Hungarian Lilac (Latin: syringa josikaea) - shrub with a dense deciduous crown, having an ovoid shape. Its height can reach up to 3-4 meters. The diameter of the crown can reach up to 4 meters. The leaves of the shrub have an elliptical shape. Leaf length reaches from 6 to 12 cm. In spring and summer, they have a dark green color, yellow in autumn.
Special beauty shrub reaches during flowering. Description of the color of lilac: flowers of a tubular form are collected in pyramidal inflorescences. Their color is bright purple. Flower size does not exceed 1 cm. The photo shows the flowering lilac Veneger.
Hungarian lilac picks up color 7-10 days later than ordinary lilac. The flowering period lasts up to 20-25 days.
Varieties and forms of Hungarian lilac
Most modern varieties are based on common lilac. Russian nurseries do not offer their varietal diversity in Hungarian. In horticultural culture, there is only a standard shrub and several of its forms.
Forms of Hungarian:
- pale (in Latin: Syringajosikaea f. pallida) has a soft lilac color of a fading shade,
- red flowers form (Syringajosikaea f. rubra) - purple, with a reddish tint,
- white-flowered form (Syringajosikaea f. monstrosa) - white flowers,
- pink (Syringajosikaea f. rosea) - pink flowers pastel color, with a purple tint.
Favorable conditions for planting a Hungarian
For a good growth of the Hungarian lilac it is necessary to take into account all the favorable conditions for planting: light, soil, moisture-loving, weather conditions.
Conditions for growing Hungarian:
- undemanding to soil composition,
- resistant to frost
- drought resistant.
The main criterion for selecting a landing site is a well-lit area, closed from the wind. Hungarian lilac light-loving plant.
To shrub soil is not picky. But it is not necessary to plant it on wetlands, flooded with autumn and spring periods. Lilac roots are sensitive to moisture, even a short stay in the water leads to rotting and death of the root system. The ideal soil for it is fertile, with a good drainage layer, moderately moist soil. Best suited subacid or neutral soil composition.
Hungarian lilacs are well accustomed and give growth in the first season, if you plant it in mid-July until early autumn. Planting shrubs carried out in cloudy weather. As a rule, the soil in late autumn and spring has a high degree of humidity. This has a negative effect on young roots. Seedlings during this period take root badly and do not immediately give a growth. Lilac bushes are planted at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other.
Preparation for planting begins with the arrangement of landing pits. The dimensions of the pits depend on the composition of the soil: fertile soil - 50 cm by 50 cm, sandy soil –1 m by 1 m. They are dug out with sheer walls.
Planting pits are filled with a special substrate consisting of compost, wood ash, superphosphate.
- humus or compost - 15-20 kg,
- ash - 200-300 g,
- superphosphate - 20-30 g.
Superphosphate is an oxidizing agent. The proportion of ash must be correctly calculated based on the soil acidity index. To neutralize superphosphate in conditions of high acidity, it is recommended to increase part of the wood ash.
How to choose the seedlings for planting?
In order for the Hungarian lilac to take root well, special attention should be paid to the choice of a sapling. It should not be high, its crown is cut into three buds. Carefully inspect the roots before purchasing a seedling. The cutting for planting should have a healthy well-branched root system. The preferred length is at least 25 cm. Before planting, it is recommended to carefully inspect the roots. Damaged processes are removed completely, and too long neatly trimmed.
When planting, the seedling is placed in the middle of the pit, the root system gently straightens. All roots should be directed down. Lilacs are filled with pre-prepared substrate and crushed at the base. This will allow the ground to lie down tightly to the roots and provide power to the bush.
Proper care of the Hungarian lilac
After planting lilac poured abundantly with water. 1 bush requires 20-25 liters of water. Then the base is peppered with peat or humus. In the warm season it is recommended to loosen the soil (up to 4 times per season).
Within two years after planting, the bush must be fertilized only with nitrogen. It is contained in urea and ammonium nitrate. After the lilac gets stronger and rooted, it is fed with a special solution of manure and water (1: 5). Fertilizer can not be poured directly under the barrel, otherwise the lilac will begin to rot. The solution is neatly distributed from it at a distance of about 50 cm.
