It is necessary to know what is the best covering material for roses for the winter. It is not uncommon for rose garden lovers to cover every bush before the onset of cold weather, and with the arrival of spring they discover that many plants have died. At the same time flower growers blame poor-quality insulation. Unfortunately, many of them are not aware that in order for the plants to successfully winter, it is necessary not only to prepare them competently for this, but to choose the best shelter for roses.
Rose and winter hardiness
Gardeners living in the central and northern territories, before planting roses on their plots, should get acquainted with the catalog of varietal seedlings, each type of which requires certain conditions during the cold season. It is recommended to pay special attention to winter hardiness to residents of regions with severe but little snowy winters.
When choosing the size of the shrub, you need to remember that to shelter roses for the winter - their small representatives - to find suitable material is much easier. But for large climbing species or high standard specimens, special “houses” will be needed.
To facilitate the work related to the shelter of shrubs in the autumn, it is recommended to plant them not in fragmented flower beds throughout the site, but in groups. In addition, you need to know that the last time you feed the roses with organic and mineral substances with a nitrogen content, you need at the very beginning of August. Otherwise, in young shoots, growth is stimulated, contributing to a decrease in frost resistance. In the future, the bushes require periodic feeding phosphate-potassium solution, accelerating their lignification.
Some flower growers, saving money, float handy shelter material so that roses can winter freely. In this case, the old sackcloth, spruce branches, rags, fallen leaves, sand, sawdust or peat are used.
These funds can not be called ideal, as they are suitable for service no more than one winter and inconvenient during transportation.
Types of shelter
Answering the question how to cover roses for the winter and whether it is possible to cover the roses with black material, it should first of all be noted that it is not recommended to use black. In the spring, the snow gradually melts, and the black heater heats up much faster, contributing to the greenhouse effect, but it does not have the ability to transmit light.
There are several methods of warming that allow plants to winter.
The advantages of this method is excellent ventilation and constant temperature, and the technology is quite simple. The base of metal rods is first covered with insulation, secured with twine, and covered with polyethylene on top to protect it from moisture. Below the edge of the shelter sprinkled with earth.
Metal frame may well replace the containers with twisted holes, which are covered with a film in a period of stable frost.
This method is ideal for climbing roses. In this case, the prepared bushes are closed with lap branches, above them are placed shields of wood in the form of a house. The lower edges of the structure are fixed with pegs, and on top it is covered with a film. The dimensions of this design should be suitable for the length of the branches and have a width of at least 85 cm.
To ensure good ventilation and prevent root decay, it is necessary to lift the edges of the polyethylene before the first frost. And further on, with a decrease in temperature, the film falls and is covered with earth below.
If the winters are warm, it is important to exercise temperature control inside the structure and monitor the air flow.
Shelter jute bags
This method is best used in relation to standard roses growing in open ground. For this, a bag is put on the crown, in which the bottom is missing and tied around the apical part of the main shoot. Then dry foliage is poured inside or a spruce branch is laid and compacted. The bag is tied at the top, and the trunk is covered with burlap.
Experts recommend pre-loosen the soil near the trunk and cover it with a layer of mulch.
How to cover the plants for the winter:
Polyethylene is perhaps the most popular material among gardeners and gardeners. The scope of its use is very large (greenhouses, greenhouses, beds in the spring, etc.). However, with the advent of more modern and technologically advanced materials on the market, he gradually began to lose ground. One of the main disadvantages of polyethylene is that it does not breathe, that is, by blocking roses or any other culture with it, you block oxygen. A typical situation is when plants burn under polyethylene. Positive qualities - wear resistance, the ability to retain heat, low cost. Such a covering material for roses for the winter can be used in emergency cases and with caution.
The technology is simple. Pre-prepared rose bushes are twisted and tied up in the form of arches (not too high) to the arcs previously installed on the bed. Then stack roofing material, and on top - polyethylene. It is important to press the edges of the material to restrict access to moisture. The main purpose of any shelter is to create an air cushion inside where warm air will circulate. In spring, the shelter is removed gradually: first, the front sides are opened so that the roses do not get stuck, and when the onset of heat completely releases the bushes.
Spunbond is a nonwoven covering material (including roses for the winter), which has become a good alternative to conventional polyethylene. Its main advantage is its excellent value for money and functionality. Spunbond is able to create a favorable light regime for the plant (black, opaque, on the contrary, helps to fight weeds), protecting it from burning sun rays, which is important for roses in early spring. It quickly and easily passes air and moisture, without delaying it, prevents penetration of insects and rodents to the bushes, is durable and can be used for several seasons. Spunbond tolerates lowering the temperature to -55 ° C.
