Safflower is an annual herbaceous plant up to 100 cm high, the cultivation of safflower is used for technical purposes and for consuming sunflower oil in taste. Margarine is made from safflower oil, in agriculture seeds are used as a good feed for poultry. Features of safflower cultivation, safflower crops are placed after winter crops, soil preparation for sowing is the same as under sunflower, safflower sowing is started early as the shoots withstand frosts up to 6 degrees. soil composition and ranges from 10 to 12 kg per 1 ha, the weight of 1000 grains ranges from 20 to 50 grams. The depth of embedding of safflower seeds is 5–6 cm, but depends on the composition and soil moisture, on soils with insufficient moisture, the embedding depth of seeds increases about 8 cm. Care for planting safflower consists in harrowing and processing between rows from 2 to 4 loosening. The flowering of the steppe variety of this plant begins in the middle terms:
- Its primary branch is of medium length. This plant has very few spines, which provides a lot of amenities while caring for it. The achene of this plant is made in white color and has a medium size.
The vegetation period of the safflower of the steppe is 115 days. This plant is characterized by resistance to drought, shattering and lodging. The steppe safflower is poorly susceptible to diseases, which makes its cultivation the most profitable.
- This basket can have a diameter of 2.5 to 3 centimeters. A single plant of this variety can have from 10 to 25 baskets at a time. The leaves of this plant are covered with small needles. Flowers of the sun safflower are characterized by a yellow-orange color.
At the end of flowering petals of this plant become red in color. The fruit of this plant is in the form of a seed, which in its appearance resembles a sunflower seed. When seeds ripen, they do not crumble, which allows for a more complete harvest. Professor Mashanov Safflower has:
- This plant has very few spines, which provides a lot of amenities while caring for it. The fruit of this plant is in the form of a seed, which in its appearance resembles a sunflower seed. This plant is characterized by resistance to drought, shattering and lodging.
Features of growing plants
Safflower belongs to the category of heat-loving plants, which requires its planting in well-lit and warm places. This plant is quite resistant to drought, and therefore does not require regular watering.
Seed germination after safflower planting takes place at a soil temperature of 2-3 degrees. In order to get the seedlings faster, this plant needs to provide a soil temperature of 4-6 degrees.
Safflower is characterized by an increased level of demand for heat during flowering and ripening. Spraying of this plant is done with the help of insects. The most productive assistants in this business are bees.
This is because the flowers have a tubular shape. This allows the bee to easily penetrate to each flower. Also, this plant is able to pollinate independently.
Independent pollination significantly reduces the level of yield.
- Preparation of the field for safflower should be done using the same technology as preparation of the field for any spring crop that is sown in the early period. This plant is characterized by the lack of rigor to its predecessors. In order to ensure a high yield of this plant, it is best to plant it after spring or winter crops. Safflower is also very well growing and developing after row crops. If necessary, this plant can be planted after rapeseed, flax or corn. Phytosanitary considerations state that planting safflower after sunflower or in one place is strictly prohibited annually. After planting a given plant in one place, this action can be repeated only after 4-5 years.
After safflower, you can grow fodder, grains and other crops, which will significantly increase the level of their yield. The planting of this plant should be carried out simultaneously with the spring grains.
In the event that you are late with the term of sowing safflower, it will significantly reduce its yield. Safflower should be planted in the ground to a depth of no more than 5-6 centimeters.
- Safflower must be cleaned only when it is fully ripe. This is determined by the complete yellowing of all plants and baskets and seed ripening. In the event that crops are littered with weeds, the harvesting can be carried out by the conveyor method. After harvesting, the seeds go through a stage of purification and drying (humidity should be 12 percent).
The seeds of this plant are rather difficult to separate from the sunflower. From all other seeds, safflower seeds are very easy to separate. The seeds of this plant are not able to secrete a sticky resin, which limits it from the possibility of gluing.
Diseases and pests of safflower
Safflower is quite unpretentious plant in the care. Despite this, it can be damaged by various diseases and pests. The most common plant diseases are rust and Ramulariasis. Safflower rust is caused by rust fungi:
- This disease is characterized by the presence of pustules on the affected organs, which have a different size and shape. When cracking, a rusty powder, which consists of spores of the fungus, spills out of the plant. The presence of this disease is indicated by the presence of convex concentric spots that have a rust-brown color. These spots are located on the underside of the leaves. On the upper sides of the leaf, these spots are projected into specks of light yellow color. If a given plant is severely affected by a disease, petals may begin to fall from it. The causative agents of this disease can be carried by the wind, which indicates its rapid spread.
In order to destroy the disease, it is necessary to destroy the intermediate rust hosts. In order to destroy overwintering uredos and teyletospores, they make a deep tillage of the earth before planting the plant. In order to increase plant resistance to this disease, it is necessary to carry out appropriate agrotechnical measures, as well as to clean the seeds with fungicides. It is also necessary to spray the plant itself after the blooming of the leaves with fungicides. Radiariasis can affect the old leaves of the plant:
- The disease affects the plant in the form of spots that appear on the edges of the leaf. Sizes of spots first have a light green color, which later turns into a grayish-white color. The diameter of the spots can be from 4 to 7 millimeters. Spots have an irregular shape. They can be with a border or without it. The border may have a red or dark brown color. In order to save the plant from this disease, it is necessary to produce annual plowing of the land, as well as to treat the seeds and the plant itself with fungicides.
As for pests, these plants can be affected by wireworms or shovels. These pests can affect not only safflower, but other plants as well. Specific pests of this plant are safflower fly and sage scoop.
- It belongs to the category of lepidoptera. These butterflies winter in the upper layers of the soil. That is why before planting a plant it is necessary to process the soil with fungicides. The most active butterflies melt after sunset. Initially, these pests skeleton safflower leaves from the bottom, and then gnaw holes in them of various sizes. To prevent damage to the plant by this pest, it is necessary to observe crop rotation and spatially isolate the crops.