In the autumn, fertilization with potash and phosphate fertilizers is carried out. This may be superphosphate in the dosage - 40 g per adult bush, potash nitrate - 35 g, wood ash - 200 g per 8 liters of water.
The first few years after planting, the near-stem circle of young lilacs needs shelter for the winter season. For this suitable peat or dry leaf. The cover layer must be at least 10 cm.
Pruning and shaping Hungarian lilac
Hungarian lilac has its own natural beauty of the crown, it is compact and keeps its shape without applying special effort to it, it can be clearly seen in the photo below, where the variety from one of the Eastern European nurseries is illustrated.
Syringa josikaea ‘Villa Nova’
But to give a stricter silhouette, you can do shaping scraps. There is nothing complicated about it. Usually it is enough to give the direction of growth. Hungarian perfectly keeps the specified shape. The shrub does not require constant cutting. Trimming is carried out according to a common standard. The crowns of adult bushes are thinned out in early spring before their active gardening. Branches thin out from the inside. This allows you to give a beautiful appearance. After flowering, lilac panicles are carefully trimmed.
Hungarian lilac hedge
Hungarian lilacs can be an excellent choice for creating a hedge to enclose a site. In order to carry out the correct formation of a fence, it is necessary to take into account the volume of growth of shrubs. Under the lilac stands a large area. Plants are planted in line at a distance of 1.5 meters.
For the first 3 years, lilacs in a hedge do not prune or fertilize. At the 4 year begin feeding. Regular watering is not required. Pruning is carried out in order to thicken the bushes. On young shrubs up to 10 powerful shoots are left. After the lilac gains its strength, pruning is done only to give shape or to rejuvenate bare bushes.
Formation in the standard form
It is remarkable, the Hungarian lilac effectively looks in a standard form. The stab form is a lush tree grown on a flat trunk with falling branches or a rounded silhouette. To create a decorative boom, you must choose unvaccinated lilac. In early spring, one shoots are taken from the shoots, growing to a height of not less than 1 meter. The roots are cut off in a square shape - 20 by 20 cm. The varietal lilac is grafted onto the cuttings. In the fall, lilacs are carefully dug out and planted on well-prepared land. Radical shoots removed.
The photo is an example of a lilac formed by a bob.
How to propagate already growing shrubs? Hungarian does not give offspring, which determines some difficulty in its reproduction. The main method is grafting. Both green branches and lignified trees are suitable for rooting. With proper care, new seedlings are easy to produce. Rooting cuttings occur in 90%.
Lilacs can be propagated from seeds. Previously carried out stratification - simulating the winter period. For this 2 months the seeds are kept at a temperature of 3-5 degrees. Sowing begins in spring and autumn in the prepared soil.
The Hungarian began its distribution from the countries of the Balkan Peninsula and Hungary, from which its name came. In Soviet times, even was listed in the Red Book.
Hungarian lilacs can exist and survive in climates with significant temperature fluctuations, and even in large megalopolises. It is quite simple in reproduction, and its stability at the same time makes it possible to preserve the species trait.
Hungarian lilac (syringe josikaea - Latin) is a shrub that has a fairly dense foliate crown, egg-shaped.
It can reach a height of up to 4 meters, and the diameter of the crown can also be up to 4 meters. But the crown is always formed in proportion to the growth of the bush, and lilac always looks elegant. In this case, the crown is formed naturally and neatly, which allows not to waste time on its formation.
Height. The growth of the bush per year is about 30 centimeters, which allows it to quickly pick up its maximum size.
Shoots The shrubs are erect, they are distinguished by their beauty and thickness, they are directed exactly upwards and create the effect of an openwork crown. The color of young shoots is different from the old ones, and it varies from violet to purple. What allows Hungarian lilacs to not lose their attractiveness even in winter time.
Leaves wide elliptical shape, grow up to 12 centimeters in length and have cilia along the edges. In spring and summer, the leaves are dark and saturated green, and in autumn they turn yellow. On the reverse side leaves are gray-green, and have a pubescence in the middle.
Flowers the lilacs are tubular in shape, gather in narrow paniculate inflorescences, having a pyramidal shape, of a bright lilac color. They grow in size about 1 centimeter, and the entire inflorescence can reach 35 centimeters in length.
