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Useful properties and harvesting of gum berries

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Gumberry berry shrub, another name for it is the multicolor sucker - is rarely cultivated in Russian gardens. The exception is the Far Eastern region. Especially love the gum bushes on Sakhalin, where the Japanese took him before World War II.

The plant brings many benefits:

  • decorates the site all year round, as in warm areas it does not shed its leaves, it blooms beautifully in spring, and in the middle and end of summer it gives bright berries,
  • brings an enviable harvest of tasty and healthy berries,
  • improves the soil on which it grows
  • attracts bees, being honey.

Chemical composition

It is amazing how a small berry became the reservoir of a huge number of trace elements needed by a person. The berry gumi is the closest relative of the sea buckthorn, beloved by all gardeners and another, less known plant in our country - Sheferdia - the North American berry bush, contains:

  • amino acids
  • carotene,
  • tannins and pectins,
  • salts of phosphorus, calcium and potassium,
  • vitamin C (surpasses blackcurrant),
  • zinc, copper, cadmium,
  • manganese, chrome, nickel,
  • selenium, bromine, sulfur.

The fruits of gumi are incredibly pleasant to taste and immediately resemble five flavors: pineapple, apple, dogwood, cherry, grapes. Truly a miracle berry!

Harm and contraindications

A rare case when the plant has no contraindications! This is the case with the many-flowered sucker. If to be absolutely accurate, then absolutely all plants and products have contraindications - this is personal intolerance.

Also, it should be remembered that oversaturation of the body with vitamins can cause a lot of harm. Therefore, the use of such biologically active berries, like gumi, should be reasonable. This is especially true of parents seeking to fill their children with summer gifts in the summer. Do not overdo it!

Gumi or the Loss of many-flowered is absolutely deservedly considered a shrub useful in all respects, due to its beautiful appearance and healing fruits. This led to the fact that gardeners became interested not only in the Far East, where the plant appeared more than 70 years ago, but also in Central Russia.

Successful cultivation experience takes place even in the northwestern zone. Thus, in the Leningrad region, craftsmen were able to cultivate shrubs and get a harvest. The main thing - to keep the plant in winter. To do this, gradually, beginning in early autumn, bend the branches to the ground so that the snow cover completely hides them.

Apart from the fact that the plant diversifies the table, heals ailments, it also improves the soil, since bacteria are formed on the roots, fixing nitrogen - not all cultures have this dignity.

Of course, the spread of gumi in the country is the future.

What is useful berry

Gumi is actively used in folk medicine as a means combat many diseases. The fruits have a tonic, anti-inflammatory, tonic effect, prevent the development of sclerosis, have a positive effect on the circulatory system, treat cardiovascular diseases and help get rid of stomach problems. The only thing contraindication - individual intolerance. It is also not recommended to use the plant if the patient suffers from diabetes.

Gumi is a plant whose useful properties are difficult to overestimate. With the right approach to treatment and dosed use, you will always feel in good shape.

Gumi, sucker multicolor in the garden

author Smirnov A.D., photo author

The sucker multiflora is a deciduous fruit shrub. It comes from the central regions of China, where it was cultivated since ancient times. This is a wonderful representative of the Loch family, who gave us a valuable plant - vitamin sea buckthorn.

Loch multicolored (Elaeagnus multiflora) from ancient times known to the Chinese as gumi (gum).

Virtues of gumi

The nutritional and vitamin value of gumi fruits is not inferior to sea buckthorn. Moreover, this shrub also has significant advantages!
Firstly, gumi is a monoecious plant, therefore for fruiting it does not depend on male pollinators.
Secondly, gumi does not give such an annoying overgrowth as sea buckthorn (it can damage even the asphalt road).
Thirdly, the gumi shrub is compact and low. It is very decorative (including its large and bright red-orange fruits), therefore it can be present in the garden even in the flower-shrub composition.
And it is much easier to collect fruits from the sucker bush of many flowers than sea-buckthorn berries.

The fruits of gumi can be eaten fresh, as well as harvested for future use.
The Chinese claim that gumi prolongs life and is extremely useful, especially for children and the elderly. The Chinese are echoed by the Japanese, where this plant found its “second homeland”.

From China, the many-flowered Loch came to Korea and Japan, and then the Japanese brought it to the south of Sakhalin.

Growing gum in Russia

In central Russia, gumi grows in the form of a small shrub, rarely reaching a height of 1.5 m.
The bush grows with one trunk with numerous, gently ascending branches. The trunk and the old branches have a velvety light coffee bark. And on young shoots of gum, the bark is creamy-white, with characteristic brownish scales.