- It belongs to the category of two-winged insects, whose length is 4-5 millimeters. Females of this insect lay their eggs in the inflorescences of safflower, and feed on its fruits and ovaries. To combat this pest it is necessary to produce early planting of this plant. Before flowering, it is also necessary to destroy all wild-growing safflower, which grows nearby crops. You can also use insecticides to combat this pest. Spraying is performed during the budding of the plant.
Safflower is pretty useful plant. Oil is extracted from it. Proper care of this plant will provide him with a very good yield. This plant is unpretentious to weather conditions.
It easily endures drought, which does not affect the level of its yield. Thanks to such indicators, safflower dyeing is popular with many agricultural enterprises. More information can be found in the video.
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Method of growing safflower
Inventor name: Dushkov V. Yu., Chekalin S. G. The name of the patent holder: Dushkov Vladimir Y., Chekalin Sergey G. Correspondence address: 103009, Moscow, p / 184, for the PPF "YUS", S.Lovtsov Starting date of the patent: 1999.04.02 The invention is intended for use in agriculture and home gardens during the development of saline and alkaline lands. The method includes sowing safflower seeds in saline soil, which uses soil containing from 50 to 60 wt.% Saline alkaline solonetz and from 20 to 30 wt.% Saline alkaline light chestnut soils, the rest is meadow-chestnut soil, while sown from 18 to 20 kg / ha of seeds with an interrow distance of not more than 0.3 m. The invention allows to involve dry steppe and semi-desert zones in productive land use, to obtain oilseeds and highly productive feed for livestock.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The know-how of development, namely, this invention of the author relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to the methods of cultivation of an agricultural crop - safflower, and can be used in the development of saline and alkaline lands.The agricultural development of severely arid regions with unfavorable soil conditions, especially saline, where irrigation is limited due to possible secondary salinization, necessitated the selection of crops and the development of methods of their cultivation, ensuring the organization of production with obtaining liquid and profitable products on reclaimed soils.
Oilseed safflower - safflower can be used as such a crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the sources of world production of vegetable oil. Safflower is known to be a characteristic member of the xerophyte family. Safflower is a heat-loving and very drought-resistant plant, well adapted to the dry continental climate.
To the soil safflower is undemanding. It can even grow on saline soils (see Crop production, edited by P. P. Vavilova, Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1986, p. 402). It is also known that safflower can also be used as a fodder plant.
There is a method of growing safflower on rainfed lands (see Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry named after N. I. Vavilov, vol.
232, St. Petersburg, 1993, p. 34 - 40, E. N. Ivanchenko et al. "Perspective samples of safflower for feed use). In accordance with a known method, early-spring, wide-row seeding with 70 cm row spacing was carried out on a conditional bogar. However, the conditions of a known cultivation method, in particular wide-row spacing of 70 cm, do not prevent the growth of weeds between the rows, which requires additional costs for subsequent cultivation. A method of growing safflower is also known, including sowing seeds in saline soil (V. G. Kartamyshev et al. "Studying safflower and in the Rostov region. "
Herald of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, N 2, 1997, p. 42). The source of information describing the known method does not show the characteristics of soil salinity, and also does not reflect the means allowing to grow safflower in conditions of highly saline and alkaline soils. The solution to which the present invention is directed is to develop a method of growing safflower that ensures a steady collection of this crops when sowing on saline soils. The technical result of the invention is the involvement in the dry land of the steppe and semi-desert in the productive use of land, obtaining oil seed and highly productive feed for livestock. The above problem of the invention with the achievement of the technical result is solved by the fact that in a known method of growing safflower, including sowing seeds of safflower in saline soil, as saline soil use soil containing: from 50 to 60 wt.% saline salt licks and from 20 to 30 wt. % saline alkaline light chestnut soils, the rest is meadow chestnut soils, while sowing sow 18 to 20 kg of seeds per 1 ha with placement of seeds with an inter-row distance of not more than 0.3 m. Solonchak salt marsh, which are not only salted, but also solonets are the worst component of the solonets complex.
Within the Russian Federation, extensive areas with the inclusion of saline soils of over 60% do not exist. Solonet complex, comprising from 50 to 60 wt.% Solonchak solonets and from 20 to 30 wt.% Saline solonetsous light chestnut soils (in total about 85% of saline soils) is practically the worst representative, and significant in the area of semi-desert soils.
A way to grow strawberries all year round
Within the limits of the former USSR, this complex occupies about 2.9 million hectares. The above limits on seeding safflower are due to the following. A decrease in the seeding rate below 18 kg / ha leads to a significant decrease in yield, slowing down the processes of soil melioration, in particular, its settlement and desolining.
An increase in the seeding rate over 20 kg / ha is also impractical because of a possible reduction in yield, as well as for economic reasons. Increasing the row spacing over 0.3 m leads to the need for additional treatment of row spacing from weeds. It was established experimentally that when sowing safflower in rows with row spacing not exceeding 0.3 m, such additional processing (cultivation) is not required, since weed growth in such row spacing is insignificant due to the suppression of their growth by safflower.
The lower limit of the row spacing is determined by economic considerations and, as a rule, is from 0.1 to 0.15 m. As an additional technical result of the invention, it can be pointed out that the described method of growing safflower along with the technique of leaving high stubble for the winter provides moisture accumulation in the amount of from 100 to 150 m3 / ha. This increases the yield of subsequent crops of crop rotation and contributes to the acceleration of the processes of dispersal and rasolontsevany soil.
An example implementation of the method of growing safflower
Sowing of safflower was carried out on representative worst soils in terms of salinity and alkalinity: 50% by weight of alkaline solontsy, 25% by weight of alkaline light chestnut and 25% by weight of meadow-chestnut soils. Safflower seeds had a purity of at least 95% and germination of at least 85%.