Inflorescences They are distinguished by a longline arrangement, and this distinguishes Hungarian lilac from other species.
Bloom begins 3 weeks after the blooming of common lilac in June, and lasts up to 25 days. Ripening of the fruit - boxes, fall in August. The box has a cylindrical shape of red color.
Shrubs of this species live up to 90 years and longer.
Hungarian lilac varieties
The variety variety of the Hungarian is not so great, in the garden culture only a few of its forms were bred. and the most popular are the following types.
Hungarian Hungarian Lilac (Syringa josikaea f. pallida) differs delicate lilac color of inflorescences, which seems a little faded.
Multicolored form (Syringa josikaea f. rubra) with beautiful purple, tinged with red flowers.
Belotsvetkovaya form (Syringa josikaea f. monstrosa) has a white shade of colors.
Pink (Syringa josikaea f. rosea) stands out with pastel pink color of flowers with a purple tint.
Hungarian lilac is suitable for growing in urban environments, and with strong air and soil pollution.
It develops well even near highways and on the side of the roadway, without suffering from exhaust gases and dust. In this case, it is better that the landing area is protected from the wind.
Lilac is a light-loving shrub, and it is better to plant it in a brightly lit place. But at the same time it can be placed in the penumbra.
Lilac does not make high demands on the composition of the soil. But if you plant it on the marshy territory, which is submerged in the spring and autumn periods, this can lead to decay and death of its roots.
They are sensitive to damp. The ideal location would be to plant on fertile, moderately moist soils, with a good drainage layer. In terms of acidity, it is suitable for acid and neutral soils.
It should be remembered that planting lilac is better in late July and August. When landing in the soil, seized by frost, it will not take root.
It is best to plant shrubs in late August or early September. Since if you plant it in early spring, then this year the growth of lilac will be very slow. At the same time, it is better to plan the landing in the evening, without an open sun.
Before planting the soil must be well loosened. Pit for planting dig deep, with steep walls.
They should be 50 to 50 centimeters in size on fertile grounds, and one meter per meter on poor sandy grounds. The pit is filled with a substrate of mineral and organic fertilizers, although you can do without them.
Between bushes it is necessary to maintain a distance of about 3 meters.
When planting a seedling in a hole, it should be placed exactly in the center, and so that the roots are looking down and the stem is vertical. Immediately after planting, the shrub needs to be shortened to a distance of two or three buds, watered abundantly and mulched with humus or last year leaves.
Then the soil must be loosened at the roots, about 4 times per season.
Description: Varieties and Varieties
This member of the genus Lilac differs from other species and varieties in its later flowering. It is less common in the domestic form than ordinary lilac. Although the care they are almost not different. Hungarian lilac has a dense egg-shaped crown, almost not prone to chaotic growth and does not lose the shape of a bush. In height the adult plant reaches 4 m.
- white flowers,
- red flowers,
- pale (with a very light tone of purple buds).
Attention! The life of a shrub of any of the varieties with proper care is up to 90 years.
Planting a plant
The initial set of favorable conditions for Hungarian lilac is an important factor in its successful cultivation for many years. It is possible to carry out the reproduction and planting of shrubs in the open field in the period from July to the beginning of autumn. It is important that at least a couple of weeks remain before the first frost. The root system of the seedling need to have time to adapt to the soil.
The Hungarian lilac should be planted on the soil with a neutral or slightly acidic balance. The earth should be nutritious, well loosened and slightly moist. To start working in the evening:
- Use only material with healthy roots, the length of which is at least 30 cm.
- Place the seedlings at a distance of 2-3 m between them.
- Size of planting holes: 50x50x50 cm for fertile soil. The walls of the fossa must be made steep. If the soil in your area is infertile, double the size of the hole.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture, which is based on humus. Mix wood ash (up to 300 g), compost in combination with superphosphate, if the soil has an alkaline composition.
- Before planting, inspect the seedling again. Shorten shoots by 1-2 buds. Trim the roots if they are too long.
- Place the shrub in the center of the pit. Straighten the roots. Fill the free space with a fertile substrate. Tamp the landing site.