The leaves of the sucker many-flowered in form almost like a cherry, only they are narrower. And their coloring is very remarkable. The front matte side of the gum leaf is light green, and the back side is silver white.
By the way, the color of the foliage is the main decorative advantage of this shrub.

The sucker multiflora in my garden blooms in May and June. His solitary yellowish-white flowers hang on long stalks of the axils of the leaves.
Flowers gum single or paired, very fragrant.

The fruits of the sucker multicolor oval-cylindrical (like a cornel), have one small flattened stone. As the fruits ripen, they are initially yellowish-green, then they gradually turn pink. And, finally, they become bright, acquiring a pink-red color with spicy dotted sparkles on the skin.

Fruiting and productivity of gum

Fruiting is perhaps the most attractive period in the seasonal development of gum bush. In windy weather, its bright fruits become visible, which are usually hidden by foliage, and at the same time the bush beautifully plays with a silver-white underside of leaves.

As for the taste of the fruits of the sucker many-flowered, it is somewhat reminiscent of cherry - sour-sweet, harmonious.
Gumi fruits are best eaten fresh when they contain a maximum of vitamins.

In our climatic conditions, the yield of the sucker multiflora directly depends on the care of the bush. With winter shelter bush gum, this plant can produce about 3-5 kg ​​of fruit.
There is evidence that in his homeland, the yield of an adult bush gumi can reach 30 kg.

I have never harbored my plants, so in my garden the gums are low, stocky bushes (up to 1 m high). Despite their spartan content, my gum plants bear fruit every year.

Wintering sucker bush multicolor

Winters with thaws are considered the most dangerous for this shrub, because a sucker of many-flowered has a very short rest period - only about a month.
Nevertheless, even the “abnormal” snowless winter (2006/2007) was tolerated by my plants rather tenaciously, and all the gumi were then bearing fruit.
Over time, the bushes become hardened and endure cold more tenaciously than at a young age.

Covering gum bushes for winter for more sustainable growth and fruiting, they should be bent down. And then attract to the ground with hooks, followed by throwing snow on the plants.

Consider that the winter shelter of the sucker with a multi-flowered film and roofing material is unsafe - this can cause the heating of the bark of the plants.

Like all suckers, Gumi are drought-resistant, unpretentious to soil fertility, sun-loving.
One of the many-flowered Loch bushes was planted by me on a completely barren sandy slope, but even there it developed and begot fruit. And yet, he was much inferior to the same plants, planted and growing in more favorable conditions.

Favorable conditions for growing Gumi

For the cultivation of gumi in the garden, the most preferred are open to the sun and protected from the cold winds of the place with deeply cultured, permeable, light loam.

For planting sucker multicolor digging a hole with a depth and a diameter of 50-60cm. Fill with a mixture of turf land, humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. It is useful to add wood ash (up to 300 g) and / or 60-80g of complete mineral fertilizer to the planting pit.

Planting and transplanting gum bushes are tolerated quite easily, but it is better to do this in a leafless period. Of course, this does not apply to container plants (with ZKS), which can be planted during the entire garden season.

Good growth and fruiting gumi provide for the correct soil content and timely watering of plants.
For watering sucker multicolored, I use warmed water during the day. I water the bushes with the irrigation of the crown.
The surface of the soil around the bush gum mulch with peat or fallen leaves of forest trees. I do it in the fall, which kills two birds with one stone: the tree trunk is insulated, the aeration and nutrition of the roots are improved. I keep the mulch for a long time - it serves as a battery of moisture, accumulating water during irrigation and giving it to drought. From time to time, the mulch layer is embedded in the soil, then replacing it with a new one.

Despite the self-pollination of the sucker of many-flowered plants, it is more expedient to place the seedlings with gumi groups - several plants of different clones and varieties. At the same time, the pollination of flowers increases markedly, because each plant has its own timing and intensity of dusting.

Breeding gum

Gumi is propagated by sowing seeds or grafting.

For cutting the cuttings, I use the woody part of the young shoots or green cuttings with a large "heel".
Gumi cuttings root very weakly, and by the fall they form only a small lobe of the roots.

Only a year later (or even two) young plants of the sucker of many-flowered are gaining strength of standard seedlings.
Strong plants grown from cuttings in three years can produce the first fruits, and at five years of age all plants bear fruit.

Gumi bushes in garden design

In the decorative garden, gumi bushes can be planted in the background of a mixed composition. Here this plant is perfect for a neighborhood of stunted conifers, as well as purple-colored barberries, geyher, zhivuchek, etc.

