It affects mainly the leaves. The disease develops in early spring. Leaves form large blurred spots of irregular shape, brown, reddish-brown or black. A characteristic sign of the disease is the presence of dark pads in the form of small dots on the affected tissue. Affected leaves dry out.
Brown spotting is also seen on the petioles and whiskers. The disease often affects wild species of strawberries and strawberries.
The causative agent is Marssonina potentillae Magn. f. Ohl fragariae, belonging to the class of imperfect fungi. The parasite develops in the conidial stage, its sporulation (dark spots) is formed on the affected leaves. Conidia are colorless, two-cell. The marsupial stage of the pathogen, Fabraea fragariae Kleb., Does not have significant significance in the development of the disease.
Infection of plants and the development of the disease occur only in wet weather. The disease begins in early spring, but does not develop in summer. Mass infection of leaves occurs during the ripening of berries - in August - September, which is explained, on the one hand, by the ability of the fungus to infect old leaves, on the other - by the presence of more precipitation during this period. The strong development of the disease at the end of the growing season coincides with the period of laying and the formation of strawberry fruit buds.
The parasite winters mainly on old, wintering green leaves, in which the mycelium and organs of conidial sporification retain their viability, partially overwintering the fungus on dead infected leaves, as well as on wild strawberries and strawberries. Spring resumption of the disease occurs due to infection with conidia, wintering or formed on hibernating leaves.
Brown spotting is a very common disease, especially in the northwestern and central zones, in the Baltic States, even in southeastern regions, where there may be outbreaks of the disease in the autumn.
In the years of mass development of the disease, when up to 60%, and in some areas up to 100% of leaves are affected, it can cause large crop losses next year.
1. The destruction of the sources of the disease. For this purpose, thorough cleaning and destruction of overwintered and dead affected leaves is carried out.
2. Prophylactic spraying of strawberries with 1% Bordeaux liquid or its substitutes (see white spot of strawberries).
3. Agrotechnical measures: normal planting density, destruction of wild strawberries near the berry plantation; when planting strawberries near the planted sockets, tearing off the affected leaves.
4. Growing resistant varieties. Early varieties, such as Belle Zagorje, are relatively resistant to brown spot. Very susceptible varieties include Saxon, Late from Zagorje and other late varieties.
Brown spotting: signs and effects of the disease
This strawberry disease is one of the most common on strawberry beds. The reason for his appearance - Marsonin mushroom. A characteristic feature of this pathogen is its two-seasonality:
Infection directly affects yield. Almost all the infected green mass dies: the leaves wither, and without them, the bush can not normally feed, produce photosynthesis, get oxygen and grow.
Brown spotting is in development from mid-spring to mid-summer. A clear sign of this disease - "burns" on the leaves. These are brown-brown colorless spots. In shape - round or oval. At the initial stages of infection, they resemble small opalines at the edges of the leaf, and only then these spots expand, and dark leathery pads, the mycelium, appear on top of them. Peduncles and strawberry whiskers are also covered with brown purple areas.
The causes of the appearance and features of the development of the disease
The disease develops on strawberry beds due to the same factors as other fungal diseases:
On the brown spot looks like another disease of strawberry - Septoria. The spots in this case, though brown, are slightly lighter, with a clearly red tint. The external development of the fungal disease is also different: the affected leaf brightens, and the red-brown remains only its edging.
Attention! At the late stage, the fungus creates the effect of "healing" the strawberry bush. Mycelium disappears, old leaves, which have previously slowed down, suddenly grow (and then, as expected, fall off). The owners can take the small size of a plant for insufficiency of food. But the insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that it costs strawberries at the end of summer to start young shoots, as the brown spot returns with a new force.
Treatment with drugs and folk remedies
Once the causative agent of the disease - a fungus, then you need to deal with it in appropriate ways. The main task of the gardener is to prevent the disease, to eliminate or minimize the influence on the plant of the negative factors under which the fungus develops:
- Do not let the bushes grow too far, thin out the landing.
- Regularly clean the area from weeds and crops that litter the strawberry beds.
- Keep the area clean. Year-round remove the torn plants and fallen leaves.
- Shrubs with signs of fungal diseases cut and destroy.
- Excessive fertilization with nitrogen-containing mixtures also contributes to the growth of greenery and reduces the resistance of the culture to diseases.