- Sapling needs abundant watering (20-25 liters per bush). After 15-20 minutes after it - mulching with foliage or humus (layer - 7 cm).
Care culture. Fertilizer and dressing
In addition to the overall fertility of the soil, Hungarian lilac is not demanding to care in conditions of open ground. The main features of its cultivation are reduced to such moments:
- In the spring and summer loosen the soil about 1 time in 2 months.
- Two seasons after planting lilac needs only nitrogen fertilizers.
- Shrub likes abundant watering. But do not overdo it.
- From the 3rd year of plant life, plant for it manure (1: 5). When watering this solution fertilizer should not fall on the trunk. Bring once a season.
- An adult specimen is also fed with mineral mixtures containing phosphorus and potassium. For example, potassium nitrate (35 g / bush), dissolved in water, wood ash (200 g per 8 l per plant) or other fertilizers based on instructions. Terms - spring, before the end of flowering.
- The Hungarian variety of lilac is frost resistant. It is necessary to shelter for the winter only young bushes and only the trunk circle. Use dry peat or foliage. Layer thickness - 10 cm.
- Rejuvenating pruning plant is not needed. Formative - at will. Shrub well holds a given direction of growth. In early spring, you can thin out the inner twigs, and after flowering - remove faded buds.
Combination with other plants
In the open field lilac everywhere will have to court:
- in hedges,
- in mixborders,
- in combination with other shrubs and stunted trees (including lilacs of another species, which differ in terms of flowering time),
- in shrub rabatkah,
- in flower beds.
From a Hungarian lilac variety you can form a small stem tree with a spherical crown on a smooth and level trunk. This form looks spectacular during flowering. In March, pick up a sturdy escape of a graft-free bush, from a height of 1 m. Cut its roots in the form of a 20x20 cm square, and plant a varietal lilac on the cutting itself. In the autumn, plant the hardened specimen in a permanent place, removing the root growth.
The advantageous difference between the Hungarian lilac is the absence of a tendency to grow and suppress neighboring plants. The shrub looks very neat, which allows it to easily become the center of almost any landscape composition.
Description of the "Hungarian." Her varieties and varieties
The plant, which is given the name "Hungarian Lilac", was discovered at the beginning of the last century in Transylvania (Hungary) by one very keen botanist botanist. По настоящее время его можно встретить в природе в карпатских лесах.
- Не слишком высокий кустарник или дерево (3-4 м) с пирамидальной, густой кроной.
- Величина ширины кроны всегда меньше, чем высота растения.
- Побеги крепкие, растут вверх. Covered with a thick, dirty gray skin.
- Kidney with a pointed tip. In shape resemble an egg.
- The leaves are large (5 to 13 cm in length), elliptical in shape.
- Panicle inflorescences. The length reaches 20 cm, width 10-15.
- The flowers are painted in bright purple color. Endowed with a strong aroma.
- The corolla has a diameter of about 0.6 cm.
- Petals raised up.
- Paired inflorescences are located in clearly defined tiers. This is always noticeable in the photo bushes.
- The fruits are presented bare boxes in the form of a cylinder. May persist on shrubs until spring.
If you plant a lilac in the open field and follow the rules of caring for it, the annual growth of the shrub will be about 40 cm. Having reached a certain size, the plant stops growing. Independently propagate the lilac is also easy. The Hungarian variety produces buds almost a month later than other lilacs. The flowering period lasts 20-25 days. The life span of a flowering shrub sometimes reaches 90 years.
Of the known varieties of varieties can be noted:
- Rubra. Endowed with red-purple flowers.
- Pallida Plant with pale purple petals.
- Monstroza. Differs pure white inflorescences.
- Rosea Flowers pink color.
All presented varieties are unpretentious, so their cultivation will not be difficult. They have been practicing landing for a long time not only in the temperate European zone, but also in cold regions, for example, in Arkhangelsk, Siberia, in the Urals and in the Arctic.
How to plant a lilac and with what other plants it can be combined
The Hungarian variety loves places that are well lit by the sun. In the penumbra landing should not be. Not suitable for growing lilac areas where the groundwater is very high. The plant does not tolerate overwetting and can die very quickly.
