Hello, in this article I will tell you what Wheat is like a culture!
Wheat is the most important cereal, accounting for almost 30% of world grain production and providing food to more than half of the world's population. Its wide popularity is due to the diversified use of valuable grain quality. It goes primarily to the production of flour, from which bread and many other foodstuffs are prepared almost everywhere. Bread from good flour contains up to 70-74% carbohydrates (mainly starch), 10-12% protein, minerals, amino acids, vitamins. This tasty, nutritious, high-calorie product (100 g to 347 calories) is well absorbed and digested by the body. Grain and its waste during harvesting (chaff, straw) and bran feed domestic animals. Paper is made of straw, moving walls, roofs, mats, household items.
Culture Description: Wheat is a one-year upright grass plant height from 0.3 to 1.2 m. Propagated by seeds (kernels), which germinate 3-6 germinal roots, which play a large role in the life of the plant. When 4-5 leaves appear, a secondary root system (nodal roots) begins to form from the underground tillering node. It is fibrous, not wide, sometimes individual roots penetrate to a depth of 1 m and more. Side shoots emerge from the tillering knot somewhat earlier than the nodal roots - when forming the 3rd leaf. Total formed from 1 to 6 shoots (tillering process).
Escape (stem) is a hollow straw, divided by nodes into internodes (4-7), the length of which increases up the stalk. The internodes from the bottom are tightly covered by the leaf sheaths, which diverge from above and pass into freely protruding smooth, linear leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, 20 to 37 cm long. At the end of the tillering phase, the stems begin to grow intensively by extending the internodes upward (phase - exit into the tube, or stitching). In the process of stalking, the inflorescence (spike) rises along the stem and leaves the vagina of the upper leaf, the plant enters the earing phase. An ear, 5-10 cm long, consists of a rod, on each ledge of which it sits on a spike in 2 parallel rows, from above it ends with a spikelet. Spikelets consist of 2 spikelet scales and several flowers (from 1 to 5), each of which is enclosed in 2 flowering scales. In the spinous ears, the outer scales carry an awn. The flower consists of ovaries with ovules, 2 feathery stigmas and 3 stamens. Flowering in wheat occurs immediately after the earing. It starts from the center of the ear, then spreads up and down simultaneously. Flowering can be closed (in cloudy or rainy weather) or open. Dominated by self-pollination. With the onset of flowering, the growth of the stem stops. After fertilization, the formation, filling and ripening of the fetus begins (ripening phase).
The fruit of wheat, the kernel, consists of densely fused fruit and seed membranes, endosperm with an outer aleuronic (proteinaceous) and internal starchy layers, and an embryo. The weight of 1000 grains is 30-50 g. The wheat grain is very valuable, it contains 75-79% carbohydrates, 15-20% protein, 1.9-2.2% fat, 1.9-2.1% ash and 2, 2-2.4% fiber. Used in breadmaking as an improver for wheat flour. Basically it goes on making the best varieties of semolina, pasta, noodles, noodles.
Wheat is one of the few crops that can be grown in a wide range of heat, light, and soil regimes.
In the temperate zone, it is cultivated from hot steppe areas to cold northern ones. Here the early ripening cold-resistant varieties of winter crops (about 3/4 of all areas of the temperate zone) and spring wheat prevail. It is enough for them to germinate seeds and establish the emergence of temperatures of 12-14 ° С, and the shoots withstand short-term frosts. During tillering, spring wheat is also low on heat. Winter forms for normal overwintering and transition to the generative phases should be hardened (accumulation of sugars in tillering nodes, gradual dehydration of cells, and the transformation of insoluble organic substances into soluble ones) with a gradual decrease in temperature and day length during the autumn tillering period. For the passage of the generative phases (planting, earing, flowering, ripening) wheat requires a consistent increase in average daily temperatures from 18 to 28 ° C. The sum of active temperatures (above 10 ° C) during the growing season should not be lower than 1400-1600 °. The optimal annual rainfall for dry wheat is 600-800 mm. However, with a favorable distribution of precipitation, it can give good yields and with a smaller amount of precipitation (400-450 mm), the main thing is that during the growing season their number should not be less than 200 mm.
No cereal has as many species and varieties as wheat. Each country, except for common wheat varieties, has its own local ones. The agricultural classification does not quite agree with the division adopted by the botanists. The characteristics of different wheat varieties are determined by the forms of the main vegetative organs - the stem and spike, then the difference in the appearance of the grains and their chemical composition.
Despite many attempts to compile a wheat classification, the final agreement has not yet taken place. But their most important division is soft and hard varieties.
Soft wheat (Triticum aistivum or Triticum vulgare) is distinguished by a loose irregular spike or with medium length spines directed away from the stem of the ear, the stem is a hollow straw, the grain shape is oval, round, the color is from red-brown to light yellow, the beard is clearly visible, the groove is deep, forms a closed line in the grain, the consistency of the endosperm is different - from powdery to vitreous. Grain of soft wheat is used for the production of bakery and confectionery, in a small amount - pasta flour.
Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is significantly different from soft: the spike is dense with long spines, directed parallel to the stem, the straw is filled with connective tissue, the grain is long, the color is from light to dark amber, the beard is poorly developed, indistinct, the groove is open, shallow, endosperm is vitreous. Durum wheat is used for the production of pasta flour and as an improver for baking. Durum wheat varieties are all spring.
Spelled (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) - semi-wild wheat, has grain covered with floral films that are difficult to separate. It is considered the “progenitress” of all cultivated varieties of wheat. Today, spelled spread a little, is used for the production of cereals.
Winter wheat is considered to be an annual representative of grain crops, it belongs to the family of cereals. Works on its sowing should be carried out at the end of the summer period - in the beginning of autumn. The first sprout occurs before winter comes, but they are not afraid of the cold. The period of ripening sprouts in this wheat comes much earlier than in the spring varieties. The popularity of winter wheat is extremely high, breeders are constantly working on breeding new varieties.
Currently there are two types of varieties of winter cereal.
- Solid. These species prefer areas with a dry climate. Description of the plant: the stem with a large thickness, grain of small size with a yellow or brown color and a rigid structure. The purpose of durum wheat is to make flour that has excellent properties. It is ideal for making pasta products.
- Soft varieties give preference to wet areas of growth. Description of the plant: thin-walled stem, the grain is vitreous, mealy, has a color from white to dark brown. Flour, created from such cereal, thin and crumbly. It is often used for the preparation of bakery and confectionery products.
Winter wheat is valued for its high yields, as well as its unusually high nutritional value. Despite its resistance to cold, this grass displays high demands on the growing mechanism and conditions. If the climate is not favorable for normal growth and development of the plant, the grain crop dies massively. The most suitable for the growth of winter wheat are soils that contain a lot of humus.
. In order for yields to be high, it is necessary to choose the right seeds.
Characteristics of seeds of winter wheat to which attention should be paid:
- the ability to tolerate drought, as well as dehydration,
- resistance to freezing temperatures
- demanding of soils.
New varieties and hybrids
In recent years, scientists have been actively working, bringing new products in varieties of winter cereal. Representatives demanded by farmers grow in the center, in the south and north of the country. The grain of such hybrids can give high yields, shows resistance to negative air temperature and diseases.
Consider the most prominent representatives of the new varieties and hybrids.
This type of cereal was created by stepwise hybridization, as well as by targeted selection from hybrid combinations. The bush of this wheat is characterized by intermediateness, it does not have wax bloom, its straws are characterized by a hollow type, the leaves are not pubescent. Spike spindle-shaped plan, it is white in color and has a small length, which reaches nine centimeters. Ermak's grain has medium size, oval shape, red color and slight hairiness. The variety is medium early with average yield. The maximum amount of this wheat harvest was collected in 2011 and amounted to eleven tons per hectare.
“Yermak” is a flour and baking wheat with strong and high-quality grains. The grass rarely suffers from fungal infections, shows resistance to the frosty period. Brown rust, powdery mildew, dusty smut, these representatives of cereals are rarely affected. This variety is resistant to the lodging process, does not require the use of various chemicals. It was created with high adaptability to the late sowing date, so wheat has high regeneration tillering capacity during the late winter - early spring. "Ermak" is considered a highly productive grain of soft varieties of winter wheat.
It is recommended to sow grass after peas, an annual cereal-bean grass mixture.
This is a variety that has a semi-upright shrub with an average height. Spikelet spindle-shaped, has an average density, white color and short length. One thousand grains weighs about thirty-five kilograms. “Asket” is considered to be a medium-yielding medium early variety. The growing season is approximately two hundred and seventy days. Winter hardiness is average, has resistance to lodging and drought. The variety has good baking qualities. This wheat is of high value, it rarely suffers the attacks of brown rust and septoria, but is rather susceptible to smut.
Every valuable food crop needs attention when grown. Sowing winter varieties, each farmer must take into account the degree of plant resistance to cold, drought, and soil requirements. Wheat, which feels comfortable in a particular territory, gives excellent yields.
For different regions.
- "Bagrat". Belong to the group srednerosly grade: its height reaches about one meter. The plant is resistant to lodging, sredneranny, actively growing in spring. The grains have medium size, elongated shape and a small groove. The variety produces good yields that exceed standards. "Bagrat" is used in the milling and baking areas. This plant has resistance to climatic conditions of the territory and diseases. The variety has a good frost resistance. The recommended region for the cultivation of grain is the North Caucasus.
It is best to plant "Bagrat" after tilled crops and ears of corn.