This covering material for roses for the winter prices (reviews about it are very positive) is very affordable. It can be used in different ways. For bush plants, you first need to build a frame of wood or put the arc, and already lay atop spunbond. It is also very convenient for climbing roses, which do not need to be removed from supports, but it is enough to wrap the material and fix it with clothespins or a construction stapler. Standard types to bend down to the ground is almost impossible, therefore they should be wrapped. You can make an improvised bag of non-woven material, or just carefully wrap them with the trunk of the plant, and carefully secure the top with a soft rope.
Spandbond has a high rating, judging by the reviews. Gardeners note that it is reliable, easy to handle (storage, assembly, drying) and effective. Rose bushes and other plants winter well, moreover, you can use after winter the canvas of material for other purposes in the garden.
Timely shelter of roses for the winter covering material - a measure necessary if you want to save the plants until next year. In recent years, geotextiles have become increasingly popular. Initially, it was created for the construction industry, however, due to its structure and properties, it has become indispensable in gardening. Geotextiles are excellent for protecting plants from mold, frost and rodents. Advantages of the material: strength (not subject to rotting), the ability to pass air and moisture, allowing excess condensate to evaporate, price availability.
Shelter technology is similar to that when using a spunbond and is described above. In gardening it is best to use geotextiles with a density of 200 g per square meter. Now in stores you can buy material not only for a cut, but also ready-made bags for sheltering roses and other shrubs.
Popular covering material for roses for the winter, reviews of which are mostly positive. It is made according to the technology similar to the production of spunbond, and therefore has similar characteristics. Positive qualities: durability, easy storage (enough to dry, roll and clean), eco-friendly, breathable and affordable air. Varies according to density. For the shelter of roses for the winter, use a material with an indicator of 60 g per square meter. As for the comparison with the spunbond, lutrasil loses to it only in terms of resistance to ultraviolet radiation. Shelter technology is similar.
Fir branches and dry foliage
Dry leaves, which are formed in plenty in the autumn, as well as reliable coniferous spruce branches - the traditional covering material for roses for the winter, is considered one of the best. It is not expensive, although you have to make time for a trip to the forest, and it is eco-friendly, it helps to protect the plants not only from frost, but also from annoying rodents that can destroy everything in their path. Pine or fir twigs perfectly protects from cold wind, freezing rain, sleet and creates an ideal space inside the shelter with excellent ventilation. Under its cover drastic temperature drops are smoothed out and the detrimental effect of winter sunlight decreases.
But, like any materials, lapnik has its drawbacks. First, harvesting of branches is allowed only from already felled trees in certain places or sanitary cleaning zone. Secondly, if the forest is located far away, then it will be problematic to stock up with spruce branches. Thirdly, there is a chance to bring along with the branches to the site of various pests or diseases. Therefore, walking through the forest, you need to carefully look at the trees from which you are going to take lapnik.
Covering material for roses for the winter: price
It is impossible to give exact information on prices, unless it is approximate. The indicator depends on the manufacturer, region and even season.
The price of polyethylene (popularly called “greenhouse film”) depends on its density. Thus, the highest grade material is from 10-15 rubles per meter. Reinforced polyethylene is more expensive - an average of 40-45 rubles.
The price of non-woven synthetic material is higher. For spunbond density of 17, 42, 60 g / sq. m with a canvas size of 3.2x10 will have to pay, respectively, about 170, 330, 455 rubles.
Approximately in the same range are prices for geotextiles. Canvas density of 200 g / sq. m costs 22-50 rubles per square meter.
Preparation of roses for winter: features
The process of preparing any plant for winter, including roses, is not as simple as it seems at first glance. First you need to hold sanitary and preparatory activities, and only at the final stage is required covering material for roses. How to cover the roses for the winter right? The question is relevant for a novice gardener, and for the more experienced.
First, you need to determine whether the plant is ready for winter. If the rose bush has red shoots in September, this is a sign of active growth. The plant is not ready for winter, it has not accumulated the necessary amount of carbohydrates, and the shoots have not woody yet. Rosa needs help. To do this, the bushes are fed phosphate fertilizers, pinch the growing point and remove the flowering buds.
Secondly, from the beginning of September loosening of the soil around the roses and the process of plant formation should be stopped. This is required to prevent stimulating the growth of shoots from dormant buds. In late October - early November, all the leaves are removed from the plant. This is done in order to prevent their rotting in the winter under cover.
Thus, before making the shelter of roses for the winter with a covering material, the features of the latter should be carefully studied. And weigh all the positive and negative points.
Cold-resistant varieties do not need to cover?