Seeding was made in the early stages. The seeds were sown with 0.3 m inter-row spacing. The seeding rate is 18-20 kg / ha. The table shows comparative data on the yield of mustard and safflower sown in accordance with the above method on the soils of the reclaimed solonet complex. The drawing shows a diagram illustrating the comparative data on the yield of oilseeds: mustard and safflower, on medium loamy - slightly salty, light chestnut soils, and on loamy and light loamy poor, light chestnut soils.
As follows from the diagram, safflower showed significant advantages over highly profitable, traditionally used drought-and salt-resistant oil crops - Sarepta mustard. , 3 m without the use of fertilizers and herbicides had almost the same, relatively high yield of oilseeds (9.5 - 9.2) ± 1.6 q / ha. In poor, sandy and light loamy soils, the yield of crops relative to the standard decreased by safflower by 1.8 times (5.0 ± 0.7 centner / ha), and by mustard it was 4.8 times stronger (2.0 ± 1, 1 centner / ha), i.e., on lightweight, poor, poorly moisture-holding safflower soils, due to the deeper root system, provided itself with moisture and nutrition better, as a result, it was 2.5 times more productive than mustard.
On the soils of the reclaimed solonetz complex, the yield of oilseeds decreased less than on light soils. In addition, in relation to the mustard, safflower showed higher drought tolerance and better adaptation to adverse soil conditions. Сафлор выдержал катастрофическую засуху 1998 года, при полной гибели горчицы и всех других культур, в Заволжье он дал урожай на солонцеватом комплексе по стерне 1,5 ц/га.
В условиях полупустыни на почвах мелиорируемого солонцового комплекса при рядовом посеве с нормой от 18 до 20 кг/га и междурядных расстояниях 0,3 м сафлор обеспечивает урожай 5,3 ц/га, в то время как горчица дает только 3,6 ц/га (см. таблицу). It should also be pointed out that when sowing safflower and mustard with an inter row spacing of 0.3 m, no additional cultivation of crops was carried out. Thus, the proposed invention provides a solution to the problem with the achievement of the above technical result. The present invention can be best used in agriculture and garden land in rainfed conditions dry steppe and semi-desert.
The method of growing safflower, including sowing the seeds of safflower in saline soil, characterized in that as saline soil using soil containing from 50 to 60 wt.% Saline alkaline solonetz and from 20 to 30 wt.% Saline alkaline light brown chestnut soils, the rest is meadow - chestnut soils, while sowing sowed from 18 to 20 kg of seeds per 1 ha with placement of seeds with an interrow distance of not more than 0.3 m.
Now here sit and think what to buy and sow safflower or chickpeas? If the respected community resolves, then I will explain some of my thoughts on this matter. Chickpea Bean culture. Like all legumes can take nitrogen into the soil from the atmosphere.
But for this, you will probably need his infection with bacteria. In nature, for chickpeas, such as for peas, there are no bacteria. Chickpea is drought-resistant, but not very productive.
It does not sufficiently cover the soil with its above-ground mass. And, in conditions of normal moisture supply, chickpeas cannot compete with weeds. It can only be protected with anti-cloud herbicides.
Chickpeas requires a fairly clean agrofone. In the conditions of the Sumy region, it will probably be hard to keep chickpea crops in its pure form. Using drought-resistant chickpea, it is therefore grown in the southern regions.
Safflower. The culture is also drought resistant. According to the information in this topic, safflower well controls the development of weeds. When sowing it in a continuous way.
For some reason, safflower crops are being explored only in the southern regions. Can someone respond from our zone, who was engaged in this culture? I would like to try.
Question on this topic to the experienced. He was already in the subject. But left unanswered. According to the usual technology of obtaining sunflower oil, is it possible to obtain safflower oil? I am also attracted by safflower as a honey plant.
At the time of its flowering just bee families have already developed sufficiently. What may have a positive effect on pollination of this culture. And that means on the yield.
I judge this as a former beekeeper who gave this occupation more than twenty years.
The smell of fresh stubble, I carry in my life, And the grain is at bestark, as in childhood I carry. -------------------------------------------------- ---------
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Safflower. This word translated from Arabic means "to paint." Safflower - a beautiful annual plant, belongs to the family of Compositae. In its inflorescences contains a coloring element - cartamin. If the flower is immersed in water, it becomes yellow, and if in alcohol, then red. Thanks to such properties, safflower is called dyeing. They call it still dye thistle, American saffron, wild saffron. He was known and used in ancient Egypt, but Afghanistan and Ethiopia are considered to be his homeland.
In the territories of the CIS it can be found in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, in the Astrakhan region, Saratov, as well as in the Crimea. He is not afraid of drought, heat. In addition to dyeing substances, safflower has excellent oil properties. Even a drying plant contains up to 40% of an oily substance. Therefore, it is used not only as a paint, but also used to obtain oil. In taste, it resembles sunflower oil, only has a slight bitter taste.
The use and benefits of safflower
Safflower has many advantages:
Make butter, not inferior in taste and beneficial properties of sunflower oil. It contains up to 80% linoleic acid (vitamin F). This acid can only be ingested with food, therefore, when safflower oil is included in the diet, cholesterol is removed from the body, and the body’s resistance to viral and chronic diseases increases.
Used as feed for livestock and birds, for hay, silage. It contains a large amount of fiber, protein, oil, sugar. When grown for silage, safflower is planted with sunflower.
Early honey plant. He begins to bloom one of the first. A lot of bees come to the smell of its flowers, which allows beekeepers to get an early rolling of honey - it is a good honey plant.
Found application in the technical field. It is well used in the manufacture of linseed oil, varnishes, paints, linoleum, used for the manufacture of soap.
Due to dyesIt is well practiced in the chemical and textile industries for dyeing various materials.
Used in medicine: with diseases of gastritis, peptic ulcer, jaundice, cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
In cosmetology without it, too, do not do. In the safflower oil there is vitamin “K”, due to which the skin regeneration process takes place. It is used to make protective tanning creams.
Florists. Safflower gained excellent use and popularity among flower lovers and manufacturers of beautiful bouquets.