Gumi is not rated enough as a good haircut material.
This shrub has a high pobegoobrazuyuschey ability. From it, you can create dense and even borders, and individual plants to give an unusual shape of the crown. From the similar application of the sucker silver, gum favorably differs by the absence of shoots.

Although our introduction of gumi is still at the very beginning, there are prerequisites that the fate of this interesting shrub is already predetermined in Russian amateur gardens.

Alexander Dmitrievich Smirnov (Vladimir)
vladgarden.ru

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Gumi drug is a uniquely collected complex of vitamins for plants. Made on the basis of BMW humic substances and is an activator of growth. It improves the resistance of plants to adverse weather conditions, viruses and fungal diseases. Gumi is a versatile drug that is great for all types of plants.

Types of Gumi Fertilizers

For ease of use, the plant activator is produced in 3 concentrations - 20, 30, and 90, and in different forms: paste, liquid and powder. At the same time, they are identical in terms of the content of nutritional components and contribute to obtaining an excellent yield when applied correctly.

  • Gumi-20 universal,
  • Gumi-30 wagon and super wagon,
  • Gumi-90 for vegetables, berries, fruits, flowers and ornamental plants,
  • Gumi-K Olympic, potash nano-gel.

Almost every type of gum is subdivided into individual fertilizers. For example, vegetable on "Potato" or "Onion-garlic", and flower on "Geranium", "Aloe", "Liana".

So, for example, fertilizers Gumi for garden crops are in powder, granulated and in a liquid state. They are applied as a solution during watering or with the addition of fruit trees and shrubs to the soil during planting.

Composition and action Gumi

In all types of Gumi there are macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements - boron and copper. They also have the elixir of fertility Gumi - 0.6%. For each plant species a unique composition of humus, organic and other nutrients is selected. Gumi preparations differ in the amount of mineral substances, but have a common component - the humic bioactive complex.

The introduction of Gumi helps soil mineralization and improve its structure. The earth becomes porous, air and moisture access to the root system is improved. It also binds harmful compounds found in the plant, making them insoluble. As a result, they are derived through the roots.

After putting Gumi in the soil, the number of beneficial microorganisms grows, which contribute to the increase of nutrients in it. This helps to reduce the amount of other fertilizers applied by 25-30%, and also reduces the nitrate content in plants.

Gumi-treated seeds sprout faster, and subsequently develop better. Plants grow stronger, their root formation increases. Earlier they begin to ripen and bear fruit, the period of fruiting increases. Fruits and berries accumulate more nutrients, thereby improving taste, they are made more fragrant and beautiful. Harvest better stored.

Instructions for use

A detailed instruction is attached to each of the preparations, in which the methods of application and consumption rates are indicated.

Methods of using GUMI:

  • preseeding soaking
  • Strait of soil in the fall and spring,
  • spraying and watering plants (up to 6 times per season).

Liquid growth activator is produced in a concentration of 20%, so it is diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 1000. That is, a couple of drops of solution is added to 1 cup of water, and 1 tsp to the bucket.

The powder is made with a concentration of 90%. On 1 bucket is made no more than 2 g of the drug. The diluted solution is enough for irrigation 2 m 2 or for spraying a plot with an area of ​​100 m 2.

Pastes are produced at a concentration of 30%. A 300 g package is enough to make 500 liters of solution. They can pour 150 m 2 plot or spray 6 times 10 acres. If it is necessary to process the tubers, then the preparation is diluted in a different proportion - 15 liters of water are added per 300 g. Another way to use the paste is to dilute 1 packet in a glass of water. This concentrate is suitable for watering indoor plants and pre-sowing seed treatment.

Diluted in proportion 4 drops per 200 ml of water.

Recently, another universal Gumi drug appeared - Olympic. Made in the form of a gel, the method of application is similar to the paste. They can be watered, sprayed, soaked seeds, tubers and cuttings before planting. Contains more than 80 useful items. It is one of the most powerful rostouskoriteley.

The advantage of Gumi is a long shelf life and low cost. The manufacturer of this bioactivator recommends its use in combination with other drugs, for example, Fitosporin against diseases. Then their efficiency increases significantly. The plant will be able to get good nutrition and at the same time will be protected from diseases and bad weather conditions.

In the spring of 2016, visitors to the garden center of the nursery of Nikitenko Sergey were interested in the presence of various plants on the site. We have compiled a rating of the most exotic names of plants that are found in the suburbs. These guests from China, Japan, America, Canada and other countries are quietly growing in central Russia. True, these are mainly specially adapted frost-resistant varieties.

So why not buy fruit plants of exotic species and not bring something new to your garden?