Park, species and some hybrids are considered to be the most resistant to cold. The opinion that frost-resistant roses can winter without preparation is wrong. Even the most hardy species need special preparation for sub-zero temperatures.
In the middle lane and in the south of Russia, frost-resistant varieties can winter without shelter, but the root system is still better to pile up with turfy soil, spruce forest or dry foliage. All feeding and pinching stop by September. Before winter, the bushes are treated with antiseptic, clipped and covered (fully or partially). Full shelter is necessary for bushes that overwinter in particularly harsh conditions - if the thermometer in winter falls below -30 degrees.
The most cold-resistant varieties include: Ritausma, Golden Celebration, Pink Grottendorst, Leonardo da Vinci, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, Hansa, Adelaide Hutles, Lavinia, Scabrosa, Snow Pavement, Jens Munk, John Davis, Hunza, Peace, New Dawn, Black Pansy William Shakespeare 2000 et al
Wintering conditions for thermophilic roses
Sensitive to cold weather are climbing roses, miniature, hybrid teas, and exotic varieties. Such varieties require special protection in the winter: they must be insulated from above, spud, and some even completely buried in the ground.
Such varieties as Louise Odier, Souvenir de la Malmaison, Hybrid Gallica, Rosa Mundi, Fritz Nobis, Bourbon Roses need a thorough shelter. In conditions of particularly cold climate, such roses are recommended to be grown in greenhouses, or in large flowerpots, which are displayed in the garden only in summer, and the flowers “live” indoors during the rest of the year.
When is it time to cover the roses?
Covering rose bushes can be no earlier than the end of October. Otherwise, the temperature in the shelter may increase, causing the development of roots and shoots. In addition, at the beginning of autumn soil moisture rises. This condition will lead to an excess of moisture and plant decay. Experts advise to hide flowers in the winter, when for more than a week there is a decrease in temperature to -5 degrees.
Expert opinion: everything must be dry!
Experienced growers warn that the main condition for a successful wintering of rose bushes is dry shelter. Do not drip roses with wet soil, damp foliage or covering material. And the bushes themselves, and all means of shelter must be dry. It protects roses from pests, rot and mildew.
Stage 1: prepare the roses for wintering correctly
1. At the end of the summer you need to stop nitrogen supplements, causing the growth of shoots. Before autumn, you can occasionally fertilize flowers with potash mixtures, which contribute to the stiffening of the stem. The last feeding should take place no later than September (in a warm climate - the end of September). The most successful composition for pre-winter fertilizer is potassium magnesia. Such a simple care for roses in the fall will bear fruit.
2. Before shelter you need to give roses to ripen. To do this, stop cutting flowers into bouquets 3-4 weeks before hiding. This also applies to young roses of the first year, whose buds you have cut all summer. Before winter, they definitely need to give to bloom to end the growing season naturally.
3. Almost all garden roses have no natural period of leaf fall. Therefore, all the leaves need to be cut or cut. This will not only bring the plant into a state of rest, but also relieve him of potential foci of infection.
4. Right before the shelter, bushes should be treated with a fungicide or solution of ferrous sulfate to disinfect all above-ground parts of the plant. The ground under the roses should be cleared of fallen leaves, weeds and any other debris.
Stage 2: Bending down or trimming
You can not cut the park and waving varieties. Climbing roses and some bush varieties that are sensitive to cold weather should begin to bend to the ground beforehand, as laying on the ground can immediately damage or break stiff stalks. So, 3-4 weeks before the shelter of a rose you need to start laying on supports, which gradually lower and lower.
Bend down or cut the park roses?
Many flower growers love to cover roses without cutting, arguing that this way the plant tolerates winter better. In addition, the risk of ejection of new shoots is significantly reduced, and the bush itself wakes up and blooms earlier in the spring. However, opinions are not unequivocal, because in harsh winters, the plant overwinters the better, the smaller its aboveground part. There is one more thing - the upper part of the stems may contain bacteria and rot, which is dangerous for the plant as a whole. Therefore, we - for pruning!
How to bend down the bushes?
- If the stems are dense and not flexible, then they need to bend down in several stages, as mentioned above. For bending branches, you can use old construction studs or rods. They easily enter the ground, bend well and serve for many years.
- To stem the stem without damaging the plant, you can dig under the root of the rose with a pitchfork. You do not need to dig up a bush, make 2-3 incomplete digging in order for the stem to become mobile. Now he will lay down better on a support for shelter.
- The bush should be bent in the direction of grafting to avoid breaking the load on the stem in this place.
Standard and all climbing roses are removed from the support and placed on the ground.
