In contrast to the well-known domestic species of birds contained in the farms, turkeys, there are only about 30 species. The word "breed" means turkeys, which were obtained by making selection from wild relatives. To improve the quality of meat products and other indicators, scientists engaged in selection, create crosses. All of them differ in weight into several categories:
Cross Victoria bred for the needs of small farms. It is distinguished by its versatility, and when creating it used two lines. From their fathers, the offspring received precocity with endurance, and from mothers, a rapid growth rate combined with fertility. Experts advise for the flock to start birds in the following ratio: 2/3 should represent the maternal line, and another third - the father.
For turkeys of this breed is characterized by muscular chest, well-developed limbs and a compact physique. The birds have a very elegant look because of the snow-white plumage, on which there are no impurities of a different color.
Having reached a slaughter mass, turkeys will have the following indicators:
- male at the age of 22 weeks - 15 kg,
- female 20 weeks - 9 kg.
Victoria is not only different meat indicators, but also egg production. One female can lay up to 5 eggs in 7 days, the average weight of which is more than 80 grams. The percentage of fertilization is more than 95%.
History of cross
The main breeding material for the creation of the Victoria cross was a wide-breasted white breed. The white, wide-breasted breed, the Fatherly material of the breed, was distinguished by its rapidly gained large dimensions, well-developed muscles of the chest and legs. The maternal line was characterized by high egg production and precocity. Taking their best qualities from their parents, the crosses turned out to be more productive, viable and quickly paid for.
These qualities signal a profitable breeding of crosses, especially for small and households. Note that this cross was obtained by breeders of the North Caucasian Experimental Economy of Russia, and is the best result of breeding lately.
External features and character
Birds have snow-white plumage without inclusions, correctly folded torso, muscular broad chest, developed leg muscles. The head is small, without plumage, rich pink color. Wings must be trimmed to avoid overflight.
Birds are hardy, stress-resistant, unpretentious in food and to conditions. Endowed with excellent survival qualities. So, no more than 10% of young stock die under natural conditions and no more than 20% - in an incubator. Turkeys are energetic birds, love movement and free range. If these conditions are met, they will grow big and strong.
Requirements for the room
If your poultry will be kept in the house, it is necessary:
- build (choose) the room is spacious, bright, without drafts, but well ventilated,
- provide a dry litter of straw or hay, which needs to be changed after 3-4 weeks or as far as pollution (otherwise the smell of ammonia is not to be avoided)
- provide uninterrupted consumption of clean water
- put special containers with ashes and sand for cleaning feathers,
- equip the room with night races,
- monitor the integrity of feeders and drinkers, because spilled water and scattered food will quickly rot,
- Try each individual to allocate personal space next to the feeder (about 20 cm), and at the drinker - 4 cm,
- take care of the natural change of day and night, that is, at night in the room should be dark, and in the daytime - light from the penetrating sunlight.
There are no special recommendations for the temperature regime, with the exception of nursing small turkey poults.
Features of breeding in cages
Almost all of the above recommendations can be applied to breeding turkeys in cages. But the main condition for the productive content of victoria crosses will be the observance of the following rule: one individual should have one square meter of free space (area). In addition, cells are advised to transfer to fresh air during the daytime, periodically changing the location. It is also important to respect the change of real time of day and night.
What else should you take care
We must not forget about the arrangement for the crosses of the required number of nests, feeding troughs, drinking bowls and a special place for walking (perhaps not one).
Equally important when laying eggs are nests. They should be comfortable, located in a quiet dark place. The best option would be to install a sloping roof over the nest, eliminating the possibility of bird landing. The number of nests is regulated depending on the number of female Victoria Cross. No more than five turkeys claim for one nest.
Fence area for walking
To prevent obesity and maintain health, crosses need constant walking. For this purpose, free sites (open-air cages) are used that do not restrict access to water and vegetation, equipped with protective sheds from precipitation and wind, fenced with a high fence. Cellular birds are carried to green areas during the day.
Balanced nutrition is necessary for the adult generation of Victoria Cross since they prone to obesity. Three meals a day is enough. Morning and evening ration contains feed mixture and grain. Lunch it is important to dilute the wet mash with the addition of greens. In the summer, green supplements should prevail in the diet of the crosses. Adults need feeds such as:
- grain marrow (peas, millet, barley, lentils, cake, oats, bran, corn, wheat waste and meal),
- animal (flour from fish and meat bones),
- juicy (rutabaga, beetroot, turnip, carrot, etc.).
A certain proportion of the grain can be replaced by boiled potatoes or silage. Cake and meal (mainly sunflower and soybean), it is advisable to bring up to 20% of the total mass of feed.
Wet mash is often diluted not with water, but with skim milk, whey, yogurt with addition of cottage cheese residues. This will provide the body of the crosses with additional vitamins, protein and minerals. Green components of the diet: nettle, clover, oat sprouts, alfalfa, cabbage are especially useful. And give them better in finely chopped form. In winter, greens are replaced by hay (hay flour) and pine needles. Fish oil, pharmaceutical vitamins and yeast are added to the feed. One bird is required to prepare 6 kg of hay, 10 kg of succulent fodder for the winter. Crushed shells, eggshells, chalk (3-5% of daily feed) provide the mineralization of the body of Victoria Cross.
The daily diet of the female Victoria cross requires additional consumption:
- 30-35 grams of beer grains,
- 2-4% dry beer or pharmaceutical yeast,
- 10% beet pulp by weight of concentrated feed.
In the fall of egg production, appetite-stimulating greens, squash, cabbage are added to food.
Fattening for meat
The nutrition of males of the Victoria Victory during the summer period takes into account the following doses of consumption:
- cereals - 110–150 g / day,
- bran - 25–40 g,
- green fodder (grass, clover, alfalfa, vegetable tops) - 400–500 g,
- vegetables (fresh carrots, beets, cabbage) - up to 200 g,
- bone meal - 3-5 g,
- chalk - 10 g
Do not forget to constantly monitor the presence of water and small gravel, sand, and seashells in the feeders.
Advantages and disadvantages of cross
Crosses Victoria most successfully joined the farms and private farms of our latitudes. This is due to such merits birds:
- rapid growth at a young age
- high survival rate of chicks, justified by good innate immunity,
- quality meat,
- simplicity in the content,
- high payback
- good adaptation to climatic conditions and diet,
- resistance to stressful situations.
Disadvantage expressed only in the difficulty of acquiring young and breeding eggs.