- "Scepter". It is recommended for cultivation in the Novgorod, Pskov and Nizhny Novgorod regions. The plant is medium in size and belongs to the semi-vegetation. The ear has the shape of a cylinder, medium friability and short length. A thousand grains weighs about forty kilograms. This variety belongs to the mid-season, its growing season - no more than three hundred and thirty-eight days. "Scepter" is characterized by increased winter hardiness and practically does not lie down. It has satisfactory bakery qualities, is resistant to many diseases, but does not withstand snow mold poorly.
- "Snow Maiden". Belgorod and Voronezh regions are suitable for its cultivation. Erect shrub with medium height. The ear has a cylindrical shape, medium friability and white color. A thousand grains in weight reach thirty-eight pounds. The variety is characterized by medium ripening periods and high winter hardiness. The height of the grass is from sixty-seven centimeters to ninety-eight. "Snow Maiden" stands out for drought and lodging resistance, has good baking characteristics. This is a valuable variety of wheat, which is weakly prone to disease.
- "Lydia". The most favorable zone for growing a variety is considered to be the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga region. The ear has the shape of a cylinder, white color, in length reaches from six to nine centimeters. The grain of the plant is red, ovoid and medium in size. The yields of this variety are average; black steam, peas and sunflower are considered the best predecessors. The value of "Lydia" is estimated in the bakery and flour milling areas.
- "Antonina" - This is a short stem cereal. It belongs to medium-late cereals, is resistant to lodging and does not crumble. Cylindrical spike painted in a slightly cream color, its length reaches eleven centimeters. Grains are large, red, elongated. Antonina provides farmers with large harvests, especially in the North Caucasus. The grass has high drought and frost resistance.
- Adele. Belongs to medium-grade varieties that are recommended to be cultivated in the North Caucasus and surrounding areas. This wheat is medium early, does not crumble. Shrubs at the plant are semi-upright. Kolos has a pyramidal shape and a length of up to nine centimeters. The grains are medium, elongated, painted red. Adele can provide a crop with an average amount, which is used for milling and baking purposes. This wheat tolerates drought well and is rarely infected with diseases. Also, this wheat has high winter hardiness.
- "Tanya" - This is winter wheat, which refers to semi-dwarf plants. This is a culture with medium maturity and high resistance to lodging. Shrubs are semi-upright, spike can be cylindrical or pyramidal with an average density. Grains are characterized by large sizes, they are ovoid with a long tuft. The grass of this variety gives good yields, which are used in the milling and baking direction. “Tanya” is recommended to be sown on grain after corn, the North Caucasus considers the most favorable region.
Currently, there are many varieties of winter wheat, bred in the GNU KNIISH MI. PPLukyanenko, which are considered high-yielding. Consider the most prominent representatives.
- "Alexeyevich" - A variety of winter wheat that produces excellent yields. Its grains are egg-shaped, red in color and medium in size. Spike white and pyramidal. This variety has an extremely high productivity - one hundred twenty centners per hectare. Alekseevich has the highest yield when it is planted after white mustard. This cereal has excellent baking qualities.
List of plants
Winter crops include cereal plants that have a long life cycle. The most famous representatives of this kind of crops: rye, wheat, barley, triticale.
The forerunners for winter crops are winter crops of legumes, and later legumes and cereals. Where the soil is not sufficiently wet, perennial grasses, annual green fodder should be used as precursors of winter wheat. There are also winter crops: vetch, camelina, canola, rape.
Crops that belong to winter crops have two vegetation stages:
- Autumn, which lasts up to 50 days,
- Spring-summer, numbering more than 70 days.
Tillage system for winter crops
The pre-sowing tillage is done by plowing the soil, and it is very important that the plowed layer is at least 20 cm. It is also necessary to make a peeling of the ground. This method of tillage received the name - autumn.
With regard to the cultivation of land in the spring, then, first of all, there is a closure of the source of moisture. For all summer and spring days, at least 4 cultivations should be carried out, during which harrowing and rolling will be carried out simultaneously. Последнее перемешивание (предпосевная) проводится с глубинной заделкой семян. Если площадь для выращивания расположена в местах, где земля была подвержена дефляции, то ее обрабатывают глубокорыхлителями или мотоблоками.
Первое возделывание почвы проводится ранней весной, в то же время, когда идет посев яровых культур. Вспашка сопоставляется с боронованием. Летом поле нужно обрабатывать по зяблевому методу.
After that, tillage depends on the degree of moisture of the arable layer and the technology itself for growing winter crops.
Before the sowing of winter wheat begins, peas, flax or other cereals are planted in the soil. After that, the land is plowed. The soil is treated with disk tools.
Sowing of winter cereals
Sowing time depends on the specific region in which the winter crops grow. In order for them to survive the winter period well, the active temperature in the autumn period is important. It should be understood that the more arid the conditions, the worse the yield will be.