- In the feeding of plants must be potassium - an element that promotes resistance to pathogens.
- Water the plant strictly according to the recommendations that exist for specific varieties of strawberries.
- Control the humidity in the plantation, avoiding dampness. For beds covered with a film, additional treatment with fast-disintegrating biofungicides and the addition of potassium phosphate fertilizer will be needed.
Preventive effects of drugs is in the spring treatment of beds with Fitosporin. It is safe for human health, so spraying can be done even in the case when the bushes are already spiced berries. If there are signs of the disease, treat the bushes with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or chlorine dioxide. This should be done on both sides of the sheet. In case of mass infection, the drugs of the Ridomil series will help, as well as Horus, Oxyh and Skor.
From folk remedies positive recommendations has the following recipe: dilute 5 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water. Add to the mixture 2 tbsp. l soda, 1 bubble of iodine and 20 g of soap. This spraying agent is suitable at any time during the growing season, because it does not harm human health.
Brown Spot: a brief description of the disease
The causative agent of this disease is the fungus Marssonina petontillae. Brown spotting is considered one of the main diseases of strawberries and usually manifests itself during the fruiting period. That's when the summer resident can notice brown strawberries in his garden.
From August to October, the activity of the disease is at its peak. It able to attack from 60% and more hardwoods, with most of the foliage area dying off. As a result, the plant loses the ability to feed on oxygen, photosynthesis processes are crumbling.
High humidity activates the development of this fungal disease. Reproduction of brown spot can begin at any air temperature above zero. With severe frosts, the fungus does not die, but remains at rest. In this regard, in the next season, the yield may be significantly reduced.
The main symptom of the disease - the presence of spots on the surface of strawberry leaves. Dark purple spots that can later change shade, becoming brown or red.
This may be a problem for beginning gardeners, since other similar diseases of the red berry have the same symptoms. Therefore, you should pay attention to the presence of white dots in the center of dark spots. With brown spot, there are no such points. If the spots begin to increase in size, the next step will be the drying of the foliage and the subsequent dying off.
Not only brown leaves will tell about the diseased strawberries, but also gradual spreading spotting on all organs and tissues of the bush: stems, berries, stems, sepals. Slowing or stopping of growth, drying of the stalks, small, dark-colored fruits - all these are obvious symptoms of the progression of brown spot.
Difficulties may arise in those gardeners who, due to any reason, were unable to observe strawberries at the initial stage of the disease.
The fact is that at a later stage there appears the appearance of “recovery” of the bushes: the old, diseased leaves begin to grow, and the fact that the dimensions are not what they should be, is perceived as the usual nutritional deficiency.
And, most importantly, fungal pads disappear. In such cases, you need to be prepared for the fact that after a while the brown spot may begin to progress with a new force on the young, just emerging green shoots.
The reasons for the formation of fungus can be attributed to several factors. One of them - dampness. The fact is that fungal spores develop very well and grow precisely in a humid environment, in water. Insects and pests that inhabit the site can also carry spores. Other causes are thickening and vegetation debris.
How to protect strawberries from the "brown disease"
As soon as the first signs of strawberry appear in strawberries, it is necessary to urgently treat the plant.
The first step is complete destruction of all diseased bushes. You should not feel sorry for them, because if at least one diseased plant remains, the fungus will again spread throughout the site to all healthy bushes. After that, you need to carry out sanitary cleaning of the beds and make feeding for strawberries in the form of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers in this case should be avoided, since they only can increase the foliar mass. You must also try to eliminate moisture in the garden.
Regarding the treatment of strawberries with drugs, copper oxychloride and Bordeaux mixture (1%) are recommended for use. To treat the plant with these means should be at the stage of growth of leaves, before the flowering of the berries and after the fruits are collected.
It is necessary to ensure that the bushes of red berries did not grow much, because thickening promotes the spread of fungus. You also need time to get rid of weeds in the area.
If the defeat is not a single, but a massive one, you can apply fungicides, such as “Oksihom”, “Skor” or “Ridomil Gold”.
As you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Therefore, in the cultivation of strawberries a significant place is disease prevention:
- To avoid the occurrence of brown spot, you need to regularly clean the beds from dry leaves and weeds, which are the main primary sources of this disease.
- Also, be sure to remember about strawberry transplants, because the fungus tends to remain in the soil for a long time and infect new plants that will be planted there.