Safflower petals brewed tea. It acts as a sedative and allows you to forget about your pain.
Safflower is an annual plant, but may be biennial. The root of a plant can “sink” to a depth of 2 meters, pivotal with large branches. The plant itself reaches a height of 1 meter. The stem is straight, shiny with a whitish tinge. The leaves resemble a scalpel. Closer to the stalk wider, and to the top - narrowed. Leaves are protected by spines or thorns. The plant itself looks like a thistle. The inflorescence resembles a basket about 4 cm in diameter. Depending on climatic conditions, there can be up to 50 such baskets on one plant, and up to 150 seeds themselves. The flowers are of different colors: white, yellow, red, orange, or combined color, for example, yellow-red. The flowers are tubular, small in size, with five separate petals. The fruit of the dyeing safflower is a seed, similar to the seed of a sunflower, the shell of the seeds is firm. Pollination of plants occurs due to the wind, sun, bees and other "workers" of nature. Selfing happens, but very rarely.
The process of sowing and growing safflower
The process and period of cultivation is almost the same as sunflower. Safflower is absolutely not demanding of the soil. He is not even very scary weeds. The previous "owners" of the soil for planting safflower can be cereals - both spring and winter crops, as well as fields after corn. Similarly, after the safflower, you can use the land for sowing crops. Re-planting safflower on the same field is possible after a 5-6 year break. Soil preparation for planting begins in the fall. It is necessary to make harrowing the soil, then plow it with the addition of special preparations. Safflower prefers nitrogenous fertilizers to the “taste” most of all. This procedure is necessary to preserve moisture, to destroy the remnants of the roots of weeds. The same procedure is produced in the spring.
Sowing safflower start at the earliest planting dates. Only with such planting dates does he give the best results for the harvest. It perfectly withstands freezing. Just as they prepare the soil for planting, preparation is also necessary for seeds. Before planting in the ground seeds must be pickled. To do this, use special preparations "Vincit" or "Maxim" for one or three months before sowing. This complex seed treatment will further prevent crop losses and protect the plant from diseases and pests of fields. Sowing seeds produce ordinary or wide-row methods with a distance between rows from 50 to 70 cm.
The first "upstarts" begin to appear on the surface already at a soil temperature of 2-3 degrees of heat. The period from sowing to harvesting is 3.5-4 months. The first shoots from the time of sowing can be seen already in 1-1.5 weeks. After 2-2.5 months safflower begins to bloom. And after 1-1.5 months you can see the seeds. Preserve livelihoods in dry hot weather safflower received due to its unusual properties. Its root grows twice as fast as the first leaf appears on the surface. Before the appearance of the 10th leaf, the plant develops very slowly. After this, the growth process takes place very quickly. The stalk stretches upwards, leaves begin to appear and after a short period of time a shrub up to 40 cm in diameter will be formed. The growth of lateral shoots continues, and bastards begin to appear. In the inflorescences is the formation of reed and tubular flowers. Safflower is also capable of preserving its livelihoods in dry times due to the thorns on its leaves.
Care of crops
Care for safflower crops does not deliver a lot of work and time. Although this plant is considered one of the earliest, and appears on the surface when the weeds have not yet managed to “crawl out”, this does not mean that it can grow on a “dirty” field. He also does not like this environment very much. Cultivation of the earth at planting seeds is one of the most necessary conditions for the good growth of any cultivated plant. In the process of growth, when the first 3-4 leaves appear, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil. Spraying with special preparations is not recommended. It is better to feed with a solution of water with the addition of manure. With the growth and strengthening of the plant in the future, no additional procedures can be carried out.
Harvesting from safflower fields is carried out with special combines. It can be carried out in two ways: direct combining and separate. The harvest begins when the safflower becomes yellow, and all the seeds are ripe and dry. If during harvesting there is a slight contamination of safflower by other plants, use the two-phase cleaning method. With this method, all the excess is easily “blown out”, and the safflower remains in the combine. Seeds in a safflower are kept very well and do not crumble, as they are in a dense beam. Therefore, the delay in cleaning does not threaten him. The harvest from this will not be lost.
After harvesting the safflower from the fields, they are taken to the cleaning and, if necessary, drying. Seed moisture should not exceed 12%. In this form, safflower is supplied for further processing for various types of industry.
Safflower is an annual herb of the Compositae family. In culture, one species is known - safflower dyeing (Carthamustin cforius). Safflower has a pivotal, well-branched root system, which penetrates to a depth of 2 m. The rapid growth of the root at the seedling stage and the slow growth of the leaf mass ensure its survival in arid climate. At the beginning of growth, the plant slowly forms 10–12 true leaves, after which the rapid formation and elongation of the stem, the branching of the plant begins. Due to the side shoots (from 3 to 15), the plants form a bush with a diameter of up to 20–45 cm. The side shoots continue branching, baskets are formed, as a result of which the density of crops is self-regulated.
The stalk of safflower is upright, bare, 85–95 cm high, although, according to our observations, under favorable conditions, the height of plants can reach 1.2–1.3 m. Dimorphism is clearly observed in the leaves of the plant. The lower leaves have a larger leaf blade, and the appearance of prickles on them occurs only in truly prickly varieties. Breeders created and thornless forms of plants, but the development of thorns on the leaves and leaves of the wrapper is a form of adaptation of this plant to particularly dry weather conditions. Upon completion of the juvenile period, the leaf blades become rigid and are covered with a wax protective layer, which ensures a low water consumption coefficient of 125–200 m3 / c.
Safflower inflorescence is a multi-flowered basket 2.5–3.5 cm in diameter. The average number of baskets per plant varies from 10 to 25 pcs. However, under favorable growing conditions on thinned crops, their number can reach 80 pcs. In the basket can form from 20 to 50 or more seeds. Even after full ripening, seeds do not crumble, and baskets do not fall off.
