understood by certain changes in appearance.
Signs of potassium deficiency:
- On fruit trees, the leaves wither prematurely, but at the same time firmly hold on the branches.
- Roses stop smelling.
- On the potatoes and solanaceous begin to dry the edges of the sheet, then it rolls up into a tube.
Another element of the composition - magnesium. It is a forming element that allows the production of hydrocarbons. With its deficiency, the plant is inhibited, and its active development ceases. With its deficiency, the same symptoms appear as with a lack of potassium. Sodium is a conditionally useful substance, so its small amount in the composition of the fraction, when using wood ash as fertilizer, can be ignored.
A few examples where the use of ash is contraindicated.
Excess fertilizer, even organic, can lead to no less negative consequences than their lack. The use of wood ash as a fertilizer should be excluded on soils with high alkalinity. The following changes in plants can indicate an increased pH:
Signs of excess calcium:
- Excessive growth of leaf rosettes in grapes and apple trees.
- Dying off the shoots along the length of the whip tomatoes.
- Leaf fall in garden flowers.
- Interstitial chlorosis with whitish spots in rose bushes.
- Depigmentation of the leaves (they become white).
Signs of potassium excess:
- Browning the pulp of apples and pears.
- Bitter pitting fruits.
- Premature abscission of leaves of garden and indoor plants.
Ash in the garden - what, when and how to feed her?
Let us dwell on the plants, which are most of all shown to use ash as a top dressing.
Эта бахчевая культура, успешно районированная в средней полосе, потребляет множество различных питательных элементов на всем протяжение своего роста и развития. Кальций и калий, которые помогают применять золу в качестве удобрения, отвечают за образование плетей и завязей. Именно эти вещества помогают задерживать воду в клетках. Удобрение огурцов золой необходимо, так как это растение, которое постоянно нуждается в нормальном водном балансе.
How to fertilize cucumbers?
The first way to make fertilizer from ash is to sprinkle a bed with a thin layer of this substance before watering. All useful substances are absorbed subsequently with water. The second method is more laborious, but allows you to create a composition that will have more nutrients. This is an infusion of ash, which is done like this: 3 tablespoons of powder is poured with a liter of water and drawn for a week. After that, they are brought under the plant, followed by abundant watering. The consumption rate of the solution for ash-cucumber fertilizer is 0.5 liters per bush.
This culture is prone to root rot. Ash refers precisely to those fertilizers that prevent the growth of putrefactive bacteria in the soil. Onions can be fertilized in the same way as cucumbers, pollinating the ground before irrigation, or use ash infusion (prepared in the same proportion as for feeding cucumbers).
Apply dressing should be no more than three times per season. You can also make this fertilizer before spring digging beds. This will protect the onions from diseases at the initial stage of growth, and help them to stock up on trace elements necessary for further development.
There is another way to make this feeding. It is very convenient to use it on the onion beds. These are grooves that are made with the help of a hoe along the rows with a bow. An infusion of ash is poured into them, and immediately filled up with soil.
If wood ash as a fertilizer is used for top dressing of tomato bushes, then within a week after application, their growth can be observed. These plants love calcium and potassium. They need them for the formation of stocks of moisture in the fleshy stems, and the formation of high-grade juicy fruits.
This organic fertilizer is applied to the soil in the spring, a couple of weeks before planting the tomatoes. Consumption rate - 1 cup per well. It is advisable to feed when the earth warms to at least 15 degrees Celsius.
Feed tomatoes in the process of growth
Ash refers to fertilizers that can be applied throughout the growing season. Therefore, tomatoes can be fed and superficially. To do this, priprashivatsya ground in the hole, before watering, followed by loosening.
The ash improves the taste of tomatoes, they become juicy and sweet. Potassium, which is a part of it, enters into a series of chemical reactions, due to which fruit sugar, fructose is formed.
How to make a device for spraying ash infusion?
To do this, take a standard spray and a needle of medium size. We heat the knitting needle on an open flame (a gas stove will do), and we pierce new openings of a larger radius. Do not forget to shake the container before spraying, then the suspension will be evenly distributed over the leaves of the grapes.
In the autumn a large number of old vines accumulate in the vineyard. They are ideal for burning. This ash is used for the preparation of specific feeding, which takes into account the seasonal need of grapes for various nutrients.
For the complete dissolution of all the useful substances in the water it takes about three days, this is the approximate time of dissolution of magnesium. About 1 kg of ash is poured over 3 buckets of water, and this suspension is mixed several times daily. The resulting composition can be stored in a cool place for a month.
For use, it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 part of the working solution to five parts of water. For better adhesion to the leaves of the grapes, you can add chips of laundry soap to the resulting suspension.