There are several main ways of sowing winter crops:
- Narrow (distance between rows 7-8 cm).
- Private ordinary (seed distribution at a distance of 15 cm),
In order for plants to be better assimilated and take root, it is necessary to make rows with a direction from north to south. The depth of embedding is completely dependent on the composition of the soil and its moisture content; therefore, it can be either 3 cm or 7 cm.
With regard to the rules for the care of crops, it is very important that all necessary conditions be created to ensure the safety of crops during the winter frost period.
Features care for winter crops are as follows:
- In the presence of weeds, it is necessary to carry out processing of the earth with herbicides.
- After sowing, carry out chemical weeding to eliminate the possibility of the emergence of annual cereal shoots.
- Before the end of the autumn vegetation, spraying is necessary (provided that the sowing protection from the snow mold has not been properly protected).
Spring care depends on how winter crops have survived frosts. Evaluation is carried out 10 days after the beginning of the growing season.
Growing winter crops directly depends on proper selection of fertilizers. Mineral and organic supplements, especially nitrogen, are preferred. For each type of grain there is its own feeding system of winter crops, following which you can get a good and rich harvest.
Organic top dressing should be used in less fertile soils, after oats, buckwheat and other annual herbs. It is best to make them for plowing.
As for the doses of mineral fertilizers, they are calculated using a complex method, using computers or recommendations of scientific centers. Phosphoric dressing contribute to the beginning of sowing, on the treated soil. Since phosphorus in the earth is practically not mobile, it is necessary to carry out its presowing introduction.
Greater yields bring nitrogen fertilizers. They allow you to get a wheat harvest of about 50 kg / ha. You need to make them according to the following principle:
- The first feeding is carried out in the spring, before the beginning of the growing season of the culture. The purpose of this operation is to increase the power of tillering.
- The second dressing is carried out at the stage of plant entry into the tube.
- A third dressing is needed in the middle of the booting process in order to get a higher yield ratio.
In addition, for the growth of winter crops and mineral fertilizers are often used. Most of these plants need manganese and copper. Doses are calculated by experts in research centers.
As for cleaning, it should be carried out with high quality and timely. For this you may need specialized equipment and qualified specialists. About 50-60% of the cost is in cultivation.
The technology of cultivation of winter crops is a complex of works that are aimed at improving the conditions for the growth and development of plants. This process includes receptions that are carried out from the moment of harvesting the remnants of previous crops from the field to the beginning of the harvest.
The cultivation technology includes:
- Introduction of top dressing.
- Seed preparation.
- Crop care.
- Plant protection from weeds.
Soil cultivation of winter crops involves loosening, plowing and rolling. An equally important role is played by properly selected fertilizers. If the acidity of the soil is increased, then it is necessary to conduct liming. Submitted under the main treatment to make the reaction almost neutral.
When preparing seeds, they are treated. This process must be done in advance, about a week before sowing. You can use special machines for a more positive result.
The rules of care consist in well-chosen fertilizers and the creation of good conditions for the protection of plants in the process of tillering. In the summer, it is necessary to fight pests and possible diseases that can deal a big blow to the entire crop as a whole.
Once again on the cultivation, but in the video:
The product of private breeding, created in 2007. It belongs to the variety of Lyutescens, that is, it is a variety of soft wheat. This type of winter crop of universal purpose is cultivated in the territory of Polesia, Forest-Steppe and Steppe. The plant itself reaches a height of 86 - 90 cm. The entire period of ripening takes 280 - 285 days.
Spikelets of wheat "Shestopalovka" are cylindrical in shape, loose in structure, painted in the color of yellow straw. The seeds are large, red, 1000 grains weigh 42.6 - 44.1 g.
This variety is very resistant to bad weather, that is, to severe frosts and drought. Plants calmly survive the winter, the grains in the spikelet do not germinate and do not fall out. Also bread resistant to lodging and diseases. From 1 hectare of the field goes 7 - 8.5 tons of grain. 1100 - 1180 cm3 of bread will be produced out of 100 g of flour obtained from the grain of this sort. Shestopalovsky grain contains a lot of fiber (about 30%) and protein (about 14%).
Grade of Ukrainian origin, bred in 2008. Designed for cultivation in the Steppe and Forest-Steppe. The variety is characterized by intensive growth, is widely used on various agricultural backgrounds. The growing season takes 280 - 285 days, so this wheat is considered mid-season.
The plants are medium strong (92 - 96 cm), grow quite thickly (610-830 plants per 1 square meter), and therefore it comes out to get a lot of harvest from the field. Spikelets are large (9–11 cm), with a large number of grain, cylindrical, with an average density (there are 20–22 spikelets per 10 cm of stem). Color spikelet - white, pubescence is absent.
The grain is large, red, egg-shaped, 1000 grains weigh 36.2 - 44.4 g.