- Planting material must be healthy and of high quality, regardless of whether it was grown on its own or was purchased in a store.
- Today on the market there are varieties of strawberries that are resistant to brown spot. It is recommended to choose them for planting.
- After harvesting, it is necessary to thin the plant, remove excess leaves and whiskers.
Gardener's mistakes when fighting with brown spot
The main mistakes when growing strawberries and the fight against brown spotted can be considered the following:
- Wrong location for landing. These include beds where there is clearly a high level of humidity, where water usually accumulates after rain.
- Weeds If you do not follow the cleanness in the garden, do not get rid of debris and weeds, the probability of occurrence of the disease increases dramatically.
- Growing in one place. It is necessary to look for the opportunity to change the place of strawberry sprouting from time to time in order to get rid of the infection and give the opportunity to feed on macroelements from the accumulated soil forces.
- Lack of prevention. If you carry out preventive actions correctly, you will not have to fight the disease at all.
To fight with brown spot of strawberries can and should be. The main thing is to regularly monitor the condition of this plant in order to be able to take the necessary measures in time.
Features of the disease
Brown spotting - a fungal disease that manifests itself in the summer during the laying of flower buds of the next season. Its source is the mycelium of the fungus Marssonina petontillae, which affects all above-ground parts of the strawberry and inhibits the processes of photosynthesis:
This greatly weakens the plants and leads eventually to the death of the aerial parts. The disease affects both the upper and lower parts of the leaves, more often manifested in strawberry varieties characterized by a medium and late ripening period. After the withering away of the old foliage, the newly growing green mass is distinguished by dwarfism, with time, signs of the disease appear on it.
Attention! The initial stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of pinpoint lesions, which develop over time, merging into large patches of opaline with a reddish-brown hue, and “pillows” with spores, conidia, form on the top of the foliage.
The reason for the development of the disease is the thickening of plantings, the presence of weeds, plant debris, dampness.
The use of cold water for irrigation of strawberries is one of the reasons for the appearance of blotchiness of any color, including brown. In addition, rain, wind and insects contribute to the spread of the disease, the winter fungus experiencing on the old foliage.
Fungicides and folk methods of treatment of brown spot
Chemical preparations recommended for combating brown spot are divided into 2 types:
- contact. They act on the surface, have a short period of decay, have a softer effect, their use is permissible after the beginning of the formation of the ovary,
- system. These drugs are more effective because they act through the fertigation system and have a long decomposition period. They are made during watering after the cessation of fruiting.
To prevent the appearance of brown spot, in early spring planting strawberries should be sprayed with one of the following preparations:
In the fall, the treatment of plantings can be carried out with the preparations: “Ordan”, “Gamar”.
Among the folk remedies recommended for the prevention and treatment of brown spot, well proven themselves the following:
- Spraying with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. To do this, in a bucket of water, with a volume of 10 liters, dilute 5 g of potassium permanganate.
- As a proven remedy against spotting, it is recommended to use a disinfecting solution with the addition of iodine: 20 g of soap, a bottle of iodine and 2 tbsp. l soda
- Spraying of copper oxychloride. For this purpose, you can use ready-made drugs: "Hom" and "Cupritox". Treatment with copper oxide should be repeated several times per season with an interval of 2-6 weeks.
Recommendations for treatment and prevention
- Processing strawberry plantings should be carried out in several stages: at the beginning of the appearance of the leaves, when forming the floral ovary, immediately after the end of the fruiting.
- Spring processing involves the use of copper preparations before the onset of the period of flowering and the formation of the ovary. In the autumn, these procedures are recommended after the end of fruiting - before the onset of winter frosts.
- Transplanting strawberries every 4-5 years to new areas, helps reduce the threat of destruction. When the site is limited, it is recommended to divide the planting into several sectors, annually freeing one for rest and for planting the siderates to improve soil health.
- Simultaneously with the change of the site, it is recommended to update the planting material, choosing varieties resistant to the disease: “Anniversary Govorova”, “Olympus”, “Ruby Pendant”, “Cardinal”, “Early Dense”, “Maria”, “Premier”, “Fireworks” , "Bravo."
- Removing last year’s foliage from the site is the first step to preventing the disease.
- The second step - compliance with the conditions of strawberry cultivation.
- The third step - the proper use of fertilizers - the restriction of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the introduction of potash fertilizer increases the stability of strawberries, its ability to resist
Attention! To achieve success in the fight against brown spot will allow only a comprehensive approach to treatment, one mowing or just processing with fungicides is indispensable.
Annual preventive measures will prevent the development of brown spot on the strawberry plantings, and in case of its occurrence - the combined use of traditional remedies and industrial preparations will relieve the disease.
Brown Spot - description
The disease of strawberries, strawberries and brown leaf spot is a fungal disease. The vital activity of the fungus begins in April or early May. At the end of June and in July comes the peak of its development. During the formation of flower buds on the strawberries, the whole plant is infected. Поврежденная зеленая масса выглядит угнетенной, в листьях замедляются процессы фотосинтеза, им не хватает питания, наблюдается кислородное голодание.
Если не принять мер по лечению заболевания, бурой пятнистостью поражается от 60 до 90% листвы клубники, 80% которой полностью отмирает.
Фунгициды для лечения бурой пятнистости клубники
Apply folk remedies or mowing foliage can be at the initial stage of infection. Drastic measures - the use of fungicides in the following stages of development:
- During spring regrowth of leaf mass.
- At the stage of budding.
- After collecting the fruits.
Therapeutic drugs can be of 2 types:
- Contact exposure - destroy the fungus on the surface. Fungicide quickly breaks down, has a relatively gentle effect on strawberries. Acceptable treatment during fruiting. For example, Kosayd, Horus, Fitosporin.
- Systemic action - able to penetrate the inside of the strawberry, the active ingredient for a very long time disintegrates. It is possible to process only 4 weeks before flowering and after the completion of the fruiting period. For example, Oxy, Ridomil.
Extra root top dressing: 10 g of means on 10 l of water.
200 g of powder from 18 to 50 rubles
Processing during vegetation with an interval of 9 days is allowed. Aqueous solution: 20 g of substance per 10 l.
10 g from 37 to 50 rubles
It is well combined with other drugs. Dilutes: 5 ml per 10 l.
Package 6 ml - 70 p., 1 l of the drug - from 4500 r.
Spraying 50g / 10 liters.
50 ml from 48 to 70 r.
Double spring processing with an interval of 7 days. Solution: 25 g of powder per 5 liters of water.
25 g from 30 to 65 rubles
Spraying solution: 2-3 ml per 10 liters.
Ampoule 2 ml - from 35 to 60 rubles
Fungicides for strawberries, destroying brown spot, are made on the basis of copper. The use of drugs and preparation of the solution should be conducted in strict accordance with the instructions. Any treatment stops 3-4 weeks before harvest. The disease is controlled by the following drugs:
- Copper sulphate (0.1 kg) is dissolved in 0.5 l of hot water, cold water is added to a volume of 5 l.
- Quicklime (0.15 kg) diluted in 5 liters of cold water.
- Liquid vitriol gently poured into the calcareous milk.
Before blooming the kidneys use 1% solution. After harvesting 3%. Consumption rate: 1 liter per 10 sq. M. square meters.
Aqueous solution: 50 grams per 10 liters.
Spraying in the morning or in the evening.
40 g are dissolved in 10 l of water.
For the season no more than 3 treatments. Last spraying 3 weeks before picking berries.
They are intended for disinfecting the soil and treating strawberry bushes. Methods are used repeatedly, do not harm the plants during the growing season. The most common among them are:
- Iodine. Good disinfectant. Restrains the development of strawberry disease. An aqueous solution is carried out root dressing, spraying. Frequency: 1 time in 10 days.
- Watering in early spring: three drops of iodine per 10 liters.
- Autumn watering: 15 drops of iodine per 10 liters.
- Spraying: 10 drops of iodine + 1 l of milk + 9 l of water.
How to recognize brown spot
To be convinced, what illness suffered a plant, it is required to examine closely sockets of a strawberry and sheet plates. The green mass of late and early strawberry varieties can be damaged both on top of the leaf and on the bottom.
Signs of brown spot in strawberries:
- On the leaves you can see brown spots of various sizes, not having clear contours.
- Point foci are located not only on the foliage of strawberries, but also on the stems and peduncles.
- With neglect of the disease brown spot on the upper side of the leaves become visible pads, which is located mycelium.
When growing strawberries, you can notice this moment: a false recovery. If you mow the foliage, there is a new green without spots and visible damage. It creates the illusion of recovery. However, if you take a closer look at adult outlets, then they lag behind in growth, they develop poorly. Such a short period of absence of symptoms continues until the 2nd phase of development of the fungus. It comes in late August or early September. During this period, on the sheet plates you can again notice the spots of irregular shape, painted in red-brown color.
What are the causes of brown spot
The appearance of the fungal disease brown spot affects several factors. Among the first can be called high humidity and constant soil moisture. The spores of the fungus have a feature to multiply well and grow in conditions of high humidity.
Insects can tolerate brown spot disease, so it is important to control pests on strawberries in time. In addition, the thickening of landings and not collected garbage also contribute to the development of brown spot.
Measures to combat brown spot
The causative agent of the disease is a fungus, so the fight against brown spot should be carried out with antifungal preparations containing copper in its composition. You can use fungicides for strawberries, purchased in the store, and you can use folk remedies, which, first of all, are safe for health, and secondly - tested for centuries in practice.
As for strawberries, we are happy to eat this berry, so you should not get carried away with chemical means. At first, the development of the disease is better to take advantage of the people. They are considered no less effective and safer than chemical preparations.
Fungicides against brown spot
To combat brown spot n strawberries use systemic and contact medications. They have a therapeutic, prophylactic, protective and immunizing effect.
Copper-soap emulsion against brown spot. May be used instead of Bordeaux mixture. For 9 liters of water, you will need to take 200 g of grated soap, and in 1 liter dissolve copper sulfate in the amount of 10 g. Then, very slowly, inject the solution of copper sulfate into the soap solution. The finished composition should not contain flakes and be slightly green.
Bordeaux mixture. Low toxic composition of the chemical preparation makes it the most affordable for use in the fight against brown spot. When diluted in water, the solution becomes bluish. It is necessary to process at the very beginning of the vegetative period: spray 3% solution-suspension on the sleeping buds.
Ordan. The composition of the contact drug includes cymoxanil and copper oxychloride. The latter component is not phytotoxic, but when used in large doses can cause burns on the leaf plate.
Falcon against brown spot. It is used to fight fungi and has a preventive, curative, and eradicating effect on the causative agent of the disease.
Fundazol. It has a systemic effect, has protective and healing properties at the same time.
In addition, strawberries are treated with blue vitriol, copper oxide, using the drug in tablets or in powder. In addition to brown spot, they destroy other fungal diseases.
Popular councils and methods of struggle
Summer residents are trying to find environmentally friendly methods to combat the disease, especially since the development of adversity comes from harvesting and you do not want to poison your body with harmful substances.
For processing, you can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Method of preparation: 5 g of potassium permanganate is dissolved in 10 l of water. Ready solution process landing.
Iodine and baking soda have a devastating effect on the fungus Marssonina petontillae. To prepare, take a bucket of water and add 20 g of soda and 30-40 g of iodine. Mixing the composition, make 40 g of commercial, green or tar soap, rubbed on a coarse grater, so that it is easier to dissolve in water. Spray the diseased foliage with the prepared solution.
Wood ash is a product of wood combustion containing calcium, phosphorus and other necessary elements for the full growth and development of plants. In addition, wood ash can be successfully used to combat various diseases of berry and fruit crops, including brown spot. Provides high protection against insect pests.
For the preparation of a therapeutic solution, take 1 liter of water and dissolve in it 1 tbsp. wood ash. Next, you need to insist 24 hours, add the solution to a bucket of water and spray them with strawberries. Ash can be brought directly into the soil during mulching plantings or in the fall when digging up the soil near the rosettes.
Folk remedies with brown spot have a sparing effect on planting. As a top dressing you can prepare such a solution: dilute the mixture consisting of 0.5 kg of mullein and 1 tbsp in 10 l of water. l ammonium sulfate. Dose of introduction under one bush - 1 l.
Castling landings to prevent
Castling involves changing the landing site. If the plant is sick, then a fungus will also be present in the ground. Pathogenic flora extends over a distance of 100 m from an infected plant. What to do in this case?
First, you can plant crops on which the fungus has no effect. This is buckwheat, beans, siderats. However, this method will lead to costs and may not be entirely effective.