In the first year of her stay at the new place, the queen of the garden does not need additional dressing. But the soil before planting roses can be prepared in advance by adding wood ash as a fertilizer during the autumn digging, to normalize the acidity of the soil.
Starting from the second year, successfully overwintering a rose begins to feed. This is mainly done by applying ready-made organic fertilizers. But you can also make fertilizer from ash.
For roses, both root and foliar dressing are used. For the first, the concentration of the substance in the aqueous solution is below - 100 g. powder to 10 liters of water. When foliar feeding, when the liquid is sprayed on the leaves of the plant, apply a concentration of 200 grams. 10 liters of water.
It is better to feed the roses in the evening, in the afternoon you can burn leaves and flowers under the rays of the scorching sun. For spraying applied herbal broom.
Infusion of ash, during the application must constantly stir. The fact is that phosphorus contained in this organic fertilizer tends to precipitate quickly on the bottom of the tank. If this happens, the plants will not receive it, and this is the most important trace element.
Wood ashes as fertilizer, is applied both to garden, and to houseplants. For example, it helps to fight root rot in tuberous begonias.
Cyclamen, geranium and fuchsia react well to substances in its composition. It must be added when transplanting these plants, based on their proportion of 2 tbsp. spoons on 1 liter of ready soil.
Also, it is possible to prepare fertilizer from ash for indoor plants with the help of sleeping tea. It activates growth in the winter time, helps to preserve the color of the leaves, and maintain flowering. Following this recipe, you need to mix 1 part ash with 1 part pressed tea leaves.
The use of ash as a fertilizer is useful for most garden and garden crops. A set of trace elements, which is part of it, ensures the growth and nutrition of the plant.
But this substance can be used not only as a top dressing. It helps to fight a large number of insect pests. When dusting or spraying the crops with ashes, one can observe the rapid death of such garden antagonists as the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (2 days), slugs, cruciferous fleas.
Another important argument for using ash is its availability. Every autumn in the garden there is what to burn from plant residues (tree branches, hay, straw, tops). Some amateur gardeners fit old barrels under the oven, then production takes place without loss of the ash fraction.
This fertilizer is of organic origin, which is very important for many gardeners. Applying it, you can not fear for their health and the health of their loved ones. Perhaps this is one of the most important arguments when choosing wood ash as a fertilizer.
What is useful in ash
Wood ash as a fertilizer is used due to its beneficial chemical composition. It contains calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and other substances that are necessary for the development and growth of plants.
The chemical composition of the ash is different, as it depends on the burning plant, from which it is obtained. Potato tops, grapevines, meadow grass in their ashes contain 40% potassium. Hardwood ash has a different composition, with calcium in the lead. Conifers are rich in phosphorus - up to 7% in composition.The composition of the ash includes more than 70 elements and 30 trace elements. At the same time, it does not contain chlorine, which makes it possible to fertilize cultures that do not tolerate it. The only element that plants need and does not occur in the ashes is nitrogen. All elements in this natural fertilizer are contained in a form that is best suited for plant absorption.
On what soils can ash be used
Ashes can be applied on different soils. Due to its properties, it improves its quality, provided proper application.Ash has the ability to loosen that can be used for heavy clay soil. By bringing ash into the soil in the fall, you can make it more loose. The calculation of the amount is based on the acidity of the soil and plants that are expected to grow on it. For 1 m², 100 to 800 g of ash can be applied.
Light sandy soils are usually fertilized with ashes in the spring. This is done so that the nutrients do not go deep into the earth with melt water. The introduction of ash in sandy soils is particularly good for their quality.
Ash is used to neutralize acidic soils, enrich with its help marsh, marsh-podzolic and gray forest soils. Only in saline soil is not recommended to make ash.
What plants can be fertilized with ashes
For many plants, ash is a storehouse of substances necessary for proper growth.
Ash is used to fertilize trees, vegetables, flowers.
For what kind of vegetables is wood ash:
- tomatoes, pepper, eggplant,
- cucumbers, squash, zucchini,
- onions, winter garlic,
- cabbage of different types
- carrot, parsley, beet, radish,
- peas, beans, dill, salad.
For trees, the elements of ash also bring many benefits. For the fertilization of trees, both dry ash and solutions with its content are used.
Ash is a very effective fertilizer, but if you use it together with humus, compost, manure and peat, you can further increase its productivity. The benefits of this fertilizer can be extracted at different stages of plant life - in preparing the soil for planting, preparing seeds, planting plants, and feeding them.
Before planting many plants, it is useful to bring ashes into the ground. During digging before planting potatoes make 1 cup of ash per 1 m². The same amount is required for cucumbers, squash, zucchini. To prepare the soil for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants make 3 cups of ash per 1 m².