The soil on the site must be drained, contain many nutrients.
Directly landing the lilac is performed as follows:
- Dig holes at a distance of 2-3 m from other plants. They must be with sheer walls and have a size of at least 50x50 cm. On badlands, the value is doubled.
- Fill with nutrient soil, which includes humus, ash and superphosphate.
- The seedling is arranged in the center of the pit, sprinkled the roots with earth. After compaction abundantly watered.
- The soil near the trunk of lilac fall asleep with mulch in the form of fallen leaves or humus. This will serve as shelter and fertilizer.
It is best to plant all varieties of lilac from mid-summer to early autumn. So the plant will have time to gain strength before the frost. If you plant shrubs closer to the end of autumn or early spring, the result will be much worse.
Council Landing a young lilac is best on a warm, overcast day.
Hungarian lilac is used very widely in the design of garden plots. In the photos it is noticeable that its bushes have an elegant and at the same time strict appearance. In the open ground, its bushes always attract attention and highlight the charm of the surrounding plants. Lilac is grown as a hedge, it is planted in any flower beds, as well as in combination with other garden ornamental shrubs (viburnum, hydrangea) and conifers.
How to care for a plant. Fertilizers Required and Feeding Mode
Hungarian lilac does not require special care. The main works are as follows:
- Loosening the soil around the plant. This procedure should be performed quite often - from 4 to 6 times per season. Without air, the roots can rot.
- Watering more requires young plants. In the hot period, this should be done every few days.
- Lilac pruning produced 3 years after planting. This procedure is required to maintain the ornamental appearance of the shrub. It is held in the spring, even before the kidneys swell.
Attention! During pruning, do not touch the shoots on which the flower buds are located. It is necessary to remove the branches, which are located closer to the middle of the bush and prevent others from developing.
Lilac tolerates winter well, so it is not necessary to cover the plant even at a young age. Fertilizers begin 3 years after planting. This is done in early spring, before and after flowering. Suitable complex of minerals, as well as organic matter in the form of humus.
The height of an adult bush is about 5 meters. The branches of young lilac - brown or dark green, have short hairs and glisten in the sun. The branches of one-year-old lilac become red-gray, in the future they acquire a resistant gray color.
The leaves are oblong-elliptical in shape, sometimes elongated-ovate, with a dark green shade on the upper side, smooth to the touch, with short cilia along the edges. The lower part of the leaves is pale, naked, has a bluish tint and solid edges. The length of the petioles is of the order of 1-1.5 cm. The kidneys are tetrahedral in shape, elongated, their length is of the order of 1 cm.
Speaking of Hungarian lilac, it is impossible not to betray the description of its flowers, which are located crowded, as a rule, have a light purple hue and a pleasant fragrant aroma. The flowers form buds, the length of which sometimes reaches 10-22 cm.
Petals of flowers have an ovoid shape, slightly directed to the sides or raised upwards. Seeds have a red-brown color. The fruit is a bare cylindrical box with a length of 1 cm. The flowering period lasts 20-25 days, usually in June. Lilac fruiting in August.
Popular forms and types
Lilac has many different species:
- Common lilac—medium shrub that can sometimes reach 7 meters. Blossoms large (up to 25 cm) tassels with a strong aroma, light lilac or white.
- Lilac meier—shrub whose height does not exceed 1.5 m. Its inflorescences consist of fairly small flowers, usually painted in a light lilac-pink shade. Length of inflorescences — up to 10 cm
- Shaggy lilac—shrub medium in size, with quite large (up to 15 cm) leaves of the inflorescence within 20-25 cm, consist of medium sizes of pink-purple flowers.
- Persian lilac— the height of this lilac is about 3.5 m. It has flowers of a light purple shade, medium size. It has an unusual flavor.
- Drooping lilac— medium shrub whose height does not exceed 3 m. The flowers of this species are remarkable in that they are two-colored — on the outside pinkish with a red tint and almost white inside.
As for the Hungarian lilac, then in gardening there are two common forms of this type:
- Pale (Syringa josikaea palida), which has flowers of pale purple hue.
- Red (Syringa josikaea rubra)which differs reddish flowers.