A distinctive feature of the variety is immunity to a set of phyto-diseases, that is, rust, rot and septoria do not damage this wheat. Also, the stems do not lie down, survive the winter and frost well, they are not afraid of the lack of moisture and heat.
Grain is obtained very high quality, it contains protein from 12 to 13%, and fiber - from 28 to 33%. It is desirable to provide wheat “Antonovka” with high soil fertility or to drop seeds on rich soils. The amount of crop that can be obtained from 1 ha of field is 48.6-87.5 centners.
Mid-season variety bred in Ukraine. Refers to varieties of soft wheat. It was approved in 2003. The variety is very high-yielding, used in many directions. The ability to regenerate in plants of this variety is excellent.
Wheat Podolyanka germinates very quickly, gaining vegetative mass, and the whole growth period takes 305 - 310 days. The stem of the plant together with the ear reaches 95 - 99 cm in height, and the bush is semi-upright. Spikelets of this wheat look like a cone, medium density and length, white, awnless. The grains of this wheat are red, egg-shaped, large in size. 1000 grains weigh 43.6 - 45.8 g. For this wheat, special agrotechnology is not needed, since the highly fertile soil is not needed for the variety “Podolyanka”. Neither drought nor frost harm the bushes.
The stems do not lodge, the grains from the spikelets do not crumble, and the plants as a whole almost do not suffer from diseases, even from powdery mildew and brown rust. Supplemental irrigation and fertilizing will only help planting. The yield is about 60 kg / ha. Fiber in this variety of wheat is very much - from 32 to 36%.
"Favorite" - is a representative of the elite varieties, refers to the soft wheat. Most often, this variety is grown in an intensive way. It will be great to grow on the territory of the Forest-Steppe, Steppe and Polesia. "Favorite" is considered middle-ripened variety, crops of which are medium in height.
Bushes grow strongly enough, 1000 seeds weigh 38-43 g. The vegetative period reaches 283 - 287 days. This variety is considered particularly valuable due to its quality characteristics. Resistance to frost is extremely strong, but drought resistance is not very good.
Also, this wheat is tolerant to a variety of diseases. The stems of these plants are very strong, they do not break under the action of strong winds even with a stem length of 96 - 105 cm. There is a lot of fiber in these ovate, large, red grains - 31-32%. The yield of this variety is high - 96-107 centners per hectare.
Erythrospermum group variety, bred by Ukrainian breeders. Designed for cultivation in the Steppe and Forest-Steppe. The plants of this variety of wheat have short stems, and the growth rate is very high. Stems of medium thickness, strong.
Spike spindle-shaped, medium length, low density, typical yellow color. Grains of this wheat are egg-shaped, medium-sized, 1000 units weighing 40 - 42 g. A maximum of 100 c / ha of yield can be obtained from this variety.
Grain varieties "Kuyalnik" is very high quality, since its characteristics this variety received from the "parents" - varieties Olivia and Odessa red-hair, and these varieties are considered the best among all varieties of winter wheat. "Kuyalnik" can withstand even very severe frosts, that is, during the winter you should not worry about landing. Also, the seedlings will calmly survive the lack of moisture and high temperatures, the stems do not lodge, and the grains do not germinate and crumble.
Diseases also have little effect on plants.
It is considered soft wheat. It was developed for cultivation on the steppe, forest-steppe soils and soils of Polesye. The growing season takes 280 - 287 days. The representative of the species Eritrospermum. Grain is used to make flour and bread. The plants are tall (95 - 102 cm), semi-upright. spikelets elongated, spinous, medium dense, slightly resemble a pyramid, white or light yellow in color, with a faint brilliant bloom.
The seeds are red, large, 1000 units weigh 42.6 - 47.8 g. The amount of fiber in the product reaches 31.7 - 33.9%. Due to the average resistance to diseases and pests, the planting of this variety of wheat needs 2-3 times treatment. The plants tolerate the winter well, the dry period, they do not lodge, they are not subject to powdery mildew, the grain in the ear does not germinate. The planting will be greatly affected by the application of fertilizers of different composition.
Variety "Odessa 267"
Ukrainian wheat, which was bred in 1997. It belongs to the variety Eritrospermum. Suitable for playing on the soils of the Forest-Steppe and Steppe. Bushes high (110 - 120 cm), semi-erect, with green leaves.
Spikelets and stems are the same in color - white. The spindle-shaped spindle-shaped, it is rather oblong (9–10 cm), of increased density — 23 spikelets per 10 cm of stem. Grains are egg-like, reddish, large-sized, 1000 units weigh 38 - 42.8 g. Spits of this wheat are no longer than spikelets, rigid, diverging to the sides. Resistance to lodging and diseases is slightly above average, but frost and drought will not be able to harm planting at all.