Before planting cabbage for different varieties, you may need 1-2 glasses of ash per 1 m². Carrots, parsley beets and radishes on such an area require 1 cup of ash, as well as peas, beans, radishes, lettuce and dill.
For winter digging, before planting onions and winter garlic, add 1 cup of ash per m².
Before sowing seeds of different plants, they can initially be processed with microelements. Such enrichment of seed substances produced before sowing peas, tomatoes, sweet peppers, carrots. This manipulation accelerates the ripening of the crop, increases it.
Before sowing, seeds are treated with ash for 12-24 hours. It is diluted in the amount of 20 g in 1 liter of warm water, insisted for 1-2 days, then the seeds are soaked in this solution for 6 hours.
Planting plantsWhen planting plants can also use ashes. There are different methods for sprinkling ashes on seedlings. Ashes fall asleep in the wells before planting in the amount of 1-3 tbsp. spoons. When planting shrubs, you can use a glass of this fertilizer, and for trees and large bushes use 1-2 kg of ash in one hole.
When planting plants, it is recommended to mix ashes with the soil, as this makes it possible to extend its effect to the future root system. Also, mixing ash and soil will prevent the plant from getting burned, possible by direct contact.
Growing and already developed plants are fed to make them better fruited. Top dressing can be made by ashes in a different look.
To feed strawberries with ash, you need to loosen the soil sprinkled with ash at the rate of 2 cups of ash per 1 m². In the second year of life of this plant, such feeding will be very useful. More popular solutions for feeding strawberries, which are used in different seasons.Potatoes are also fed with ashes - at the first hilling, 1-2 st. spoons ash. When the stage of budding begins, a second earthing up is performed, at which you can add half a cup of ash to each bush.
For spring dressing of garlic and onions with embedding in the soil make 1 glass of fertilizer per 1 m².
Ash is a good feeding for berries, vegetables, trees. For the latter, the impact of fertilizer lasts up to 4 years.
When ash cannot be used
Even organic fertilizers have contraindications. Soil ash should not be used in conjunction with bird droppings, manure (promotes nitrogen volatilization), superphosphate, nitrogen mineral fertilizers (provokes the release of ammonia and damages plants). Ash in alkaline soils with PH from 7 also does not apply.
Ash should be mixed with the soil and avoid direct contact with the roots of the plant. Due to the fact that the ash contains salts that are undesirable for young shoots, it is impossible to fertilize seedlings with it until at least 3 leaves appear.There are plants that prefer acidic soil - a fern, magnolia, camellia, azalea, hydrangea, blueberry, turnip, pumpkin, sorrel, beans and others. They should not be fertilized with ash, as it lowers the acidity of the soil.
An excess of ash, which, in fact, is caustic alkali, can lead to the death of soil bacteria, earthworms and other beneficial representatives of the soil fauna. Restoration of a normal population in the ground is very slow and difficult, so do not abuse this fertilizer.
Ash from diseases and pests
To control pests used infusion of ash for spraying. The recipe for this is: pour 300 g of sifted ash with boiling water and boil for 20-30 minutes. The resulting decoction should be left to settle, then strain and add water to get 10 liters of infusion. In this infusion add 40-50 g of soap. The resulting infusion of ash is recommended to be used in dry weather in the evening. Its impact will help get rid of the apple tree-mottle, the Colorado potato beetle, the bud moth, the larva larvae and the moth.
In addition to spraying, you can dust the plants from pests. This procedure will be both the prevention and treatment of diseases and eliminates the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, cruciferous flea.
Dry ash is used to scare away ants from the garden, snails and slugs.
The ash introduced into the soil has a beneficial effect on growing crops for years. Your garden plants will gratefully accept this fertilizer.
What is wood ash
Considering what wood ash consists of, it can be seen that this type of fertilizer contains almost all the most necessary elements for the complete nutrition of vegetable plants:
There is no nitrogen in wood ash - it evaporates along with sulfur during combustion. It is not recommended to mix ashes with nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen will turn into ammonia and will not bring any benefit to the plants. But along with the beneficial micronutrients, substances remain in the fertilizer that can help neutralize the acidity of the soil.
The chemical composition of wood ash also includes sodium, zinc, copper and other useful substances. The ratio of these elements in the ashes depends on the type and age of the burnt plants. For example, in the ash from deciduous trees a higher content of potassium than in coniferous species. But in conifers - more fluoride. Fertilizer obtained from young trees or their branches will be more nutritious.
What is the value of wood ash fertilizer?
Ash obtained from burning wood has a lot of useful properties, it is:
- enriches the soil with beneficial trace elements,
- normalizes soil acidity,
- strengthens the immune system of plants
- improves their survival rate.