Fruit - achene resembling sunflower seed. Its shell is hard, difficult to break, is 40-50% of the mass of seeds. The mass of 1000 seeds of 20–50 g. Seeds when ripe do not crumble. From germination to the formation of 8–10 leaves for plants, the surface location of leaves (rosette) and the period of slow growth of the ground part are typical, which causes sensitivity to debris. Further, the rapid elongation of internodes begins (the phase of stalking), and the average daily linear increment exceeds 3 cm. The whole plant is prickly and the crops are not exposed to cattle.
Safflower is cross-pollinated by insects, especially bees, the growing season is 100–120 days.
An important advantage of safflower is its very deep root system, which is able to remove moisture from the deep layers of the soil. And due to the structure of its vegetative mass (like desert plants), it consumes moisture economically. For development, it needs significantly less moisture than other oilseeds. The plant is well adapted to the dry continental climate, it is not demanding to the soil, it can grow even in saline areas. The seedlings germinate at a soil temperature of 4–5º C and can withstand frosts down to –3 and –4º C. Safflower heat is particularly demanding during the flowering and maturation phases. In wet and overcast conditions, the flowers do not fertilize well, and the baskets rot.
Possible diseases of safflower: rust and ramulariasis (the disease appears as a spot on the leaves. The spots are yellow-brown or brown with a dark border, rounded).
As a result of the research, one of the most harmful diseases of the culture was revealed - Alternaria safflower Alternaria carthami Chowdhury. The disease develops during prolonged rains during flowering. The pathogen is conserved in plant debris and infected seeds.
Safflower pests can be wireworms and shovels damaging other oilseeds. Specific pests of safflower - sage scoop and safflower fly. Crop rotation can reduce the risk of pests.
Advantages over sunflower
Where the sunflower suffers from drought, it is much more profitable and safer from an economic point of view to sow safflower. Safflower has other advantages, for example, its seeds are white and well protected by the leaves of the basket wrap and usually do not have such attractiveness for wild birds. Safflower starts blooming earlier than sunflower and its flowering period is more stretched - it lasts a whole month. Safflower, unlike sunflower, does not emit a sticky resin, and therefore the seeds, after cleaning, do not contain even adherent seedlings of ambrosia and other malicious weeds. Safflower oil contains much more linoleic acid than sunflower oil and more vitamin E than other types of vegetable oils.
The best predecessor for safflower are steam, winter and spring crops. The field must be clear of stalk weeds with which safflower does not compete.
Safflower itself is considered a good predecessor for spring crops. Despite the fact that its roots penetrate to a greater depth, it dries the soil less than the sunflower.
Soil treatment for safflower is the same as for grain crops, i.e. minimum or zero.
Safflower sown in the earliest terms. Before the start of planting crops. According to the Bezenchuksky Experimental Station in 1930, the harvest of safflower during sowing at an early date was 12.1 c / ha, and at sowing after 10 days - 8.8 c / ha. Studies conducted at the Aktyubinsk Experimental Station showed the advantage of crops carried out in the early stages. In the flowering phase, safflower plants of the early sowing period were provided with moisture 20–25 mm more than plants of the late sowing period. With early sowing, safflower plant development takes place at lower air temperatures. At this time, late weeds (mice, shchiritsa) still do not even germinate. The level of infestation of early crops of safflower is 1.5–2 times lower than average and late crops.
The moisture supply and contamination of safflower crops depended on the density of plant growth. With an increase in the seeding rate from 0.3 to 0.8 million units / ha, the contamination decreased from 50 to 37 units / m2.
The seeding depth is 5–6 cm, and with insufficient soil moisture of 7–8 cm. The scientific literature describes wide-row sowing methods, with 45 and 60–70 cm spacing. However, safflower can be sown with a simple, regular method with SZS-2,1 seed drills, UPC 2.1 with a row spacing of 23 cm. This is the way that safflower has been sown in Kostanay Research Institute of Agriculture for 6–7 years. The seeding rate is 0.6–0.8 million grains per 1 ha (30–40 kg / ha), and with an average sowing period - 0.5 million pcs / ha of germinating seeds. Displacement in one direction or another of the named fork is made depending on the conditions of moistening at the time of sowing. Under favorable conditions of moistening, the maximum value is taken, at worst - the minimum. На семенных посевах можно брать нижний предел, на товарных – верхний.– – – К почвам нетребователен, может произрастать даже на солонцах. При соблюдении оптимального срока сева и нормы обладает хорошей конкурентной способностью: подавляет и угнетает многие однолетние и многолетние сорняки. Уход за посевами сафлора включает боронование по всходам. Гербициды на сафлоре пока еще не изучены. Фермеры, которые уже занимаются возделыванием сафлора, говорят, что они на сорняки в посевах сафлора внимания не обращают. Сафлор очень мощное растение и при нормальном травостое ни разу не наблюдалось его угнетения сорняками.According to research data, safflower crops, placed by a pair, were 2-3 times less littered than stubble crops. The number of weeds was 12–18 and 37–50 pcs / m2, respectively.
In the fight against perennial weeds, the effectiveness of soil herbicides introduced under pre-sowing cultivation is high. On average, for three years, the highest yield of 14.8–15.2 centners per hectare was observed when herbicides were applied Gezagard 500 (3 l / ha), Stomp (4 l / ha). When using drugs Goal 2E (1 l / ha), Dual Gold 960 EC (1.5 l / ha) and Gezagard and Harnes tank mixes (1.5 + 1 l / ha), the yield of safflower was 13.8–14, 4 c / ha. In case of significant contamination of crops with annual cereal weeds and carrion grains, it is advisable to use gramicicides, such as Fyuzilad Super 125 EC (1.5 l / ha), Select 120 (0.6 l / ha), Panther (1.1 l / ha) other.
When cultivating using zero technology, glyphosate (480 g / l) is sprayed with 1.5 l / ha + artstar 5 g / ha before sowing the field. Before sowing against diseases, seeds are treated with dressing agents premiums 200 0.2 l / t, cardon 1 l / t. A growth stimulator is added, for example, larixin 100 ml / ton to improve root development, enhance growth and branching.