Stage 3: Covering
How to cover roses for the winter? Это может быть прикопка, воздушно-сухой вид укрытия или обертывание.
- Прикапывают кусты следующим образом: окучиваем землей корни подготовленной розы на 20-40 см высоты стеблей, верхние побеги куста засыпаем сухой листвой или накрываем лапником. Можно полностью закапывать розы в землю,
- The air type of shelter provides for the insulation of the root with foliage or needles and the construction over the rose of an air dome made of plywood, plastic or other suitable materials.
- Some growers use a method of wrapping roses with a geotextile cloth or other thermal insulation material.
I. Frame method
Ready rounded bushes can be covered on top of the frame. Material that can be used: metal rods, plastic sheets, large plastic vases, old wicker baskets, wooden pallets, boards, etc. We construct the framework as follows:
- Mark up the place around a trimmed bush or a bent rose,
- We form a dome or shelter in the form of a roof of two plates above the rose,
- If the winter is especially frosty, the dome can be covered with a covering material, and the plant itself can be covered with needles or foliage,
- The edges of the insulation are pressed against bricks from all sides in order to sometimes air covered roses.
Frame shelters are of different types:
Ii. Fence with an embankment
The essence of the method is dry backfilling of a rose in a form fixed around it. As the fence, you can use a mesh of stainless steel, thin plywood or cardboard boxes. From the selected material is the fence height and width of the bush. Insulation is poured inside: dry sawdust, foliage, hay, etc. If the fence is made of metal mesh, then it can be additionally wrapped with polyethylene from the sides so that the bulk material does not spill out.
Iii. Lutrasil Cocoon
Some tall varieties, especially shtambovye, cover the method of winding insulation material on the crown, leaving the stem on a support. In this case, the root is also insulated by hilling. To insulate the leaf part of a rose, it is wrapped with lutrasil or other insulating material. Bottom cocoon tied up so that the cold air does not pass through the insulation.
Summing up, we can note the following: even if your roses live in conditions of warm winters (-5, -10 degrees), they should be insulated before frosts. Covering roses is not only protection from the cold, but also a means of preventing many diseases (rot, blight, etc.). Choose the type of shelter, according to the variety of your roses and the climatic conditions of your region. We wish you a beautiful and healthy rose garden!
Indian autumn is the best time to start preparing roses for wintering. As soon as the weather is dry and warm, go to the garden and get rid of everything that is superfluous. By “superfluous” we understand not only diseased or broken off, dried up shoots, but also until the flowering buds and flowers have faded. Put them at home in a vase and continue to enjoy the beauty. And you yourself gently tie the rose bushes with any suitable material so that they become compact, do not fall apart in different directions, and bend down to the ground, as shown in the photo.
If you grow tall roses, shorten the stems, leave no more than half a meter. Remember that climbing varieties are carefully thinned before winter, leaving no more than eight strong healthy shoots. Flowers will appear on them next season. Scourge pre neatly removed from the supports. Before laying, they are covered with something dry. A spruce branch or a sheet of plywood will do.
To protect roses from diseases, infections and decay, spray the bushes with a solution of ferrous sulfate (iron is not a slip of the pen). Take a package of 200 grams and dilute in 5 liters of water, then carefully treat the plants and the surrounding soil. Do this before you begin to tilt the bushes.
Before starting work, thoroughly clean the rose garden from fallen leaves and weeds. In the future, they can become a fertile environment for the development of pests and diseases. At the same time, we do not recommend cutting the green leaves from the bushes themselves, as some flower growers advise. This is completely against nature, and besides, it’s good if you are the owner of a pair of bushes, but what about when there are hundreds and more in the rose garden?
Observations of specialists have shown that roses, which for some reason have lost leaves, hibernate worse than their colleagues with greens, and even die. Therefore, we recommend that you try to keep them in place, and in the spring they will fall off themselves to make room for a new growth.
Note, cutting the leaves, it is very difficult to do this carefully, without damaging the delicate skin of the stems and not opening a direct path to infections. Also know that the processes of photosynthesis, and accordingly, nutrition, occur even with minimal lighting, that is, even in the shelter of the plant will continue to strengthen and gain strength. Subject to the availability of greenery.
If all activities are completed, cover the roses with a rain-protective material.
The eternal question that many aspiring flower growers are asking is whether to pour the neck of the rock that was grafted over with earth. Opinions diverge. Since we give advice, based on our own experience, not claiming the truth in the last resort, but relying on positive results, we will give our vision of the situation. So, it is believed that the powder helps roses avoid freezing. But we will cover the plants, so the question disappears. In addition, raking the earth in a heap, we strip the roots, and this is already a direct path to death from frost.