Grains do not germinate in spikelets. The yield per hectare is 57.6 centners of wheat grains.
Grade "Kherson bezostaya"
Early variety from the list of Lyutescenses of Ukrainian origin. It was registered in 2002. It can grow in conditions of Polesia, Steppe and Forest-Steppe. Spikelets are white, cylinder-like, of medium length (7.5–8.5 cm), medium density (17–21 spikelets per 10 cm of stem). To the top, they are slightly pointed. Grains of a red shade, egg-shaped, 1000 pieces will weigh 40 - 52 g.
The stalk of this variety of wheat is short, as for this crop, 80 to 90 cm. Therefore, this type of wheat has an extremely high resistance to lodging. Protection against diseases in "Kherson bezostoy" wheat innate and very strong. Also this wheat has a pronounced resistance to cold. The yield is 72.3 c / ha.
The grain is very high quality and energy rich.
Middle-early variety with a ripening period of 274 - 278 days. This Ukrainian wheat is intended for cultivation in conditions of Steppe and Forest-Steppe. Refers to a variety of soft wheat. It has a universal purpose. Plants grow up to 1 m in height, grains are large, 1000 pieces weigh about 47 g.
Diseases can slightly spoil the condition of wheat, but neither frost nor heat can affect its condition. Grains do not crumble and do not germinate, and the stems do not lie under the winds. From 1 hectare of the field you can get about 8 - 9 tons of crop. Solokha will grow even better if the soil is fertile.
In order to grow wheat, you do not need to spend too much energy on this procedure. But at the same time, it will be much easier to grow winter wheat, since in this case, in early spring, you will only have to wait a bit until the spikelets appear and mature.
Winter wheat: the possibility of high yields
Using intensive technologies, in the UK they grow an average of 69.56 c / ha of wheat, and in the Netherlands - 81.2 c / ha. Many farms that are familiar with the intensive technology of cultivating winter wheat, receive steady yields on irrigated lands: 60 or even 70 centners per hectare. The highest yield reached 92.4 centners per hectare.
With favorable agro-climatic conditions, you can get quite high yields. Winter wheat feels great on irrigated lands - yields up to one hundred centners per hectare. This crop in irrigated crop rotations is also grown for silage or green fodder, and the area vacated after it is used after mowing for crops of grain, vegetable and fodder plants.
Biological features of winter wheat cultivation
Wheat belongs to the family of cereals; by winter, it sprouts, thrives, and goes through autumn hardening. After overwintering, plant development continues. The differentiation of the growth cone begins. Its strong growth depends on the strength of the leaves and roots, on the water content of the tissues. Full saturation of the cells with water is necessary for maintaining their turgor, stretching, and increasing the number of embryos of future ears. This is a very crucial period for plant life. The critical period in the life of winter wheat continues from the release into the tube to the milky ripeness of the grain.
Early watering before laying germ spikelets increases the number of grains, and watering at the beginning of the formation of flowers contributes to an increase in the number of developed flowers. During flowering and fertilization, when the plant's breathing and the consumption of organic matter increase, the plants are particularly sensitive to overheating and dry hot air. The optimum range of air temperatures in this period is 14-19 ° C, at 35 ° C the plants have a strong decrease in photosynthesis, the yield decreases to 20, and at 40 ° C - to 50%. It also has a negative air humidity and a dry wind. Cultivation of winter wheat against the background of exposure to high temperatures and such humidity of the air requires close attention.
Top dressing of winter wheat
Winter wheat has a fairly long growing season, it allows it to more fully use the nutrients from the soil. However, the need for nutritional elements is different for her, depending on the period of plant development. Therefore, the feeding of winter wheat in spring is advisable.
Nitrogen is needed during the growing season, but the plants absorb it most intensively in phases when they enter the tube and spike. Top dressing of winter wheat is important in early spring, it is at this time that because of the low temperature and possible overmoistening of the soil, nitrification processes can be suppressed, and water flushes nitrate nitrogen into deeper soil layers, plants can experience nitrogen starvation even on well-supplied soils. This explains the high efficiency of the result, when top dressing of winter wheat in the spring is correctly carried out.
During the period of sprouting and at the beginning of development, wheat has a high demand for phosphate nutrition, which stimulates the normal development of the root system. With good moisture supply, the roots can still penetrate to a depth of more than 1 meter in the fall, which contributes to the frost resistance of winter wheat. Phosphorus enhances the degree of differentiation and a large number of grains on the ear. Its lack at the beginning of growth cannot be compensated by any enhanced provision of this fertilizer to the plants at a later date.
The lack of easily digestible potassium in the soil from the beginning of the growing season to the flowering of wheat leads to a significant lag in plant growth and lag in the development of plants - they become more sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and soil moisture. Satisfactory provision of plants with phosphorus and potassium in the fall enhances the winter resistance of winter wheat, and a sufficient supply of nitrogen increases the content of protein in the grain. An excess of the latter, as well as excessive soil moisture, leads to lodging of plants.