7first place:Actinidia

Actinidia "Kiev Krupnoplodnaya" - one of the most amazing exotic fruit plants of all that can be found in the Russian garden. And it was the actinidia saplings that were especially popular in the spring in the Nikitenko nursery. Amateur gardeners and professional designers adore actinidia not only for its beautiful flowering, but also for the juicy, fragrant fruits with which the plant actively bears fruit.

It is recommended to plant actinidia near arbors and other props. The weak point of the vine is its ability to attract all the local cats in the area.

We grow gumi in the country

It acts on them no worse than catnip, so seedlings should be carefully protected from tailed pests. Variety actinidia "Kiev Krupnoplodnaya" different frost resistance and active early fruiting. On average, you get 10-12 kg of berries from one liana. But note that actinidia will need a lot of light and moisture. А еще нельзя забывать, что актинидия – двудомное растение и на 5-7 женских растений необходимо посадить один мужской экземпляр лианы.

6ое место:Годжи

О целебной силе ягод годжи слышал, пожалуй, каждый. Но вот далеко не каждый знает, что на самом деле загадочное экзотическое растение для сада – это хорошо знакомая всем и каждому дереза.

Goji plant can reach heights of up to 3.5 m. In spring, goji blooms beautifully, being covered with small bell-shaped flowers of purple and violet-pink color. In different regions of our country, the plant can bear fruit in different periods: from July to October or from May to September. During this time, it is realistic to collect several crops of goji berries, the most valuable of which will be the August ones. In Russia, thanks to sweet berries with juicy fragrant pulp, the Tibetan goji variety is particularly popular. This variety tolerates the harsh Russian winters and begins to actively bear fruit in the second year after planting.

5first place:Gumi or sucker multicolor

Gumi is one of our most famous semi-evergreen shrubs. Belongs to the sucker multicolored, picturesquely blooms and bears fruit.

The height of the gum plant reaches 3 m. The gum leaves are distinguished by their amazing beauty - pierced with brown streaks, silver-gray, and decorated with tree branches until late autumn.

But love gum is not for it. The main advantage of gumi lies in the fruits. Bright red berries with silver dots have a rich sweet taste with a tart note reminiscent of persimmon. On average, for the season with one bush can collect 10-15 kg of berries. Gumi is a cross-pollinated plant, so for high yields it will be better to plant at least two shrubs. The root system is superficial, nitrogen-fixing bacteria settle in the roots, turning gumi into a soil-improving plant. And still the gumi differs in enviable frost resistance and unpretentiousness. Recently, gum seedlings are in great demand in the nurseries of the Moscow region.

4first place:Yoshta

Yoshta is a popular hybrid of black currant and gooseberry, known for its unpretentiousness, disease resistance and beneficial properties of both "parents".

The plant is a spreading lush flowering shrub height - up to 2-2.5 meters. Yoshta seedlings should be planted in cultivated fertile soil. Yoshta requires a lot of sunlight. The plant is resistant to terry and kidney mites. Yoshta fruiting period begins 2 years after planting.

Yoshta does not need any special care. In the spring, after a long winter, the shrub feels comfortable, you will need to carry out a standard sanitary pruning of dry and frozen branches. Yoshtu is watered only a few times over the entire season: during the formation of ovaries, berries, and in early autumn. Yes, and feeding yoshte almost not needed. Is that to increase the yield in the summer - mullein and in the fall - wood ash.

Someone says that strawberry seedlings are the best solution for those who are fond of homemade preparations. This man just did not try the yoshta jam. Berries are large, sweet and sour, ideal for homemade compotes, confitures and preserves.

3first place:Dogwood

Many experts in horticultural affairs believe that cornel is unfairly deprived of attention against the background of pears, apple trees and other inhabitants of the gardens near Moscow. But this is a medicinal plant, the fruits of which have a rich specific taste and are widely used in baby and dietary nutrition!

The height of the bush - from 3 to 5 m. The plant belongs to the cross-pollinated, so it is better to plant two or even three bushes of different varieties. Cornel loves the heat, so ideally land it in open sunny spaces. And if you are faced with a choice: strawberry seedlings or dogwoods, we strongly recommend choosing the second one.

2first place:Cherish

Cherish is a very successful hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry. In the world of gardeners it is called Duke - the nickname comes from the name of the English variety «MayDuck». The main advantage of the house is the resistance of its varieties to strong frosts. Where cherries and cherries are dying, the flowers are quietly blooming and bearing fruit. But still, the best saplings of fruit trees of this species feel best in a moderately moderate climate.

Cherry fruits are large, more ordinary cherries and sweet cherries, sweet and sour and glossy, with juicy fleshy pulp.