Compost cannot replace land. A dangerous solution leads to an infectious burn. Rings from dark spots that will be clearly visible after removing the cover will tell about its presence. Such stems are not viable, to be removed. And well, if you do not cause the death of the whole bush.
Manure is also a dangerous material that causes intense heat. Keep it away from roses. Peat does not heat, but very quickly gets wet, then freezes through - the effect is the opposite of what is expected. The same thing happens when using dry earth. During the wet season, it will also get wet.
Therefore, the hilling stage is skipped. Roses prepared for the shelter are carefully hidden under the protective material. Suitable polyethylene film. It is not pressed to the ground to leave room for ventilation. Rain does not flood the plants, the plants remain dry - just what we need to achieve.
If you are a happy owner of a rose garden with numerous inhabitants, do not immediately embrace the immense. Cook roses step by step. First process and cover one part, then the second. Why? First, the fruits of labor and the area of work to be seen. Secondly, the weather is unpredictable. On the processing of roses will take more than one day. It will be extremely offensive if, before the final touch - shelter - the plants will be rained or covered with snow.
Lapnik has been used to shelter heat-loving plants for a long time. In our high-tech age material has not lost its relevance. Lapnik is good from which side you do not approach him. It is environmentally friendly, made by nature itself without the use of harmful chemicals. Due to the abundance of needles and layering perfectly retains heat and does not let the cold through. The needles have antiseptic properties, spines do not like rodents, the smell frightens off insect pests. Add the ability to easily pass air, which protects against the development of processes of decay.
As a result, roses feel great in their houses, they are not afraid of frost, thaw, or wind.
Unfortunately, spruce branches are becoming increasingly rare material. This is especially true of the Moscow region forests, where conifers are actively attacked by pests. In addition, we consider it the duty of every conscious person to take branches only from broken trees. In general, if you are lucky to get lapnik - be sure to use it. If you do not want - give us a present!
Do not take it as an advertisement, but modern covering materials are a real miracle. They greatly facilitated the life of flower growers and all those whose plants need warm winter shelters. Spunbond, agryla, lutrasil are suitable for roses, it is important that the density of the canvas is from 60 g / m2.
Always use two layers of material - the air gap repeatedly increases the degree of heat preservation. It is also important to put the material up with the waxed side - the cover will effectively resist wetting and dry. The edges are simply pressed with bricks, usually this is enough not to be carried away by the wind, especially after the snow falls. In winter, get a simple and reliable shelter. By the way, the material is reusable, it breaks and deteriorates rarely, it can be used for several years in a row.
You, probably, more than once saw ghost roses sticking out of the snow, wrapped with a spanbond. This is an extremely strange decision and absolutely useless. The fact is that the material itself cannot be heated, its task is to retain heat. Rose is not capable of giving heat, it must come from the ground, that is why we advised to bend down the bushes before the shelter. The plant is in a kind of thermos that does not let the cold inward, and the heat out. Naturally, a rose sticking out from under the snow does not receive anything like it.
An important observation is that several rose bushes wintering in one “house” feel much better and withstand cold attacks more easily. Under a large shelter, not only are several plants placed, but also the area of the earth increases many times over, and, consequently, the heating increases. If we are talking about large bushes with thick stems, small strong arches installed above the folds crosswise will help protect them from breaking under a heavy snow mass.
If you cover the spanbond with another layer of film, the material will be reliably protected from possible rain. Do not forget to stretch the polyethylene all the way to the ground, so that the shelter can breathe.
In a properly made “house”, the roses withstand the winter without any problems, whatever surprises the weather might have prepared. Then it will be necessary to remove it correctly, but this is a topic for another article, familiarize yourself with it closer to the onset of heat.
Basic rules for shelter
Than to cover the roses for the winter, besides the spruce branches, we found out, walking along the basics of different technologies, and now let us dwell in more detail on the key rules for preparing rosaries for winter.
Regardless of which heater and method of its use you prefer, it is important to carry out a set of preparatory work. It starts when the bushes shed their leaves.
The first thing to do is cut from the plant damaged, dry and underdeveloped branches. It is also important to remove the remaining foliage, because pathogenic microorganisms and pests are very likely in the half-dead cuttings. So that the shrub does not suffer from fungal and bacterial diseases, it is recommended to spray it with the preparation "Fundazol" or "Maxim".
If you take into account the peculiarities of rose varieties, preparation and warming will be carried out correctly, your flowers will survive until spring in the safety and security. But do not take shelter as a panacea. This is just one of many ways to protect the bushes from the cold. In addition, it is effective only with complex preparation, which begins with irrigation, fertilizing and soil care.