Safflower is unpretentious to the fertility of the soil and when applying low rates of fertilizers it forms sufficiently high yields on nutrient-poor soils. In the southern chernozem, it is recommended to apply mineral fertilizers under the plowing in a dose of N30-45 P40-60 K15-45 on dark chestnut - N45-60 P30-45. It is advisable to set the rate of fertilizer calculation method, taking into account the content of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are better to be applied under the plowing, in the case of cultivation by bezotvalnoy technology - before disking. Small rates (20–30 kg / ha of active ingredient), as well as nitrogen fertilizers, are better to be introduced into presowing cultivation, and smaller ones (up to 20 kg / ha) - locally when sown.
Specific pests on safflower crops are few, mainly a safflower fly, the larvae of which penetrate into inflorescences and damage seed kernels. Safflower weevils and non-specific pests that damage safflower and sunflower are found. Possible damage plants aphids. Pest and disease control measures are the same as on sunflower: crop rotation, tillage, selection of resistant varieties and the use of insecticides.
The level of yield of safflower is directly dependent on the presence of soil moisture in the critical phase of its development attributable to branching-budding.
Safflower is harvested by direct combining at seed moisture of 10–12%. Cleaning safflower does not cause difficulties due to the fact that the seeds he does not showered. It begins with full ripeness of seeds, usually in late August. They start threshing when all the plants and baskets turn yellow, and the seeds harden. In case of a long re-planting, sowing may occur from the impact of the blades of the header on the stem of the plant. To prevent the winding of the stems on the threshing drum, they increase the cutting height, but not higher than 10 cm from the branch point of the lower productive shoot. To prevent seed breaking, the threshing drum speed should be reduced to 500–700 per minute. The openings of the upper sieve are set at 7–8 mm, and the bottom at 5–7 mm.
The collected seeds must undergo primary cleaning, and if necessary, drying to a moisture content of no more than 13%. Safflower seeds are difficult to separate only from sunflower, wheat and cocklebur, all other weeds are easily separated during cleaning. Safflower, unlike sunflower, does not emit a sticky resin and, therefore, the seeds after cleaning do not contain adherent seedlings of ambrosia and other malicious weeds.
The basic norms, according to which the calculation for safflower seeds to be harvested for industrial processing, is 13% humidity, weed content 2%, oil content 4%, pests of grain stocks are not allowed.
Biotechnology cultivation of safflower in the LLC "Kamyshinsky OPH"
- After harvesting winter wheat, Wil Rich cultivating to a depth of 5 cm.
- Early spring harrowing.
- Seed treatment was carried machine PS-20 through Biotechnology "Kubanagroteh" LLC seeds treated with the tank-mixture - biologics: Pseudomonas fluorescens - 1l, Bacilus subtilis - 2 liters, Azotobacter chroococcum - 1 liter, Bacilus megatherium - 1l, amino acids - 10 g, Lignohumate - 0 , 6 l, ribav growth regulator - 2 ml, disinfectant premix 200 - 0.2 l, potassium monophosphate - 0.5 kg / t.
- Sowing was carried out in the earliest terms at maturity of the soil with an SZS-2.8 seed drill with ammophos (20 kg / ha) with a seeding rate of 660 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha.
- 1st foliar application with a consumption of 150 l / ha in the phase of 5–6 leaves with a tank mixture: CAM - 30 kg / ha, potassium humate - 0.3 l / ha, ribav growth regulator - 2 ml / ha, amino acids - 10 g , biological products - Pseudomonas fluorescens - 1 liter, Bacilus subtilis –1 l, boric acid - 0.1 kg.
- Cleaning by direct combining with straw spreading.
Straight Safflower Sowing
- After harvesting the barley field is not processed.
- Due to the lack of shoots of weeds, they did not process glyphosate before sowing.
- Seed treatment was carried out according to the technology of Petersburg Biotechnology LLC. The seeds are treated with rhizobact concentrate - 1 l / t, bio-rhizobact - 0.1 l / t, lignohumate - 1 l / t, ribav - 1 l.
- Sowing was carried out on April 14 with an SES seed drill of 2.8 direct sowing with anchor openers without fertilizers, with a seeding rate of 600 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha.
- Non-root dressing in the phase of 5–6 leaves with bio cocktail: CAS - 30 kg / ha, potassium humate - 0.3 l / ha, ribav growth regulator - 2 ml / ha, amino acids - 10 g, biologics - Pseudomonas fluorescens - 1 l, Bacilus subtilis –1 l, boric acid — 0.1 kg.
- 2nd feeding in 7–8 leaves: rhizobact - 0.05 l / ha + lignohumate - 0.3 l
- Cleaning by direct combining with straw spreading.
Source: "Association of supporters of direct seeding"
Text of the scientific work on the theme "The technology of cultivation safflower dye"
TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION SAFLOR OF PAINTY
YES. Boldyr, ks-hn., E.P. Sukharev, ks.h.n. - GNU Nizhne-Volzhsky NIISH
Considering the main directions of efficient farming in drought conditions, along with the introduction of science-based technologies, the study and implementation of new drought-resistant crops suitable for cultivation in the Lower Volga region, crops, take on special significance.
An important reserve to withstand extreme conditions is drought-resistant crops that can use moisture more economically and ensure high profitability of production.
In recent years, along with the development of adaptive-landscape farming systems, scientists from the National Research Institute of Agriculture and Agriculture have been actively studying the possibility of cultivating drought-resistant crops that are promising for the Lower Volga region in the conditions of aridization of agrolandscapes.
Safflower is one such crop; it belongs to the genus Carthamus L, the family Asteraceae. This is an oilseed crop. Safflower is home to Ethiopia and Afghanistan. On the territory of Egypt, India and China it was grown BC, long since - in Central Asia, Syria, North Africa. In Russia, this culture appeared in the 18th century, and at first it was confused with saffron.