Necessary conditions for growing
The simplicity of this shrub worthy of admiration. In principle, it is able to tolerate both drought and humidity, can cope with a lack of light and with excessive gas pollution of the air, can withstand temperatures down to -40 ° C.
However, the newly planted shrub, alas, will require a special approach in choosing the place of cultivation.
Location and lighting
The ideal place would be a sufficiently illuminated area, closed from a strong wind. Low, swampy and flooded places in the autumn and early spring will not be suitable for planting young lilacs, since even a short stagnation of water can cause the dying off of the roots of young shrubs.
The soil must be moderately moist, have a high fertility index, be well drained and have a high content of humus.
A big plus will be the planting of this shrub in slightly acidic or neutral soil with a low standing of groundwater, which will allow your plant to develop in all its glory.
Planting lilac is not much different from planting any other shrub, but there are several features that are worth paying special attention to.
The best period for planting Hungarian lilac will be the period from the second half of July to the beginning of September. This is due primarily to the fact that the biological characteristics of the plant suggest the intensification of growth processes during this period.
If the planting is done in late autumn or spring, then, most likely, the bushes will not give any increase at all in the first year due to the fact that they will be forced to fight against adverse environmental conditions.
It is best to plant this plant in cloudy conditions or in the afternoon when the sun is setting. When choosing planting material should pay special attention to the roots, which should have a well-branched structure and dimensions of the order of 25-30 cm.
The landing pit should be 45x45x45 cm in the case of planting in moderately fertile soil, and deeper — 90x90x90 cm, if it is poor sandy soil. The base should consist of a mixture of compost and wood ash, it is also possible to add a small amount of superphosphate.
Next is to install the plant in the central part of the pit, evenly distributing the roots around its perimeter and gently cover it with earth. In the final, the soil should be compacted.
Hungarian lilac care
After planting, it is worthwhile to produce abundant watering, and the soil around it should be mulched with the help of fallen leaves, peat or humus in a layer 6-8 cm thick. 6-10 cm
In the first year, the young plant will not require special feedings, but starting from the second, it will be necessary to apply nitrogenous fertilizers at the rate of 55 g of urea per planting during one calendar year.
Fertilizing with organic fertilizers is also possible. Ideal for any manure - a few buckets on one bush for the summer season should be enough. In the autumn period, it is possible to apply complex phosphate fertilizer.
During the flowering period, watering should be done as often as possible, especially during hot periods of the year. Trimming during the first few years after planting is optional. But, after it will be necessary to form a "skeleton" of the future bush - 5-10 of the most successfully located branches. The rest must be pruned.
Sanitary pruning and thinning are mainly performed in early spring, but if you see this as a necessity, this manipulation is allowed throughout the growing season.
As noted earlier, the Hungarian lilac - the plant is quite cold-resistant and is able to transfer the temperature drop to -40 ° C. But if young saplings do not prepare properly for wintering, the next year you may well lose your bushes.
Before the onset of the first frost they should be covered with a layer of peat or fallen leaves up to 10 cm thick.
Other breeding methods
Reproduction of Hungarian lilacs is possible by cuttings, grafting or with the help of seeds. The last way often reproduces wild lilac. Sowing seed is usually done in the fall or spring after stratification of seeds at a temperature of 2-5 ° C, lasting up to 2 months.
As for reproduction by vaccination, common lilac, common privet or any other type of lilac can serve as a rootstock for Hungarian lilacs. Inoculation is performed by the method of dormant bud or cutting.
Lilac is an excellent plant for anyone who wants to start landscaping or already has enough experience in this business. If you plant this bush in the current season, then in the next one it will start to delight you with the first color. And therefore do not delay this matter indefinitely.
Description of the Hungarian lilac
The name of the Hungarian lilac was not accidental. This compact shrub is introduced into garden culture in practically unchanged “wild” form, almost did not succumb to selection and cannot boast of a good varietal palette. In nature, it is as easy to recognize among other plants as in the collection of garden shrubs. In the wild, Hungarian lilacs are mainly distributed in the Carpathian regions, in the north of the Balkan Peninsula and in the territory of Hungary. It is considered a relict plant and protected, legally protected species. This species of lilac was introduced into culture earlier than other unpopular species - from 1830. And since then Hungarian lilac is considered one of the most reliable types of lilac for regions with harsh winters and one of the best candidates for urban gardening, decorating small gardens or using in flower beds of any size.
