Grapes these days have ceased to be something exotic or inaccessible.
There are many varieties of this plant, which differ from each other, both in appearance and taste.
One of them is Ataman.
Let's talk about it in more detail.
Description of grapes Ataman
This is the result of amateur breeding, a hybrid obtained by crossing varieties Rizamat and Talisman. As for the appearance, the clusters are rather large, have a cylindrical shape, an average density. Mass can vary from 600 to 800 g, but some clusters can reach a weight of 1200 g.
Berries can be both large and very large, the mass of one ranges from 12 to 16 g. For this variety is characterized by an elongated-oval shape of the fruit, red-purple color. In the sun, the color changes and becomes dark purple. The berries have a thick peel, covered with a moderate wax coating. Grapes Ataman has a juicy flesh and has a pleasant harmonious taste.
For this variety is characteristic average ripening time, 130-145 days. Ataman has high growth power. Bushes are powerful, with a large number of shoots, more than half of which bear fruit.
• The fruits of Ataman are among the largest.
• Clusters possess high commodity qualities, easily transfer transportation
• Damage to wasps is estimated to be moderate.
• The variety has a high yield even in unfavorable weather conditions.
Requires shelter for the winter.
Features planting grapes
With planting swings, one can plant one-year woody seedlings or green vegetative ones. It depends on it landing time. In the first case, the landing time is mid-April - mid-May, and in the second - end of May - end of June. Ataman, like any other grape variety, loves warmth, therefore, with an appropriate climate, it ripens faster than another.
If you want to plant grapes near the wall of a house or another building, then bushes better placed on the south side. Thus, the vine will receive additional heat at night, and the result will be the earlier appearance of the fruit. If you decide to make a vineyard in the garden, then you should not plant bushes of this grape variety close to the trees, since the roots of the Ataman will lack moisture due to the root system of the tree.
The minimum temperature that the Ataman can withstand is -23 ° C, so you need to make a careful shelter of bushes for the winter.
Grapes need moisture, especially in the hot season, so you need to water the bushes with a certain order. Watering the vineyard is necessary so that the water spread to the entire depth of the root system. Therefore, the estimated water consumption will be 7-10 buckets. It is also possible to loosen the top layer of earth under the bush, so that air can better flow to the roots.
The vineyard must be mulched a season before it is laid so that the seedlings will grow in fertile soil. The earth should warm up well before mulching. You can wait for the need to temperature 10-12 ° C or look at the grapes. When the eyes bloom, you can mulch. For mulching, you can use peat, straw, manure, black polyethylene and other materials.
Covering must be made in order to preserve the bushes in the winter season. You can cover with earth, film and other materials. When covering, you need to lay the vine on the ground, put it on top of dry leaves and cover it with earth, or cover it with plastic wrap. It is necessary to sprinkle the head of the bush thoroughly with the ground in order to better protect the roots from frost. When covering with a film, it is necessary to leave an air gap and during the thaw to open the film.
Such grapes as Ataman, you must cut before his shelter. The load on the bush should be 55-60 eyes, and pruning fruiting vines should be made on 8-10 eyes.
The grapevine of this variety requires nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and others. In addition to such well-known fertilizers as manure, mineral fertilizers are also used, such as potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, and others. As for the time of fertilization, it must be done in the spring before opening the bushes after winter, and throughout the flowering and ripening of the bushes.
Despite the fact that Ataman has a moderate degree of resistance to fungal infections, first of all, courses should be protected from such a fungal disease as oidium. The main sign of infection is a white bloom on the leaves. Both biological and chemical methods can be used for “treatment”. Biological methods include spraying the bushes with a suspension of sulfur, water infusions of hay dust, and others.
In chemical methods, such fungicides as strobe, vectra, basezol and others are used.
Also Ataman grapes need to be protected from the most dangerous fungal disease - mildew. A sign is the formation of yellow oily spots on the leaves. To combat this disease, drugs that contain copper are used: Bordeaux mixture, copper chloride and others.
Grapes "chieftain". Variety description
The variety “chieftain” was obtained by crossing a pink table-raisin variety “Rizamat” and a green table variety “talisman”. As a result, the selection turned out grapes of red-purple color with a characteristic oval-elongated shape of berries. As it ripens, the berry darkens and gets a rich purple hue. The size of the berries is quite large. Their weight is on average 12-16 g, brush weight - up to 1 kg. The flesh is juicy, moderately sour and fairly harmonious in taste. The skin of the berries is dense, slightly covered with a waxy coating.
"Ataman" - grapes with a period of ripening berries up to 145 days. The final maturity of the bunch falls on September 15-20.
Bushes of this variety are powerful, give a lot of shoots, most of which bear fruit. The hybrid is frost-resistant, but requires shelter.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
"Ataman" - grapes, having an attractive presentation. Berries are transportable. Can be stored for quite a long time, without being subjected to fermentation and fungal diseases.
The main drawback of the ataman variety is that grapes need shelter for the winter and do not grow well in shaded areas. It can not be planted near trees, which creates difficulties for owners of small plots of land.
Varietal name "chieftain" grapes received as a symbol of leadership in comparison with other grape varieties in terms of commodity and taste.
Trimming and care
Shrubs of great growth power. Five-lobed leaves, large, with slight pubescence on the lower part. Flowers bisexual. Cuttings cheerfully root and grow together with rootstocks during propagation by grafting. Some gardeners plant Ataman near the gazebo. Pruning is recommended for 8-10 buds, but the number of eyes of different sources is advised to leave different: from 30-40 to 55-60 pieces per plant. An important note - it is advised to carry out pruning in the fall, before laying the vines on the ground for shelter for the winter. In the summer you need to make sure that there are no thickening shoots and stepsons on the bush.
a brief description of
This hybrid form is very afraid of overloading, not only because of high yields, but also because of mid-late fruiting. If the clusters are not rationed, then the maturation is postponed, the vine may not have time to mature and the bush will meet the winter unprepared. In this case, the plant may “skip” next year, taking time out to recuperate. It is necessary to cover the Ataman, the frost resistance of the variety is only -23ºС. It is better to use slate, wooden boards and similar materials as a covering material. According to reviews, the uniform tolerates wintering under cover from the ground.
The disadvantages of the Ataman include quite noticeable affection by his oidium. As you know, this fungal disease delays the ripening of vines, which can become critical for the described variety. Succeeds form "pick up" and gray mold. Therefore, to spraying fungicides must be careful not to miss them. Treatments are best carried out preventive, before the onset of the disease, rather than eradicating, after the signs of the disease have already appeared.
With a sharp drop in humidity in the soil, when prolonged heat is replaced by abundant rains, the berries can burst, and in an unripe condition. With a fairly high density of bunches, this can create significant problems, especially if the berries rot. Therefore, the Ataman is sensitive to the mode of irrigation. Many gardeners find a way out in the frequent wetting of the ground under a bush. It is convenient to solve this issue by laying drip irrigation.
In the steppe climatic conditions of the south of Ukraine, the variety lurks another nuisance - the berries can bake in the sun. To avoid this - do not tear off all the leaves, pritenyayuschiesya bunch.
On some errors when growing on video:
This variety is grown not the first year. It all started with a few seedlings purchased in the nursery. Grapes pleases wonderful beautiful berries. Not very whimsical in care. The disadvantage is the need to shelter for the winter.
What beautiful berries - dark purple, gathered in dense brushes! What a wonderful taste and flavor. Eat both fresh and dry raisins.
The variety is unpretentious and easy to care for. Two years ago, they planted a vine near the wall of a house and an arbor. We get not only a rich harvest of berries, but also a beautiful appearance of the garden plot.
What kind is it?
People learned make the most of useful properties of grapes: grape seed is made tinctures, extracts and extracts.
Widely used in medicine received grape oil. Grapes are added to many dishes and eaten as a dessert.
"Ataman" refers to dining room grape varieties. It is grown mainly in order to serve fresh.
"Ataman" meets the main requirements For table grapes:
- clusters have a presentable appearance and can proudly decorate any table,
- the berries are very large and fragrant,
- have good taste qualities: low acidity (6–8 g / dm3) is blocked by high sugar content of the pulp (16–20 g / 100 cm 3),
- grapes are resistant to transportation: the fleshy berries and on the clusters are arranged sufficiently loosely so as not to press down when packed, the berries cling tenaciously to the footboard and are protected by a dense skin.
Dining varieties are so popular that they appear more and more. You can get acquainted with the most popular of them on our website. Read detailed descriptions with photos: The Count of Monte Cristo, Romeo, Baikonur, Montepulciano, Helios.
Description of the grape variety Ataman
Grapes "Ataman" is famous for its large cylindroconic clustersOn which with average density fruits are located.
The weight of the bunch with proper care varies from 600 gr to 1200 gr.
Berries very large (from 12 to 16 g) elongated oval.
For the fruits of "Ataman" is characterized by a red-purple hue, which in bright sunlight can change to dark purple.
Berries protected by thick skin, with a touch of wax.
At the bush "Ataman" many shoots and a fairly strong vine that can withstand heavy grapes.
Leaves grapes are five-pointed and wrinkled, dark green in color, slightly pubescent below.
More clearly with the grapes "Ataman" can be found in the photo below:
Breeding history and breeding region
"Ataman" was bred by an amateur breeder V.N. Krainov by crossing two varieties: "Talisman" and "Rizamat".
From "Talisman" "Ataman" inherited good resistance to low temperatures and pests.
“Rizamat” gave a bisexual flower to its descendant, which provides a high and stable crop.
Vines are additionally fertilized with ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride.
Both parent forms have great taste and aroma.
Hybrid bred in a temperate continental climate in Novocherkassk (Russia). This area is characterized by a very hot and dry summer, lasting about 175 days.
Winters are usually mild, temperatures rarely fall below 10 ° C. This temperature is ideal for growing table grapes "Ataman".
If you plan to plant grapes near the house, then it is better to locate the bushes on the south side.
We also bring to your attention other varieties bred by the breeder Krainov: Blagovest, Victor, Angelica, Anthony the Great, Anyuta.
"Ataman" is in demand among breeders due to the following features:
- the variety is very fruitful, and even under less favorable weather conditions it will yield,
- berries are damaged by wasps less than the fruits of other grape varieties due to sufficiently dense skin,
- the variety is frost-resistant: it can withstand small low temperatures, but even at -24 ° C the grapes will not disappear if they are covered,
- easy to transport: large fleshy berries with thick skins are difficult to spoil,
- medium resistant to fungal diseases.
Since the grapes are very fruitful, it is necessary to control the load on the bush and pruning, if the eyes become more than 55 pieces.
Description of the variety and history of creating grapes "Ataman"
The hybrid was obtained as a result of a random selection of V. N. Krainov’s amateur varieties “Rizamat” and “Talisman”. In terms of its characteristics, it has significantly surpassed its parents.
The grape bush is very large, it has many shoots. The leaves are large, slightly pubescent from the bottom, divided into 5 lobes. Flowers bisexual.
Variety amenable to grafting, survival of shoots almost 100%. It is possible to propagate by grafting, the graft grows well together, and it quickly moves to growth.
The Ataman grape variety is bred for the southern regions of the country, is considered late. Bunches ripen in the second half of September. In some regions, the timing is different. From the appearance of foliage to full maturity of the berries takes at least 5 months.
The appearance of the grapes "Ataman" and the purpose of the variety
The hybrid belongs to table types, differs in excellent taste, moderately sweet. Suitable for fresh consumption, it does not make raisins or wine. It is attractive for business, as it keeps its presentation for a long time, it tolerates transportation well.
The clusters are very large, their weight often reaches 1.5 kg. The berries are oblong, up to 20 grams each. The bones are small. The pelt is pink-red, less commonly purple with a waxy bloom. When eating is not felt, but dense, withstands transportation. The flesh is juicy, dense, crispy. The taste of berries is rich, sweet and sour. Sugar content not more than 18%.
The virtues of grapes and disadvantages of the variety "Ataman"
The main advantage of the vine is its yield. With good care, you can count on high rates. Vine withstands the vagaries of weather, stably fruits even in cold summers. Berries are well stored, do not spoil wasps. The shrub is rarely affected and is affected by pests.
Adult bushes do not regenerate, the berries are not observed pea, even with a large number of crops.
Among the shortcomings are the following factors:
• need for rationing the crop,
• tendency to overload.
The vine can withstand temperatures as low as -24 ° C, so in some regions it requires a good shelter for the winter. Without this, the root system suffers from frosts and is restored for a long time.
Features planting vines
For planting use one-year lignified shoots or green cuttings. In the spring it is preferable to plant lignified shoots. Landing is carried out from mid-April to mid-May. Green cuttings are planted from late May to mid-June.
Place for landing choose from the south side of the site. This variety prefers heat and light like no other. Take a plot of grapes along the wall or fence, so that the plant does not suffer from strong winds. It is also undesirable to have a neighborhood with trees, otherwise the root system will lack moisture.
The well for landing is prepared in advance. To start digging the soil to a depth of 60-70 cm, make fertilizer and form a trench.
If at the site of chernozem or loam, the bottom of the trench is necessarily drained, phosphates are added as a top dressing for digging.
Sandy soils do not need drainage, but they are fertilized according to a special scheme; they make it under digging:
• mineral fertilizers with high nitrogen content,
Prepare the soil in the fall, so that the earth has time to feed on fertilizers. Vienna trench prepare 2 weeks before boarding.
Depth of planting from 15 to 30 cm, it depends on the size of the root system. After planting, the upper part of the plant is cut. If the seedling with two shoots, then each is shortened to the second bud. If the escape is one, then it leaves up to 4 buds.
How to choose a seedling grapes "Ataman"
If there is no planting material, and it is planned to purchase seedlings in the nursery, then pay attention to the condition of the plant.
First, inspect the root system. The seedling should have at least three developed roots, about 10 cm long. The root system should not be dry. Это требование относится к саженцам с открытой корневой системой.
Вызревший побег должен быть длиной около 20 см, на нем есть 4-5 почек. No signs of disease, growths or cracks.
You can buy green seedlings that take root more easily. They need to be especially careful in the process of transportation. The appearance of the plant should not cause concern.
How to care for a hybrid grape variety "Ataman"
Grapes require attention, especially in the first years of life. The care is not difficult, it is enough to carry out a number of procedures:
Water the grapes as needed. The schedule is calculated individually, because of excess moisture, the berries crack. In the dry season, the amount of moisture in the soil increases. Up to 8 buckets of water are spent on one bush in order to completely moisten the soil to the depth of the roots. After watering necessarily loosen the surface of the soil.
To keep the moisture in the soil longer, and the weeds do not grow so quickly, experienced gardeners mulch the soil with straw or humus. This approach maintains an optimal level of heat and humidity in the soil.
Top dressings bring in the early spring, before flowering and after it. Use mineral fertilizers. In the spring they introduce nitrogenous and phosphoric mixtures, after which they switch to potash mixtures and add superphosphate. Can be fertilized with organic matter, such as manure.
Proper vine pruning
During the growing season, grapes need to be rationed for harvest, thinning and pruning. Thinning is performed as needed. Cut large leaves to ensure good ventilation of the bush. This reduces the risk of fungal diseases. In addition, a sparse bush is better illuminated, clusters get more heat and sun, they ripen faster.
The main pruning is carried out in the fall, before preparing for the winter. Fruiting shoots pruned to 8-10 buds, up to 60 buds are left per bush. Specific pruning - this is one of the features of the grapes "Ataman".
When to harbor a vine
After harvesting and pruning, the bush is prepared for wintering. With the onset of sustainable frosts, the vine is covered for storage. Shoots are removed from the support, tilted to the ground, covered with a layer of dry leaves. Then set the frame and pull on it a film or other material.
Particular attention is paid to the root system. Bush well spud, sprinkled with leaves. The frame is not completely closed, you need to leave a place for airing. If a thaw happens, the bush will not shrivel.
As can be seen, the Ataman grape variety is not very capricious, but requires little effort. With the right approach will reward large clusters and a bountiful harvest.