Thus, in 1789, an article entitled “On dyeing trees, shrubs and herbs” appeared in the Labor of the Free Economic Society, in which Carthamus L was called saffron in Russian, and where it was reported that its thick yellow heads were used for dyeing and grows well in gardens in Moscow, Tsaritsyn and Poltava.
The genus Carthamus L unites only 19 species. On the territory of the former USSR, there were 5 species, of which only one (Carthamus tinctorius) is known in culture, the rest only in the wild state.
The average seed yield is 10-12 centners per hectare, and under favorable conditions
viyah - up to 20 c / ha. According to the testing laboratory NV NIISH seeds
Safflower contains 2336% (45-60% in the core) of semi-dried oils (iodine number 120150) and up to 15% of protein. The oil from the kernels of safflower seeds is close in taste to sunflower, it is used for food for the manufacture of high quality margarine. The oil obtained from whole seeds has a bitter taste, it is used for the preparation of drying oil, white paint, enamel and linoleum. Oilcake is a valuable nutritional feed for farm animals (100 kg contain 55 feed units). Safflower petals have two different coloring pigments: yellow and red. Yellow is considered less valuable, the red matter of safflower cartamine is difficult to dissolve in water, but it is easily soluble in alcohol and alkalis. The safflower root system is pivotal, with a pronounced main root and lateral ramifications, penetrates the soil to a depth of 1.5 meters. The stem reaches a height of 120 cm.
The technology of growing safflower is the same as that of sunflower, because these plants belong to the same group (Astrov), have many common features of structure and development. Safflower is placed in a steam-grain crop rotation. The best forerunners for him are winter and spring crops. In the system of the main tillage, dump plowing is carried out at 27-30 cm.
One of the key issues in the cultivation technology of safflower is the study of the timing, norms and methods of sowing. The effectiveness of the cultivation of safflower in conditions where the main factor is the soil moisture depends on the methods of basic and preplant tillage. Safflower is sown during the sowing of early spring crops with seeders SUPN-8, HRO with
with the norm of 10-12 kg / ha, as well as with the continuous sowing method with grain planters SZP-3.6, SZS-2.1 with a seeding rate of 20-25 kg / ha. The embedding depth is 5-6 cm, if the top layer is dried out, then the embedding depth is increased to 6-8 cm with simultaneous rolling. Harrowing is carried out after germination in the phase of 2-3 pairs of true leaves across the rows.
Safflower clean direct combine-rovaniem. To start cleaning when all the plants and baskets wither and the seeds harden. The yield of safflower depends on the density of the plants standing for harvesting, but with increasing density the water, air and light conditions for each plant deteriorate. Economic advantage have those crops where all these factors are balanced. Safflower pests can be wireworms, shovels, as well as specific pests sage shovel and safflower fly.
The purpose of the research was to establish optimal conditions for the timing, norms and methods of sowing safflower.
The site is located in the system of a hollow basin on a western exposure slope with a slope of up to 2 ° over an area of 7 hectares. The soil of the experimental plot is light chestnut with a humus content in the topsoil layer of 1.74%, total nitrogen and phosphorus 0.12% and 0.11%, respectively. In general, the yield and economic effect of the introduction of a new culture for the region will largely depend on the use of varieties adapted to local conditions, taking into account all the factors listed above, elements of cultivation technology.
Table 1 - Weather Conditions
Zavolzhsky 1 and Alexandrite safflower varieties were tested at the NV NIISH experimental field, where they were assessed for a complex of economic and biological traits and properties.
Variety Alexandrite. Taproot, stem is bare, firm, upright, branched, 56-92 cm high. Leaves are sessile, in the lower part of the stem is obey-like, whole-cut, in the upper part are rounded. The inflorescence is a convex basket of medium size with a diameter of 2.1-2.2 cm. The flowers are tubular with a five-fold rim, mostly orange in color. The fruit is a white seed. The seed mass in the basket is 1.2 g. The mass of 1000 seeds is from 39.9 to 46.2 g (depending on the growing conditions). The duration of the growing season (from full germination to maturity) is 90-94 days. It has good drought resistance and heat resistance.
Variety Zavolzhsky 1. Stem root, stem is bare, solid, upright, branched, high (70-90 cm). Leaves sessile leathery, broadly elliptical at the bottom of the stem, triangular at the top, no anthocyanin, without thorns. The inflorescence is dorsal, slightly convex, 2.0-2.3 cm in diameter. On average, the number of baskets per plant is 20. The flowers are tubular with a five-split rim mainly orange in color, without thorns. The fruit is a white seed. The average weight of seeds in a basket is 1.1 g. The mass of 1000 seeds is 46.4 g. The vegetation period averages 114-125 days.
for the growing season safflower
April May June
Minimum air temperature, ° С -0.5 3 11.5
Maximum air temperature, ° С 29 32 38.9
Average daily air temperature, ° С 16.3 21.8 25.9
Average daily relative humidity,% 60 40 47
The amount of precipitation mm 6.1 11.0 36.2
The experience included three options: the sowing period of April 20, May 2 and May 10, the method of sowing with inter-
stupids of 15, 30 and 45 cm, as well as the seeding rate of 250, 350 and 450 thousand seeds / ha (table 2).
Safflower was preceded by winter wheat, so the main tillage consisted of plow plowing to a depth of 25-30cm. Spring harrowing was done by 4–5 cm, pre-sowing cultivation to a depth of 8–10 cm. The harvesting was carried out by direct combining, when the bulk of the plants was dry. Observations on the dynamics of humidity in safflower crops established its decline from crops to harvest. Stock of productive moisture in the meter layer of soil in
more dependent on the arrival of autumn-winter precipitation.
In 2012, the intensity of meteorological factors increased both by reducing the amount of precipitation during the growing season, which amounted to 53.3 mm, and due to an increase in heat supply. As a result, this indicator of moisture content of crops, like the SCC, decreased to the level of “dry”, which amounted to 0.33 mm. The stock of productive moisture in the meter layer was 88.9 mm, the moisture was also unevenly distributed over the sowing dates: April 20 - 88.3 mm, May 2 - 82.1 mm, May 10 - 75.7 mm.