1first place:Iput

The Iput cherries can be called outstanding without a twinge. With proper care, the plant will bring you a solid harvest of sweet and juicy fruits that are ideal for jams and stewed fruit. "Iput" is called one of the most winter-hardy and rapid varieties with early ripening. Fruiting occurs at 4-5 years after disembarkation. Plant height - 2 - 4 m., Crown - wide, pyramidal. And this variety of sweet cherry is famous for its resistance to fungal diseases - another significant reason to buy seedlings of this particular type. Iput loves sunny, windless places and fertile soil.

Sincerely yours, Sergey Nikitenko's Egoryevsky nursery

Lough mnogotvetkovy poorly tolerated frosts, therefore, requires additional insulation in the winter. In order for the shrub to start and to bear fruit well, it is necessary to choose a suitable place when planting.

It is not recommended to plant gumi:

  • In the drafts,
  • In the lowlands
  • In high places
  • In the shadow.

If you place the Loch Gumi saplings in the lowlands, then due to the stagnation of melt water and cold air, the bush will disappear, and when planted on high ground, in winter the sucker will freeze, as the snow is blown away by the wind. A shrub will well overwinter if its branches are covered, for example, with sacking, and a large layer of snow will always be on top. Due to growth in shady places, the many-flowered sucker will produce little fruit.

Landing
The soil in which the shrub will sit, must have a neutral level of acidity.

It is better to plant a sucker multicolor at the beginning of spring or at the end of autumn, when the soil contains enough moisture.
First you need to dig up the soil well, clean the weeds and level it with a rake. A pit is dug about 1.5 meters wide and about 1 meter deep. If several shrubs are planted, the distance between them should be at least 2-3 meters. It is recommended to add fertile soil, humus, compost to the excavated pit, lay drainage pebbles and pebbles at the bottom. For better yield, it is recommended to add nitrogen fertilizers, ash and double superphosphate to the soil.

LOCH MULTI-FLOWER OR GUMI

When planting, the root collar is buried by 5 centimeters, watered, then everything needs to be mulched leaves the top layer of soil.
After planting the Locha Gumi multi-flowered saplings, it is recommended to periodically feed it and loosen the stalk territory, since the roots are close to the surface and can be damaged if loosened.
The buds on the shrub very quickly develop, during one growing season, 2-3 orders of branching are formed. The buds are fully formed already in the year of laying.
From the disadvantages of this plant, we can distinguish:
Low frost resistance
A small rest period (30 days).
This leads to the fact that in February-March, the buds are already beginning to develop and in the absence of proper weatherization of the shrub may die.
The original shrub, due to its appearance, will decorate any garden, and its berries will be an excellent vitamin supplement to nutrition, help preserve youth and improve health.

Loch or Gumi

The sucker-flowered (gumi, gum) is a shrub of 1-1.5 m high with oblong leaves, silver-pubescent at the top, and with brown scales at the bottom. The sucker is a beautiful honey plant, its small, bell-shaped, with a pleasant aroma, flowers are not damaged by late spring frosts, as it blooms in May and June.

The loch has a short rest period (only 30 days), so it freezes over quite often in winter, but almost never dies completely. Thanks to its high regenerating abilities, the shrub quickly recovers and bears fruit again. The powerful, fibrous root system of gum is located in the soil at a depth of up to 40 cm. There are nodules on the roots, like those of sea buckthorn. The plant is relatively undemanding to soils, however it prefers fertile soils and is very responsive to the application of organic fertilizers.

Seeds of gum fruit on the 4-5th year after planting. The yield of gum is high (up to 15 kg or more from a 10-year-old tree). The productive period lasts up to 20 years, and with good care and longer.

When and how to plant sucker multicolored?

For spring planting of seedlings of the sucker, the soil should be prepared in October. The place is chosen well lit, warm and protected from the north wind. The plant does not like acidic soils, therefore, 300-500 g of dolomite flour per 1 sq.m. must be added to such soil in the year of planting, depending on its acidity.

A single plant of the sucker will bear fruit, but for better pollination and higher yields, plant at least two plants at a distance, at a distance of 2 meters from each other in a row. At the bottom of the pit arrange drainage.

A pit is dug 50-60 cm deep, up to 1 m in diameter and fragments of bricks, pebbles, gravel 10 cm are laid, humus or compost (10-15 kg) are added, mixed with topsoil and 500 g of wood ash are added. 300 g of double superphosphate.

Superphosphate is indispensable for normal life of nodule bacteria on gum roots. When planting, the root neck of a seedling is buried by 5-8 cm. The earth around the seedling is compressed tightly and watered with two buckets of water, after which they mulch with sawdust, humus or peat.

After planting, the above-ground part of the plant is shortened to 30 cm.

How to care for gum?

The first two years after planting (if you filled a planting hole with fertilizers), organic and mineral fertilizers can not be applied to plants. In the future, we need periodic feeding with mullein:

  • at the beginning of the growing season
  • before flowering
  • after harvesting (two supplements with an interval of 10-12 days).

Before flowering, also add 20-25 g of urea or 40 g of crystalline per one plant.

The root system of gum is located relatively shallow, so in the dry season, be sure to water it (at the rate of 25-30 liters of water per 1 sq. M). Before winter, the area near the bush should be pulverized with half-dead manure or with a layer of humus of 10-15 cm for a better wintering of the root system, preservation of moisture, improvement of the air-thermal regime.

How to form a bush sucker?

Shape gum gum with uneven-aged branches, leaving each year two of the most powerful escape. Every year in the spring they carry out sanitary pruning of bushes, removing competing, broken, dried, inward-facing branches of the crown, weak, immature growth.

Every year, from the age of 10, 4-5 old unproductive branches are removed from the bush of the sucker, replacing them with young ones. Gum plants periodically rejuvenate.

Medicinal properties of gum

Oval, juicy, yellow or cherry-red gummite berries with an oblong bone inside and weighing only 1.5-2 g appear in July-August. They ripen non-simultaneously, overripe showered slightly. In terms of color, shape, size, the gum fruits are very similar to dogwood, only “sprinkled” with pearl golden spangles on top, and the taste resembles a ripe quince or persimmon - sweet, sweet and sour, and slightly knit. Very pleasant fresh.

The Japanese consider gum the fruits of longevity and youth. Of the 17 amino acids identified in them, 7 are indispensable for humans. Also, they present a complete set of all vitamins and minerals. In gum leaves by September, up to 300% / mg of vitamin C can accumulate.

The fruits of the wonderful Asian use:

  • In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract as an astringent and anti-inflammatory agent.
  • Tinctures and extracts from the roots - with heart disease.
  • A decoction of the leaves - with colds and fever.
  • In folk medicine, gum fruits are used as a tonic, firming, anti-sclerotic and anti-inflammatory agent.

From the gum prepare jam, compotes, juices, jellies, wine.

Gummy jam is too cloyingly sweet. It is better to grind the fruit with sugar (1.2 kg of sugar per 1 kg), getting the seedless jelly, sweetest and healthier, like honey. Even more delicious is the assorted sea-buckthorn sour fruit wiped with gum.

Sea buckthorn: planting and cultivation. Beneficial features. Recipes

In winter, there should be a meter layer of snow at the indicated place. Then, 1 month before planting, the seeds must be excavated and placed in a plastic wrap with a substrate. At the same time they need periodic moistening.

  • Next, the seeds are planted in boxes and kept at home or in the greenhouse. If care is good, saplings will grow to 50 cm over the summer.
  • In winter, they need shelter.

Among other things, they can be put in a warm room for growing.

  • Transplantation into open ground can be made only after the roots grow to 20 cm and at least 3 shoots appear.
  • Gumi berries have juicy flesh

    Useful tips

    • If you store the fruits of gumi frozen, they will persist for 8 months.
    • Regardless of the size of the seedlings, the pits should be large - up to 60 cm in depth and up to one and a half meters in diameter. It is recommended to put 700 grams of wood ash, organic fertilizers - 30 kg, 300 grams of double superphosphate at the bottom of the pit. If the soil is acidic - a pound of lime. Important! Shrub roots should not touch fertilizer.

    Growing gum does not cause trouble

    • If the plants are young, they are fertilized 2 times a year: in the spring - nitrogen fertilizers and humus, after harvesting - wood ash and superphosphate.
    • Planting is carried out on any soil, with the exception of oxygen-poor and marshy soil.
    • Watering seedlings produced by 25 liters per pit.
    • Pits are being prepared since autumn.
    • The optimal time for landing is from March to April.

    Gumi is a useful and ornamental plant. In the height of the shrub reaches 3 meters. The berries not only look very beautiful and bright, but also have a whole complex of useful amino acids. Growing will not be a hassle. The main thing is to properly plant and timely watering and feeding.

    We also recommend to read:

    Present Japanese cherry is gumi (or gum, in Japanese "natsu-gumi"). In Japan, the cultivation of this half meter shrub is a centuries-old tradition. And although Japanese cherry is often considered to be sakura, in fact, sakura is called several types of cherries during their flowering period. The name itself, most likely, originated from a common variety of cherries “Hisakura”. Gumi, in its fruit and form of the plant, is more like sea buckthorn.

    It is originally a beautiful plant from China. From there it spread to Japan and Sakhalin. The red fruits of gumi look like fine cherries covered with silvery dots. Their juicy sweet-sour taste is compared to grapes, apples, cherries and currants. In China and Japan, gumi is valued as a healing plant that promotes longevity.

    Gumi berries are so useful that Japanese children are given them as a vitamin supplement to food. They have a high content of amino acids. In the fruits of gumi there are 17 of them, 7 of which are indispensable for the organism. In berries, 8% ascorbic acid, about 9% - sugar, pectin and tannins, phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Due to this composition, the berries have anti-inflammatory, firming and tonic effect. They are useful for stomach disorders, intestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

    The amount of vitamin C in the fruit, depending on the variety, can be in excess of 100 mg per 100 g of berries. While Antonovka contains up to 13 mg for the same number of fruits. In the leaves Japanese cherry also a lot of vitamin C: several times more than in currant. Therefore, a decoction of gum leaves is treating a cold. Dry leaves brew and drink like tea.

    Berries are used in fresh and dried. From the fruits they prepare desserts, infusions, decoctions and preserves. You can simply grind the gum with sugar or mix it with cherry or sea buckthorn. Frozen berries will be an additional source of vitamins in the winter. Gumi produces excellent wine, much more exquisite than from the generally accepted "wine" fruits: currants, shadberry and even grapes. Bees are very fond of Japanese cherry nectar, it turns out extremely fragrant and healing honey.

    Japanese cherry - decoration for any garden, both during flowering and in winter. Long stalks of berries give a shrub a striking decorative look. Fruits are easy to collect and the amount of harvest per plant is very high. Every year, more and more berries can be picked from gumi: from 3 kg per young plant to a maximum limit of 30 kg.

    Now "silver cherry" is becoming popular in our country. Warming weather conditions make it possible to grow gumi in northern gardens. Amazing refreshing taste of berries, a large number of fruits, healing and decorative properties allow the plant to gain recognition in the new Russian regions.

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    Gumi or silver cherry

    Gumi, or the Loss of many flowers (Elaeagnus multiflora Thumb.). In Japan, it is also called the sucker cherry-like. Gumi is still an unconventional plant for Ukrainian gardens, but, in our opinion, this is only a matter of time. Folk names: miracle berry, silver cherry.

    The literary information about the sucker multicolor is very poor. Few researchers were engaged in this culture, therefore in the field of studying of a look there are a lot of defects and not clear questions. The available information is scattered and often has the nature of a general statement. Однако все авторы подчеркивали разнообразные полезные признаки и свойства этого растения.

    Помологические особенности гуми

    Гуми представляет собой куст высотой 1,5-2 м, среднераскидистый, диаметром 2-2,5 м. Форма может быть разнообразной, от пирамидально-сжатой до раскидистой. Побеги прямые, коричневые. За один вегетационный период растение образует не одно, а два, а часто и три порядка ветвления. As a result, branched annual shoots are obtained, and the crown of the bush thickens.

    Like the sea buckthorn, the multi-flowered sucker produces its own nitrogen with the help of fixing bacteria living in growths on the roots. Nodule formations appear on the roots of seedlings of the sucker by the end of the first year of life.

    The leaves are light green oblong, with a “reverse side” silver. Beginning of fruiting in the 3-4th year. In Ukraine, self-fertile forms of gumi are usually grown. A multi-flowered loch yields 3–4 kg of fruit from a bush at 5 years of age, increasing each year the harvest to a maximum yield of 30 kg. The bush is durable, can bear fruit in one place up to 25-30 years.

    Since the plant blooms late, at about the same time as late varieties of apple trees, it does not suffer from spring frosts. Gumi is a wonderful melliferous plant: its white and yellow flowers with honey aroma are very attractive to bees.

    The berries ripen in early July. The length of the fetus - 1.5-2.0 cm, diameter 1 cm, weight 1.4-1.6 g. The bone is spindle-shaped and makes up 20% of the whole mass of the fetus. Attractive color of the fruit - dark red with a transparent thin skin, studded with stellate silvery dots. It tastes like an apple, grapes, cherry, currant. The fruit is very juicy and sweet. The gap is dry. After collecting the berries are stored 5-7 days.

    Use

    Eat fresh-flowered sucker berries as well as for all types of processing. Fresh fruits are used as a dessert, as well as filled with honey. Frozen, they retain good taste for several months. From the dry fruits prepare broths and infusions. Jam is prepared at the rate of 1 kg of berries per 1 kg of sugar, and it is even better to use gum berries ground with sugar with some sour fruits.