Due to the significant content of the elements necessary for the full development of garden crops, the ash makes it possible to dispense with additional fertilizers with microelements. Its use allows to improve the yield and quality of vegetable plants.
Substances included in the composition of wood ash are completely dissolved in water, while not forming hazardous compounds. This contributes to their rapid absorption by vegetable crops.
What fertilizers is ash compatible with?
Wood ash, as a fertilizer, can be used alone or with some other nutrients.
A good top dressing will be a mixture of wood ash with peat. It will include all the essential trace elements necessary for vegetables for proper development. For its preparation you will need to combine the ash with peat in a ratio of 1: 3. The components are thoroughly mixed, and the mixture itself is evenly distributed over the ridges.
Ash from wood chips can be added to the compost. It helps to create excellent conditions for the existence of humus microorganisms involved in the processing of rotting plants. Due to its alkaline properties, it reduces the acidity of the medium, which allows the material to decompose faster. It is not recommended to add ashes to the compost if they are fertilized with neutral or alkaline soil.
Fighting with pests and various diseases, wood ash is used along with herbal decoctions and infusions. Such compounds will help get rid of:
- from mealy dew,
- black legs
- aphids, flea beetles and wireworms,
- Colorado potato beetle larvae.
Cultures are treated with solutions in the morning and evening.
When ash is used as a fertilizer
Most wood ash will benefit the garden, when added to the soil in the spring. So he lasts longer in the ground. It is possible to apply fertilizer both during digging, and into prepared pits for planting. In autumn, it can be added during digging the garden only in heavy soils. From light soils useful elements are quickly washed out.
Древесный пепел используется для удобрения земли при нехватке в грунте калия, кальция и магния. Признаки недостатка этих элементов следующие:
- желтеют края листовых пластин у растений, затем они покрываются пятнами и деформируются,
- отмечается опадание завязей на пасленовых культурах,
- плоды томатов покрываются пятнами.
Before making fertilizer from burnt wood, you should know which plants like wood ash the most. These are cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cabbage, zucchini and potatoes. But it should be borne in mind that each of these plants needs a different amount of nutrients. For example, less wood ash is used to fertilize cucumbers than under tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants.
When not to use ash
Do not mix wood ash or add it to the soil along with nitrogenous fertilizers and superphosphate. It does not apply to soils treated with lime. It makes no sense to apply it with manure, slurry, chicken droppings. Between top dressing of vegetable crops with these nutrient mineral and organic substances and ashes should pass at least 1 month.
IMPORTANT! It is not recommended to use wood ash as a fertilizer for young seedlings. It has a negative effect on its development, because there are salts here, which depress young saplings and their root system.
Ash is not suitable for fertilizer if it is obtained from trees that grew near busy highways, enterprises with hazardous production, in a radioactive zone. After all, there may contain harmful substances that growing plants will absorb along with useful trace elements.
Charcoal as a fertilizer for the garden is practically not used. After all, there are few available nutrients. It can only enrich the soil with calcium. It will be much more useful to burn it and use the resulting ash as a fertilizer. Most often it is used for indoor plants, because it can help make the soil more friable and protect the roots of plants from rotting, acting as an antiseptic.
The use of wood ash in the garden is possible in several variations:
- in crumbly form - just before irrigation, under the digging, in the wells for planting,
- in the form of a solution - as a liquid fertilizer, for irrigation from harmful insects and other misfortunes.
IMPORTANT! It should be borne in mind that sprinkle the beds with ashes should be in calm weather, in the absence of wind. Otherwise, the ash will be blown away from the site.
Calculating the amount of wood ash to enrich the garden soil, you need to take into account the acidity of the earth. On average, add one hundred to one hundred fifty grams of ash per m². It should be sprinkled with a layer of substrate 8 cm high. The fertilizer applied will have a positive effect on the development of plants for three to four years. In the landing wells add 1-2 tbsp. l substances. However, be aware that the seedlings of some crops cannot be placed directly in the ashes.
So, planting solanaceous crops, in the wells you can add a small amount of ash mixed with the ground. The mixture should be sprinkled on top of the soil and only then put the seedlings there. Roots should not have direct contact with the ashes. This is fraught with burns, adversely affecting the further development of cultivated plants.
The wood ash solution for fertilizer is consumed in half a liter for each bush. To cook it you will need:
- 1 cup of wood ash,
- 10 liters of water
- Suitable capacity.
Wood ash is thoroughly mixed with water. Infused fertilizer for 1 week. The mixture is periodically mixed. The resulting solution is used at all stages of crop development with a time interval of 2 weeks.
To make it easier to calculate the amount of ash, use the table: