Secrets of growing strawberries in Siberia and caring for them in a cold climate - Berries
Fresh berries are needed by residents of any region, so growing strawberries in Siberia and caring for this crop has long become a habitual activity for summer residents. The main problems of berry cultivation in regions with a harsh climate are the freezing of plants in winter and damage to young shoots by frost in spring. The work of breeders who create frost-resistant varieties helps to cope with difficulties. Gardeners, too, do not stand aside, they have their own ways to help the delicate bushes survive the cold.
Selection of a site for a berry
The basic requirements for the soil and the location of the site are the same in the north and in the south. Strawberries love the sun, which in summer is enough in cold regions. Your task is to arrange the beds so that they are not shaded by buildings, trees and tall shrubs. The plantation should not be located on the site where solanaceous cultures had previously grown. The soil should be loose and fertile. Make sure that the berries are not in the draft, strawberries do not like strong winds.
Growing in Siberia has its own characteristics: problems are created not only by frosts, but also by high snow cover. In the winter cold, big drifts will protect the landings from the cold, but in the spring they will begin to thaw intensively. High-water streams, more like small southern rivers, will run across the land. If such a flow passes through a strawberry bed, all the work on planting the berry will have to be done anew and in another place. Do not like the bushes and the proximity of groundwater, they will not grow in the area of flooding during floods.
For a short summer, bushes should quickly form, re-seed and lay buds for the next season. For the northern regions, varieties with rapid vegetation have been developed, only food for intensive development needs a lot, and serious care is required.
In the autumn, dig the ground for the future garden bed and deposit it on each m2:
- fat black soil - 1 bucket,
- wood ash - 0.5 l,
- complex mineral fertilizer - 30 g.
If you are going to grow large-fruited or remontant varieties, contribute double the rate of nutrients.
For the formation of a good harvest strawberries need space. In spring the saplings are still small, but they will grow in one place for several years and will form a lush bush. Depending on the variety and the estimated size of the plant, the planting should take place with a distance between holes from 25 to 40 cm. The interval between repair plants is recommended to be increased to 50 cm. The distance between rows is 0.8-1 m simpler. At one place it is recommended to grow strawberries for no longer than 3-4 years, then the plantation is transferred to a new place. In the autumn, when preparing your future bed, you can plant winter garlic in the planned row-spacing, it will clear the ground of infections.
To be with berries every summer, do not replant all the strawberries at the same time. Every year, transfer a third of the plantation to a new location.
In the spring dig holes, moisten the soil well and wait until the water is absorbed into the ground. The bed was fertilized in the fall, but still put a little bit of humus and ash under the roots. After planting, be sure to water the soil so that it is compacted and the roots are well enveloped. Zamulchirute surface of the earth compost, fallen leaves or straw. A layer not less than 5 cm thick will prevent the weeds from sprouting and will save moisture in the soil. Cover the bushes with a film for 10 days, so they better take root. Remontant strawberries should be kept under cover until the berries begin to ripen.
Make no mistake with the choice of variety
In the harsh climatic conditions of Siberia, not every plant will survive. There are craftsmen who grow the most delicate strawberry varieties in the northern latitudes, but this kind of work is very laborious and requires expensive equipment. Cold-resistant species also taste great, and heroic efforts are not required to produce a crop. If you wish, you can arrange a warm bed: dig a trench, fill it with fallen leaves, straw, manure, and pour garden soil on top. When rotting, the filler will give off heat, and in the cool spring the roots will be comfortable.
If you want to receive early fruits and are going to organize the cultivation of strawberries in greenhouses or greenhouses, ask in advance if the selected variety is suitable for greenhouses. To collect fresh berries in the winter, you need to build a polycarbonate greenhouse and equip a good heating. In shelters, planting of self-pollinating varieties is desirable, otherwise you will have to transfer the pollen from flower to flower manually.
Do not bring strawberry mustache from distant regions, in your area they may not settle down. In the spring, take a runaway from the neighbors in the cottage or friends. To get the berries of pure varieties, purchase seedlings in the nursery.
For Siberia, many types of strawberries have been developed, here are some of them.
- Berdskaya will delight lovers of sweet and sour berries. In cold regions, it is recommended to grow under film.
- The Russian Darenka is a very productive variety adapted to sudden temperature changes. This strawberry is resistant to fungal infections and pests.
- Amulet can give up to 2 kg of berries from one bush. Variety tolerates frosts, does not get sick. The fruit is a rich sweet taste.
- Omsk early bred specifically for growing in Siberia. The berries are small, sweet, great for compotes and preserves for the winter.
- Chamomile forms large sweet berries. Fruits tolerate transportation.
In an area with a harsh climate, it is better not to dwell on one variety, but to plant several species with different ripening terms. If in the spring frosts ruin the early harvest, you will be saved by bushes that bloom later. Observe which varieties have adapted well to your soil, and cultivate these varieties. The plant itself will show what kind of cultivation on your site is going well, and what better to give up.
Care for the northern varieties of strawberries
In order for the strawberry to develop well and manage to accumulate strength for a difficult wintering, it needs proper care. Ensure the plants have sufficient watering, apply the required amount of nutrients to the soil. Great help can have a drip irrigation system that constantly keeps the soil moist. You will only need to replenish the capacity and adjust the intensity of the water pressure in accordance with the weather.
In the spring strawberry bushes require special attention. There is a build-up of young leaves, the development of buds, the formation of fruits - the plants require enhanced care. At the beginning of the growing season feed them complex fertilizer with a predominance of nitrogen. During the flowering period, plants will need phosphorus and potassium.
In the summer, plants start throwing out a mustache. Leave on the bushes only those shoots that are going to use for planting, the rest immediately cut. Antennae take away power from the main bush, it weakens, it can poorly endure wintering or lay little buds for the harvest of the next year. It is advisable to select 2-3 plants for planting material and cut off their buds, then the shoots will be strong, well developed.
Remember that the Siberian weather can give any surprise. Always have covering material in case of sudden frosts. In the summer, feed strawberry bushes with phosphate-potash fertilizers, they increase the frost resistance of plants. For the winter, cover the bushes with spruce branches, and if there is little snow, throw a snowdrift on the bed.
Growing strawberries in cold regions is possible; you just need to understand that a gentle garden crop in a harsh climate requires a special approach. In warm areas with poor nutrition or poor watering, you simply harvest a poor harvest. In the northern latitudes, only strong bushes will carry the frosty winter. If you do not provide them with good care, in the spring you will see only the frozen rhizomes and you will not wait for the green leaves, flowers and berries.
It is advisable to buy seedlings of strawberry local breeding, they are adapted to your climate. Tender species will not survive in the open field, they need shelter, the device of warm beds or other structures to protect from the cold. Choose the most sunny place for the berries. It is desirable that this was a flat area or a gentle slope facing south. Avoid close location of groundwater, the bushes will start to hurt.
In cold climates, spring planting is recommended so that the plants can get stronger by winter. Do not forget to follow the weather forecast, especially in spring, when at any moment it may become very cold. In case of threat of frost, cover the berry with a film or non-woven insulation material. Properly feed and water your green pets well, and they will thank you for their attention and care with a rich harvest.
General culture information
Fresh berries are eaten in all regions, gardeners try to grow them on their own. Strawberries are cultivated in Irkutsk; even the Siberian and Novosibirsk regions are not afraid of growing them. True, in winter, shoots of plants often freeze, and in spring they are affected by frosts. That is why breeders are trying to adapt early frost-resistant varieties for this climate area, and gardeners invent simple ways to help the bushes survive the cold.
Wild strawberry varieties were found everywhere, and Altai was no exception. However, the taste of healthy berries, people could appreciate only in the 18th century. In the Paris Botanical Garden, Chilean and Virginian strawberries were randomly crossed. The result is a plant whose berries, by their taste and aesthetic characteristics, have eclipsed all previously known varieties. In Russia, they became interested in strawberries during the time of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who first started growing this crop in his own garden.
Strawberries on the garden
Varieties of suitable strawberries for Siberia should be distinguished by the following characteristics:
- increased frost resistance
- the possibility of rapid regeneration of leaves and stems to replace frozen plants (bezusy grade does not fit well),
- increased immunity to diseases and pests,
- good transportability.
The most accurate requirements are the following varieties:
- Berd early
- Omsk early
- First grader, etc.
Amulet is a variety with medium maturity. Strawberries in the stage of technical ripeness have a dark red color, the shape of berries is cone-shaped. A distinctive feature is a rich sweet taste, which all family members will surely like, and a very strong classic aroma. Use of fruits is universal, they are suitable for transportation over long distances.
Berd early strawberries differ from competitors in their increased resistance to the negative effects of pests or pathogens. Frost-resistant variety, undemanding in the care. Productivity is not too high, but the fruits of excellent taste, fragrant and with early ripening. When the strawberry of this variety begins to ripen, it becomes scarlet matte color. Berry has a conical shape.
Tanyusha's strawberry bushes grow powerful and grow green mass well. Description of the variety suggests that the plant is undemanding in the care, tolerates drought and strong cold. The berries are saturated red color, with a glossy shine, excellent taste and medium ripening.
Strawberry Kama received the popular name Black Prince. One bush gives up to 1 kg of berries. The fruit is large, weighing about 40 grams, with high product and taste indicators. The disadvantage is susceptibility to gray and brown rot. Very winter-hardy, which, with timely preventive treatment, will surely please with the harvest.
Optimum landing times
In Siberian climate conditions, strawberries are planted in autumn and spring. In the spring, work is being done by the fourth decade of May. Sending seedlings to the beds from late July to mid-August is considered an autumn planting in this region. This is necessary so that the young strawberry has time to root well and to get stronger before the onset of stable cold weather.
Attention! If planting strawberries will be made later than the recommended dates in the spring, then it can dry out, and in the fall it will not have time to take root and freeze.
Choosing a landing site
At the time of planting the bushes on the bed in spring, the air temperature during the daytime should be at least + 8 ° С. The beds are located in a sunny and well-lit place. The soil is preferred loose, rich in humus. Strawberries do not tolerate excess moisture, so you should prepare a good drainage in advance. You can not have beds in areas with a high level of groundwater and the possibility of flooding. The level of moisture in the soil should not exceed 78%. It can be said that the ideal place for growing strawberries will be hills and plains. The terrain must be protected from drafts and winds. The North and the Urals in this matter require a particularly sensitive attitude, because otherwise the bushes do not overwinter.
Attention! To increase plant resistance to diseases, do not plant strawberries after solanaceous crops.
Early strawberries, cultivation and care in Siberia, which require a certain attention and effort, are planted in advance prepared beds. The best time to prepare the soil is autumn. At this time, compost is applied, any humus or organic fertilizer. Wood ash is an excellent means for fertilizing and disinfecting the soil. The acidity of the soil should not be above pH 6.5.
2 weeks before the proposed planting of strawberries, they dig it up on the plot and bring in compost or rotted manure. Immediately before landing, the ground is loosened to a depth of about 18 cm.
Features of planting and care
For planting strawberries choose cloudy weather or evening hours. Pre-moisten the soil moderately, make holes at a distance of 70 cm from each other, and leave at least 15 cm between plants. Rhizomes should be placed vertically, and the root collar should be flush with the soil. After planting the ground mulch. For this suitable material such as a torus or humus. In the spring, it is necessary to use covering material, which is removed a couple of weeks after planting strawberries.
Planting young bushes require regular, but not too abundant irrigation. A benchmark is the drying of the upper layer of the earth. Regarding whether strawberries need additional feeding, the views of gardeners differ. Some are convinced that the fertilizer applied during planting is sufficient to provide the planting with the necessary supply of nutrients. Others tend to think that because of the difficult climate, plants require additional fertilization during the period when they begin to bloom and form fruits. For these purposes, use of complex mineral fertilizers or phosphorus-potassium, which are particularly relevant during flowering.
Neighborhood with weeds is detrimental to strawberries, because the beds need to constantly weed and loosen the soil. Formed during the summer antennae removed. Some of the strongest bushes are left for seedlings. Strawberries require periodic transplants, which are carried out once every 3-4 years. In spring and autumn, the beds are cleaned and covered with spruce leaves. If during the winter period there is little snow, then a snowdrift is additionally thrown over the spruce branches.
Features of strawberry varieties for Siberia
If the farm has its own greenhouse, then in severe conditions the remontant strawberry can be cultivated.
Varieties for Siberia:
- Crimean Remontant,
- Mount Everest,
There is also a remontant variety of strawberries, which is propagated by sowing seeds. As a rule, the north does not allow to carry out this procedure directly in the open ground, because plants are grown seedling. The seed is sown in cups or peat tablets, and then, when spring comes, warm weather sets in, swoop down on the garden bed.
The most popular among gardeners has deserved just such remontant strawberries, the best varieties of which for Siberia:
Some farmers, with large areas of land or good greenhouses, make a good business in growing strawberries. Garden strawberries with proper care gives abundant crops, and its fruits in Siberia are quite expensive even in the height of the season.
When the strawberry harvest begins to ripen, the Siberians also open the harvest season. Berries that do not have time to use fresh, sent for processing. With the observance of the conditions of agricultural engineering and the right choice of variety, even with a small bed you can collect a decent amount of fruit useful for the body. Справиться с выращиванием садовой земляники под силу даже неопытному начинающему садоводу-любителю, поскольку абсолютно ничего сложного в этом деле нет.After all, if you have your own garden plot, even in Siberia it is impossible to resist the temptation and not to plant at least a few strawberry bushes there. When she starts to sing, the whole family will enjoy the aroma and taste of berries.
Basic requirements for Siberian strawberries
Growing strawberries in the harsh Siberian conditions becomes possible only if the following requirements for this delicate plant are met:
- possessing a sufficient degree of frost resistance so that the strawberries successfully survive the harsh Siberian winters,
- the ability to quickly regenerate the green part of the bush,
- the degree of opposition to the rotting of ripe fruit and frequent damage to common strawberry mite,
- Such strawberry varieties should be distinguished by increased yield of berries with excellent taste characteristics, which are quite suitable for further transfer.
It is quite difficult to find the best strawberry varieties for these requirements, but it is possible to find the best strawberry varieties. In order to reward the family with fragrant ripe berries, it is necessary to cultivate several varieties of horticultural strawberries, differing in their fruiting period, unique unique taste, the size of the berries. You need to know exactly the peculiarities of care of each class of them.
Some nuances of care for resistant varieties of strawberries
Any crop requires proper care in order to get maximum yield. First you need to take care of the thorough preparation of the land for planting strawberries. Any strawberry can not stand, if before planting in the beds nourished grapes varieties. The place should be out of reach of the spring water flow, be completely open to the penetration of sunlight, with rich in nourishing humus and fluffy soil.
Care for persistent strawberry varieties in Siberia involves strict compliance with the irrigation regime, regular weeding, ensuring adequate nutrition, removal of new whiskers, seasonal mulching. Seasonal care and soil preparation must begin in the autumn. Before digging the strawberry beds into 1 square meter of the formed bed, a nutrient mixture is applied from a bucket of useful humus, 0.5 liters of natural wood resin and 30 g of balanced fertilizer on a purely mineral basis. For the landing of large remontant varieties of strawberries is expected to double the mixture.
Growing large-strawberry strawberries requires the creation of beds no more than 50 cm wide, the allowable distance between the beds should also be not less than 80 cm. It is desirable to plant large varieties in fairly spacious beds in one row, a suitable width for them is 1 meter. Such is the care of such unpretentious varieties of garden strawberries.
The next planting of mature seedlings must be made in early spring. Planted seedlings should be covered with a special covering material for a period of 10 days for the necessary adaptation. Remontnye varieties of strawberries should not be disclosed until the first ripe berries. After 3 years, it is necessary to transfer mature plants to other prepared beds; it is possible to deposit useful wood ash into the holes of garden strawberries at any time convenient for gardeners.
Optimum varieties of strawberries for the harsh conditions of Siberia
Suitable varieties for Siberia are in practice the proven effectiveness of mature seedlings. As such, the following varieties are considered:
- Berd sweet and sour strawberries. With careful observance of the basic rules of the necessary care, it can bring a tremendous harvest. In Siberia, it is recommended to grow under a special cover.
- Russian Darenka. These strawberry varieties stand out for their lush bushes with large leaves. When complying with the necessary prescriptions of care, it pleases with an early and rather abundant harvest. These varieties of strawberries are optimal for growing for sale. The main conditions for obtaining sufficient yield are dosed irrigation and dosed application of the necessary fertilizers. Sudden temperature fluctuations do not scare strawberries. Darenka distinguishes resistance to attacks of major pests and fungal diseases.
- Fragrant Black Prince or Kama. This variety is bred by leading Polish breeders. Its mature fruits are distinguished by a catchy red color and slightly sourish taste. The berries are juicy, with sufficient density. One mature shrub of this garden strawberry can give up to 1 kg of fragrant ripe berries. It withstands cool temperatures, rather resistant to the dry period, but it is highly susceptible to brown or white spot. High-quality processing with special antibacterial agents will help preserve the integrity of the crop.
- The Omsk Early Strawberry is a type of culture specially bred by domestic breeders for the special climate of Siberia. This variety has a high yield, it is almost not subject to various diseases. In the photo, this variety is represented by a rather lush bush with red berries, which can be immediately noticed because of their amazing aroma and sweet-sour taste.
- Amulet dessert strawberries of a variety differ in fruits of a large form. One mature shrub can produce up to 2 kg of the crop of these fragrant berries. The ripening process takes place simultaneously. Children prefer this amazing variety to other peers for the rich sweet taste of ripe fruit. Skilful housewives with great pleasure engaged in its seasonal canning. The culture does not undergo any diseases, it tolerates frosts perfectly. In order to achieve the highest yield, it is recommended to plant only in early spring.
- Gorgeous mid-early Tanya is the fruit of the successful work of researchers in this region. Powerful fluffy bushes with compact rosettes and small fruits of intense red color - this is the main thing that distinguishes this variety from the rest. Tanyusha is a special kind of strawberry bred under this region.
- Sweet Festival Chamomile is the result of the successful work of Ukrainian breeders. It gives fairly large fruit with a unique sweet taste and unique aroma. For further transportation, this brand is not ideal. According to numerous reviews, Chamomile is good in any form: fresh, canned, in the form of fragrant juices and unique desserts.
The bred variety has high resistance to major diseases, good tolerance of temperature differences.
To please the family with a magnificent harvest of strawberries, it is advisable to purchase mature seedlings on the spot, in special nurseries, and not to order from afar. Only varieties grown at the site will show a result that can surprise any novice gardener.
And finally - about the secrets!
We would also like to talk about an important aspect - watering at the site. Garden hoses are often too heavy, twisted, dirty. At the same time, water consumption is often not controlled in any way, and it may take a whole day to irrigate the entire plot.
Fortunately, autonomous irrigation is no longer a wonder and is available to any gardener. But the main thing is that when irrigating with a normal hose, sunburns appear on the leaves of the plants, which means.