    Medicinal properties

    In Japan, gumi is considered healing, returning people to youth. The fruits of the sucker are rich in sugars, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotene, as well as pectin and tannins, fats, salts of phosphorus, potassium and calcium.

    The fruits also contain many amino acids, including the indispensable - aspartic, proline, lysine. Berries have anti-inflammatory properties. The inhabitants of Sakhalin use the fruits of the sucker many-flowered as a tonic and for gastrointestinal diseases.

    A high content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is distinguished by the leaves of sucker, especially in the autumn. The leaves are dried and brewed as tea. Found ascorbic acid and in the flowers of the sucker.

    Selection of seedlings

    The survival rate of seedlings is highly dependent on the quality of the planting material.

    A good seedling should be 30-50 cm tall, have 3-4 shoots, the trunk diameter at the base is 5-8 mm, the root is fibrous. The roots of seedlings should not be dried during transport and planting.

    Since gumi are most often propagated by seeds, there are various forms: with and without thorns, with large and smaller fruits, with different growth and winter hardiness. Therefore, in order to maximize the probability of a successful choice, you need, first, to take several seedlings, and second, to give preference to plants without thorns, with large buds or with saturated green leaves (if you buy a plant in a container during the growing season).

    Planting and care

    The lofty multiflora does not impose special requirements on the soil, but in order to grow a beautiful, healthy plant from a seedling with a good harvest, it is necessary to take care of it.

    Landing should be well lit and protected from the wind. The depth of the landing pit is 0.5–0.6 m, width is 1–1.5 m. A mixture of fertile soil with compost or humus and sand is introduced into the landing pit, and drainage from pebbles and stones is arranged at the bottom of the pit. Add to soil mix 20-30 g of nitrogen fertilizers, 200-250 g of double superphosphate and 600-700 g of wood ash.

    When planting, the root neck of plants is buried by 3-5 cm cm, watered abundantly and after watering the soil is mulched with humus, leaves or sawdust. One year after landing begin annual feedings per one bush: 8-10 kg of compost, 100-150 g of wood ash and 30 g of double superphosphate. In the summer, liquid fertilizers with mullein or bird droppings per 1 square meter of 10 liters of fermented fertilizer diluted 10 times are also desirable.

    In case of drought, plants are watered at 30-40 liters of water per 1 square meter, after watering the soil must be mulched to preserve moisture. To loosen the soil should be shallow (5-10 cm), since gum has a superficial root system located mainly at a depth of about 20 cm. Pests and diseases affecting gum are not observed in Ukraine.

    Roses, apricots and peaches freeze slightly in our orchards in severe winters with little snow, but this cannot be an argument against growing these crops in Ukraine. The same can be said about gumi. The first years of suckering many-flowered for the winter requires shelter, as for roses. In the future for the winter bush must be mulched (sawdust, leaves, grass or peat) a layer of 5-8 cm to protect the root system. Winter hardiness of the aerial part -28-30 ° C. Even when it freezes, the plant recovers very quickly (in one or two years).

    Related article: Green fertilizer and mulching.

    Gumi does not require a special trim. The plant has a high regenerative capacity, so pruning will cause excessive growth of tops. In the first 8-10 years, the plants are not pruned, limited only by sanitary pruning (remove dried branches). At 13-15 years of age, rejuvenation is necessary. To do this, a third of the old branches are removed from the bushes, and a new bush is formed from the newly grown shoots.

    History reference

    The culture of the sucker is very ancient, the history of the genus Elaeagnus dates back to the Upper Cretaceous, many species of sucker are common in those geographical areas where the first oldest cultures originated. The primary focus of origin is East Asia. The species is distributed in Japan, China, Korea, countries of Central Asia. Attempts at introduction in Russia refer to 1862, but its results were negative. In the 20s of the last century, culture was brought to the European part of the USSR, where it took root in private gardens. The Sakhalin Loch Multicolored was introduced by the Japanese population in 1885-1945. After the liberation of the southern part of the island in 1946, the shrub was taken under the supervision of researchers from the Sakhalin Agricultural Integrated Experimental Station. In Sakhalin NIISH created the only collection of sucker multicolor in Russia, characterized by a large variety of forms.

    Currently, the plant is successfully cultivated by individual amateur gardeners in Moscow, Gelendzhik, Chelyabinsk, Birobidzhan, Vladimir and Novgorod regions, Altai and Primorsky territories, Bashkir and Tatar republics, in the Baltic States, in Ukraine - everywhere, from Donetsk to Lviv.

    Liliana Dmitriev. According to the materials of the magazine "Neskuchny Sad" №3 / 2006

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