Sowing date Sowing method, row spacing, Sowing rate (thousand / seeds) Yield, kg / ha, Alexandrite grade Yield, kg / ha, Zavolzhsky grade 1
Safflower: description and biological features
Safflower is a plant of the Asteraceae or Aster family, most often an annual plant, safflower or wild saffron is grown in culture, as it is called. Safflower grows up to one and a half meters, the plant has a straight, branched, glossy stem. Leaves oblong, arranged alternately, on the edge of the leaf plate - spikes. The flowers of the plant are saturated orange or red, tubular, after flowering form the fruit-seeds of white.Safflower is an oilseed crop, seed oil is not inferior to sunflower oil. Oil of the first grade is used in the food industry, the second grades are used for the manufacture of industrial oils, drying oil, varnishes. In the food industry, the plant is used as a natural dye safe for the human body, as well as in the manufacture of margarine and confectionery, the dye is also used in the textile industry, in dyeing fabrics and making carpets.
Safflower is used in medicine and cosmetology. Virtually all parts of the plant are useful. Safflower is also a honey plant. Honey of this plant is a mini first aid kit. It consists of vitamins B, E, C, A, PP, enzymes and organic acids, proteins and dextrins. The composition of honey from safflower includes almost all the macro-and microelements necessary for the vital activity of the human body.
With such a mass of beneficial properties and qualities, safflower is absolutely uncaprizable in cultivation. The seed germination of the plant is possible at two degrees of heat, the young shoots withstand frost up to six degrees, that is, the planting is carried out in early spring and autumn.
In the culture of few varieties suitable for growing in the middle lane. Consider the most suitable of them.The most popular variety is “Sunny” - the plant tolerates a dry period well. The vegetation period is 127 days. It grows up to 85 cm. Flowers with a diameter of up to three centimeters contain a large number of seeds, the total yield per hectare is one and a half tons. The rate of oil content in the seed - 34%. The variety is grown in many countries, including Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine.
Safflower varieties "Ahram" different shortened growing season - from 90 to 120 days. The plant is low compared to the "Sunny" safflower - 60 cm, branched, leafy, with many flowers (up to sixteen baskets on one inflorescence). The plant is late ripening, the yield of the variety is 15 centners per hectare. The oil content in the seed is 35%, the variety is considered the best for processing into oil, from one hectare receive up to 300 kg of oil.
Grade "Beauty Stupinskaya" - a plant with upright branched stem without edge, with a strong taproot growing up to 20 cm deep, then the rod becomes thinner and under favorable conditions (in the southern regions) can reach a depth of two meters. The leaves of this variety are oval-elliptical in shape, with a serrated edge and weak spines. The vegetative period of a plant is from 105 to 130 days. One bush can carry up to twenty baskets of inflorescences with a diameter of up to 3.5 cm. The petals are tubular, yellow or orange in color. Fruits: white seeds with a dense shell, seed weight up to 51 grams. It is characteristic that the seeds do not crumble when ripe.
Place in the rotationCultivation technology for safflower precursors are tilled crops, winter and spring crops, rape, corn, flax. At observance of such a crop rotation the soil forms large stocks of moisture, its phytosanitary background improves.
Не стоит выращивать культуру на одном месте несколько лет подряд, возврат на предыдущее место посадки возможен минимум через четыре года. Сафлор является идеальным предшественником для зерновых культур, яровых и озимых ячменя и пшеницы (при хороших погодных условиях осени).
Лучшим порядком севооборота будет размещение сафлора предпоследней посевной культурой, например, пар – озимая пшеница – сафлор – ячмень, or пар – озимая пшеница – нут — яровая пшеница – сафлор – ячмень.
TillageЗначительно облегчает выращивание сафлора его нетребовательность к составу почвы. The best for him are chernozems and chestnut lands, loose sandy loams or loams, while he is not afraid of saline and poor lands.
For safflower, deep tillage is important, the best indicators of the harvest are formed when sowing in a deep plowed field. Cultivate arable and subsurface soil layers. Despite the fact that the safflower is not afraid of weeds, before sowing a deep cleaning of weeds is carried out. When sown after cereals, it is good for safflower if after harvesting the predecessor, straw and chaff scattered in a thin layer are left on the field.
Sowing methods and seeding rates
Sowing safflower can be carried out simultaneously with grain spring plants, because the seeds can germinate at low temperatures. In late sowing, the moisture level in the upper soil layer may not be sufficient for good germination.
In order to protect against disease and increase yield, seeds are pickled in preparations. "Premis" or "Cardon" adding stimulants to root development.Sowing is carried out at a depth of six to eight centimeters, between rows leave up to 60 cm. The seeding rate of safflower seeds is 30-40 kg / ha. The rate is determined by the conditions of soil moisture, under favorable conditions, sowing is carried out by the maximum value, with worse conditions - the rate is reduced.
Protection against diseases and pests of safflower
Safflower can be affected by the following diseases: fusarium, rust, septoria and broomrape. The most dangerous disease for safflower that can destroy crops is rust. The disease is fungal in nature, affects the shoots and foliage roundish formations - brown pustules. With the defeat of diseases, the crops are treated by chemical means: Altazol, Alto Super, Acanto Plus, Alpari, Atlas.
Pests that attack crops on plants are safflower fly, weevil, aphid and ognevka. Insects and their larvae are also dangerous. Adults gnaw stalks and foliage, lay eggs, from which the larvae hatch, sucking the plant juice and not only. Safflower fly lays offspring in safflower buds, the larvae appearing afterwards eat the seeds. For the destruction of pests using insecticides: “Konfidor -Maxi”, “Kruiser”, “Puma Super-100”. As a preventive for safflower, before planting, seeds are treated with various dressings.