In the whole family Lilac (Syringa) it is difficult to find a plant more compact than Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea). This plant is limited to a maximum 3-4 m even in the natural environment. The diameter of the crown is always less than the height, because of which the lilac seems slim and elegant. At the same time, the shrub develops fairly quickly, but, having reached its optimal size, it is then characterized by a remarkable stability of the crown and practically does not change. Hungarian lilac seems to be a constant, unchanging and stable island in the company of its relatives. The crown is most often neat, strictly rounded by nature, not needing to be formed. The shoots of this lilac are erect, beautifully and densely branched, directed upwards, creating an openwork and quite attractive even in winter crown. The color of the bark of old shoots is indistinguishable from other lilacs, but the young purple-purple twigs bring a pleasant revival to the spring garden. This type of lilac does not give root offspring, which somewhat complicates reproduction, but it opens up new prospects for use in the design of the garden.
Hungarian lilac is most easily identified by leaves. In shape, they are very similar to other types of lilac, but here the pubescence of the lower side (along the midrib) and the ciliary edge makes it easy to identify this species. No other species of lilac leaves retain this characteristic. The length of leaves in adult shrubs comes to 13 cm. Depending on the characteristics of the soil and growing conditions in Hungarian lilac, the leaves can be either broadly elliptical or more lanceolate. But they are almost always brightly show depressed veins. Changing the color of the leaves of the Hungarian lilac is not the most spectacular, but still serves as a garden decoration. The dark green color of the summer crown is replaced with purple spots in the autumn, and the fancy purple-lilac color of the upper side of the leaf plates is combined with the yellowish-golden tone of the pubescent lower side.
The flowering of Hungarian lilacs by its spectacularity and massiveness, of course, will give way to popular garden species. But here in its openwork, it surpasses them at times. Loose whisks produce an exceptionally elegant impression, they contain only non-double, fairly small, but pleasantly fragrant, long tubular flowers. In the inflorescences, the tier structure and the narrowed form are more clearly visible (it is the tiering that makes it easy to distinguish this type of lilac from its relatives). The diameter of the Hungarian lilac flowers never exceeds 1 cm, but the length of the magnificent panicles can reach up to 30 cm. After flowering, cylindrical red fruit boxes ripen, which ripen in mid-autumn, but can remain on the bush until spring.
Hungarian lilacs in the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. © Kor! An
One of the main advantages of the Hungarian is the large variability of the color palette. The color of the flowers on the plant depends not only on the age of the tree, but even on the weather, the composition and characteristics of the soil, can vary from season to season and differ from previous years. In this case, we are not talking about a cardinal color change, but only about the difference in color saturation, tone intensity.
The flowering of the Hungarian lilac usually begins two to three weeks after the common lilac. The first flowers bloom in panicles at the end of May, the main flowering always occurs at the beginning of June. In general, the flowering of Hungarian lilac lasts just over 3 weeks (from 20 to 25 days).
Forms and varieties of Hungarian lilac
Unlike common lilac, Hungarian can not boast of enviable varietal diversity or a large number of species. In the garden culture introduced only the base plant and several forms of Hungarian lilac. Of particular popularity among them in regions with severe winters deserved:
- Hungarian lilac pale form (Syringa josikaea f. pallida) with a soft lilac, seemingly faded color,
- spectacular red flowers form (Syringa josikaea f. rubra), in which the color of purple with a reddish tinge rather dark panicles seems surprisingly noble,
- white flowered form (Syringa josikaea f. monstrosa),
- pink, with pastel, with a lilac shade of flowers (Syringa josikaea f. rosea)
The use of Hungarian lilac in the design of the garden
Hungarian lilac is often perceived only as a good candidate for the stock of other lilac species and experiments with breeding new varieties. But in fact, as a stock, this species shows not the best results, because over time, plants often reject the grafted "tip." But as a decorative shrub Hungarian lilac deserves much more attention. И речь не только о том, что с ее помощью можно растянуть цветение сиреней и устроить эстафету с другими видами.