Сорта озимой пшеницы
К регионам у селекционеров всегда индивидуальный подход. Сорта озимой пшеницы, выращиваемой в условиях орошения, должны отмечаться высокой реакцией на удобрения, дополнительное увлажнение почвы, а также устойчивостью к полеганию и грибным болезням.
The best for wheat are chestnut and chernozem soils, their mechanical composition is medium and well aerated. That is, winter wheat is demanding on soils. Unsuitable for her - saline, compaction and wetlands. Modern varieties of winter wheat, used depending on the region, are as follows:
- Tarasovskaya spinous - cultivated in the Voronezh and Rostov regions.
- Rosinka Tarasovskaya - high-yielding variety.
- Prestige - for regions with late frosts (Volga region, republics of the North Caucasus).
- Severodonetsk Jubilee (grown in the Kuban region, in the Krasnodar Territory, on the Rostov lands, in the republics of the North Caucasus).
- Spring Tarasovsky - grown in the south.
- August - drought-resistant variety.
- Governor Dona.
- Don 105.
- Kamyshanka-3 - cultivated in the Lower Volga region.
- Nemchinovskaya-57 and 24.
- Moscow-39 and 56.
The last varieties in this list are derived for non-black earth, their grain has high baking qualities.
Winter wheat fertilizer
With proper use of fertilizers in irrigated agriculture, the crop increases from 40 to 70%. Fertilizers for winter wheat dramatically increase yields, as well as grain quality. In the experiments of the Institute of Agriculture on irrigated lands, the winter wheat crop increased from 28.3 to 51.9 centners per hectare.
The increase in yield from the optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizers in the south of the country was 10-10.6, from phosphate fertilizers - 1.2-1.6, and from their combined effect - 12.1-16.9 centners / ha. That is, winter wheat is - reacts differently to individual batteries. According to scientists, potash fertilizers should be applied only when the soil is less than 300 mg / kg of mobile potassium.
The application rate of fertilizers is calculated by the balance method, based on the level of the planned yield, the presence of nutrients in the soil and the coefficient of digestibility of their plants. Weediness of winter wheat significantly reduces the effectiveness of fertilizers used, yield reduction reaches 12-15%.
An important reserve for increasing the effectiveness of the use of various fertilizers for winter wheat is a very uniform spread across the field. This condition must be approached carefully. Nitrogen fertilizers for winter wheat should be used selectively, taking into account local soil and climatic conditions, as well as the biology of the cultivated varieties, the size of the planned yield.
When grown on heavy and medium soils with a very deep bedding of groundwater and low nitrogen content in soils, it is better to apply fertilizer fragmented - two thirds of the norm for the main treatment, and the rest - in top dressing at the end of spring tillering.
On light soils, as well as on heavy, with fairly close groundwater occurrence, nitrogenous fertilizer losses are possible, therefore 30% of its annual norm must be applied for presowing cultivation, the rest - in spring in top dressing. In areas where nitrogen reserves in the soil are increased, it is impractical to apply nitrogenous fertilizers in the fall, since this will lead to the overgrowth of plants and the concentration of crops. In such cases, 40% of the annual rate of nitrogen is used in early spring, and 60% - later.
Scientists in Germany, Belgium, Great Britain and Austria believe that to obtain 80-95 centners / ha of winter wheat it is undesirable to apply nitrogen fertilizers during the seed period, therefore it is recommended to distribute the entire rate of nitrogen to 3-4 feedings, and the use of fertilizers should be combined with fungicides.
To improve the quality of grain, winter wheat crops are fed with urea in the earing phase. In Germany, winter wheat is used for liquid manure at the rate of 20-30 cubic meters per hectare, it is used before sowing or during the growing season of plants. Scientists in France and the United States claim that to obtain a crop of more than 80 centners per hectare, foliar dressing with irrigation water requires foliar fertilizing with liquid fertilizers for a complex-type culture, which consist of macro- and microelements (Zn, Mg, Fe, B). Such top dressing of winter wheat improves the quality of the crop and ensures its growth by 2-6 centners per hectare.
The cross sowing method on each hectare saves 50-60 kilograms of seeds, the increase in grain yield, as compared with the narrow sowing method, reaches seven centners per hectare. Therefore, winter wheat is sown in a cross-sectional, narrow-rowed, belt and scatter way. The most common method of reception - with a row spacing of 15 cm, with the observance of the technological track.
When the farm carries out the cultivation of winter wheat of semi-dwarf varieties, three-line tape sowing is recommended, which provides an increase in yield compared to lower-case sowing. A well-established and two-tier sowing, which is carried out with a mixture of dwarf seeds and common varieties. Due to the tiers and improvement of the sowing structure, the phytoclimate improves by 10-15%, which results in a more complete, economical and productive use of moisture reserves, reduction of the negative effects of high temperatures, while the resistance of wheat to, for example, root rot increases by 8-24%.