When the bushes otplodonosyat, you will need to mow all the foliage, wait for a new one and transplant plants into a new soil, replacing permanent residence. However, there is no likelihood that with this method of struggle something will change and the disease brown spot does not manifest itself. It is better to purchase a new planting material and update the landing, but not in the contaminated area. Do not think that this method is very wasteful. Purchase of seedlings will cover the cost of the purchase of insecticides, save time and nerves.
If a very valuable variety is ill, which is a pity to part with, you can try to save it. To do this, you need to separate the sockets from the mother bush, process them with chemical preparations and plant them in a new place.
How to prevent brown spotting
Diseased strawberry plantations are treated with the use of pesticides. In order not to take such radical measures that will damage health, it is necessary to carry out preventive work in time.
- During the selection of varieties you need to carefully read the description of the plant. You need to choose bushes with a high resistance to diseases, including the brown leaf spot. Such varieties include Festival, Talisman, Melitopol, Miracle Keten. It is important to choose a culture that adapts well to the climatic conditions in which it will be grown.
- After the planting has been moved to another garden bed, it’s worth returning to the former place of residence no earlier than after 5 years. And how to update the landing sites, if planted a huge plantation? It is necessary to divide all landings into sectors and carry out alternate changes of landings. The vacated land should rest. At this time it is necessary to carry out work on the disinfection against brown spot, then plant beans, buckwheat or beans.
- If traces of the disease are noticed, diseased foliage should be collected and burned. Do not leave damaged fruit, they are also removed along with the foliage.
- Strawberry beds do not like stagnant water, so it is important to arrange good drainage before planting.
- It is impossible to thicken the landing and leave to grow new sockets, wishing to throw them away. Weeding plantings and thinning bushes provide good ventilation and prevent disease.
The author of the video will tell gardeners in detail what to do in early spring in order to prevent the development of diseases and the appearance of pests.
A feature of this disease is the possibility of manifestation of signs of the disease for two seasons.
- In the first year it appears during the ripening of berries and persists for the winter.
- In the second year, the spots appear after flowering.
This is how healthy strawberry leaves look.
Causes of the disease
One of the causes of the disease - the presence of weeds.
The causes of the disease can be:
- the presence of weeds,
- excessive planting density of strawberries,
- increased dampness
- use for watering cold water.
It can also be caused by wind, rain and insects that can tolerate the spores of the fungus.
Cutting diseased leaves does not always lead to recovery.
An unpleasant surprise can be a “false recovery”. It looks like this: after completely mowing the diseased plant foliage looks completely healthy. But still, after a while, it becomes noticeable that, in general, the bush is weak and small. And at the end of the summer you can again notice obvious signs of the disease.
Methods of dealing with brown spot
Before considering the methods of treating a disease, you should remember a few simple rules and in the future be sure to observe them:
- Absolutely all drugs will be effective only when they are used at air temperatures not lower than 20 degrees. The optimum time of the year is spring.
- During complex treatment, it is important to consider the compatibility of the drugs used. Since the wrong tandem of drugs can cause a burn.
- No amateur performance. It is important to follow the instructions clearly. Failure to comply could result in a loss of crop or the death of the plant.
It is necessary to treat the disease at warm air temperatures.
Treatment with drugs
Recommended fungicides for the treatment of brown spot are divided into two types:
- Contact . They produce their action directly on the surface. A characteristic feature is the rapid decay, they have a more gentle effect on the plant. They can be used during the formation of berries.
- Systemic . These drugs are more effective because they act through the fertigation system, and also have a long period of disintegration. Make such funds can only be after harvest.
Contact treatment can be used in the formation of berries.
For spraying strawberries you can use the drug Ridomil.
To prevent the occurrence of the disease should be sprayed with strawberries in early spring using one of these drugs:
Important to remember! Chemicals are strictly prohibited to use during the formation and ripening of fruits.
Rules when fighting
No matter what method the gardener chooses to fight the disease, one should follow the general rules:
- Control bushes planting density . As soon as they start to grow strongly it is necessary to transplant the plants.
- Timely weed removal .
- The site must be clean. . Do not allow dry leaves next to the green strawberry bushes.
- Compliance with watering rules . You can not water the strawberries with cold water. Its temperature should be as close as possible to the temperature of the soil.
Watering with cold water for strawberries is harmful.