Венгерская сирень незаменима в качестве украшения декоративных композиций с другими красивоцветущими кустарниками или многолетниками. As a plant that cannot grow strongly and seize the soil, release undesirable growth, which disrupts the structure of the ensembles, it really does not know its equal. Unlike other types of lilac, it looks great even in regular compositions, it is predictable, quite strict, elegant and smart. Hungarian lilac is not afraid of close proximity and allows you to enter high accents not only in groups, but also on flower beds.
Hungarian lilac can be used in the design:
- hedges (not only landscape, but also strict)
- in groups with shrubs and woody,
- in serengarias (plantings from species and varietal lilacs, matched to the flowering time and palette),
- in arrays,
- on beds of any size and "composition",
- in mixborders and shrub rabatkah,
- for the introduction of vertical accents in flowering compositions, etc.
The best partners for the Hungarian lilac: ornamental viburnum, hydrangea, astilbe, tree peony, spirea, phlox, lupins, sage, catnip, veronica, any other decorative-deciduous and flowering shrubs and herbaceous perennials. This lilac blends well with evergreen and deciduous decorative woody trees both in hedges and in groups (spectacular, for example, duets with maple, spruces, junipers).
Hungarian White Lilac
Conditions required Hungarian lilac
This type of lilac is able to put up with shading, and, although it prefers bright lighting, it can be used in gardening of partial shade areas, in compositions with large trees or shrubs from shady sides.
Due to its endurance and undemanding, the Hungarian is one of the best lilacs for urban and polluted conditions. It perfectly makes the neighborhood even with the main highways, does not suffer from any pollution and feels good in gardening at the carriageways. It is considered more wind resistant than other types of lilacs.
The unconditional advantages of this type of lilac include its undemanding nature of the soil. Hungarian lilac can settle on any cultivated, sufficiently well-developed soil, regardless of the degree of its fertility and even the degree of humidity - this lilac feels good in damp (but not swampy), and in dry soil. Of course, drained, fertile, loamy, fresh soil is preferable and has a positive effect on the growth rate and flowering abundance, but Hungarian lilac can be satisfied with even worse conditions.
The planting of the Hungarian lilac is carried out in the same time as for any other lilac. Planting at the end of summer or early autumn is preferable, rather than in early spring or late autumn (in this case, in the first year, the plant grows very slowly). Planting pits should be deep, organic and mineral fertilizers are welcome, but not necessary. After planting on seedlings, it is better to shorten the shoots by 2-3 buds, abundant watering and mulching.
Unlike other types of lilacs, Hungarian perfectly tolerates transplants even in adulthood. It is believed that the plant can be transplanted at any time, even at the height of the growing season in spring, but it is better to choose the same terms that are recommended for transplantation.
Care for the Hungarian lilac
Drought resistance of this type of lilac greatly simplifies garden care and allows using a flowering accent, significantly freeing the spring work schedule, eliminating the need to provide additional watering to the plants even during drought. This plant will not need not only watering, but also top dressing (if you can add traditional early spring dressing with full mineral fertilizer, then it will only have a beneficial effect on the abundance of flowering).
Pruning Hungarian lilac is carried out according to the general rules. In early spring on adult bushes, it is desirable to thin the crown, avoiding too intense thickening of the bushes inside. Panicle inflorescences pruned immediately after flowering. The Hungarian lilac by nature seems to be a formed shrub, it develops compactly and creates a rather strict crown. But if you want to get another silhouette from it or to make the crown even more dense or strict, then feel free to resort to forming scraps. Usually it is enough just to set the “vector”: this lilac so well holds the silhouette given to it, that it does not need constant haircuts and correction.
Wintering Hungarian Lilac
This is one of the most winter-hardy species of lilac, recommended for the northern regions of Russia. Hungarian lilac does not need any shelter and rarely suffers even in the most unfortunate seasons. It is perfectly restored, its shoots have time to mature before the onset of frost, and the shrub does not need additional preparation for winter, even at a very young age, in the first year of planting.
Hungarian Lilac (Syringa josikaea)