Winter wheat harvest is highly dependent on the timing of sowing. Every day of the lost period reduces the grain yield by 20-60 kg. Sowing winter wheat should be done on time. Especially sharply reduces the harvest sowing in October, short-stalked varieties that require earlier periods react most to this. Small seeds must be sown shallowly, and large seeds deeper. Shallow embedding in the soil of seeds, carried out by pneumatic seed drills or combined units, contributes to a rather significant increase in the yield of the cultivated crop.
Seeding rates in principle depend on the variety, seed size, sowing time and region of cultivation. The seeding rate must also be differentiated depending on the degree of contamination of the field itself.
Care of crops
Caring for crops includes rolling, fertilizing, spring harrowing, control of lodging, as well as weeds, various pests and diseases. In areas with sufficient snow cover, snow retention should be carried out, which improves wintering of plants and increases moisture reserves in the soil. Spring maintenance of crops begins with fertilization and harrowing seedlings. In fields that are prepared for vegetative irrigation, harrowing should be carried out taking into account the characteristics of the irrigation network. In the presence of irrigation strips, it is necessary to harrow only along the sowing, on the interages between the harrowing with a rotary hoe gives the best results.
When weeds are present in crops, winter wheat should be treated with herbicides. Before planting the plant in the tube is sprayed. In the same period, crops need to be treated against powdery mildew or brown rust. Diseases of winter wheat are treated with systemic drugs, this is "Bayletonomil" and "Fundazol."
If there are bug-bugs, aphid, tripy, and blotch in the crops, then Metaphase or Phosphamide agents are used, 40%. Operations for the care of wheat crops must be combined and carried out two or three times, which saves money, labor and time. The treatment of crops is desirable to carry out with irrigation, combining the introduction of the above preparations with irrigation water.
The decrease in the yield of winter wheat depends on the intensity and duration of lodging of crops and can reach 25-50% under irrigation conditions, the cost of labor and funds for harvesting grow threefold, and the quality of the harvest is sharply reduced. The use of TOUR on irrigated lands is mandatory, the optimal rate of the drug is three kg / ha a.v. Processing is carried out in the period of the end of tillering. On varieties prone to lodging, contribute a higher rate, and on the other - less. Treatment of short-stalked varieties of winter wheat with TUR is impractical.
Irrigation is a major factor in the high yield of winter wheat in all regions where it is grown. The increase in grain yield by irrigation is a technology for the cultivation of winter wheat, while the efficiency of crop irrigation increases with its joint action along with fertilizers.
When growing winter wheat, it is necessary to ensure optimum soil moisture for obtaining friendly shoots and normal autumn plant development. This is achieved by pre-sowing or traditional irrigation. The value of their unequal in different areas of agriculture. In areas where precipitation often falls in the fall and soak the soil deeply until spring, the intensity of irrigation decreases. In areas with dry autumn and insufficient soil moisture during the autumn rains, irrigation is crucial for high winter wheat yields.
When establishing the irrigation rate, it is necessary to take into account the depth of the saline horizons and the groundwater level. Irrigation water should not reach the salt-bearing horizon, since the salts dissolved in it can rise with capillary current and pickle the soil layer where the roots are located. Watering is inefficient at close groundwater levels. Excessive irrigation rates can cause waterlogging. Watering is effective when the groundwater depth is 3 m or more. With a depth of up to one and a half meters, irrigation is replaced by irrigation of the soil before planting. The need for watering after germination occurs in the conditions of a dry autumn and on lands with a deep level of groundwater. Dates of irrigation should be determined by the time of sowing of winter wheat, the provision of water management, irrigation equipment and the time of crop harvesting.
The optimal time for harvesting winter wheat is the so-called wax ripeness of wheat grain. This stage begins when the content of dry matter grains is already high. Senicization (spraying before harvesting) of crops promotes better maturation of the crop, increases the yield of winter wheat, so you need to try to carry out the harvesting in a short time and with the lowest possible losses.
Operational harvesting will reduce its losses and preserve the high quality of the obtained grain. It should be remembered that the delay with the harvest of winter wheat for more than ten days leads to an indispensable decrease in the grain yield by seven centners per hectare, while the content of protein in the grain decreases by one and a half percent.
Cultivation of winter wheat implies, like any agricultural production, many factors:
- natural resources - direct solar energy, atmospheric heat, water in the form of precipitation, soil,
- direct energy costs for manufacturing products for a specific technology or for an enterprise,
- indirect energy costs, which are used in the technology of cultivation of plants in the field, collection, processing and storage of products.
There is a tendency in the world to overspend energy capacities. To increase 1% of the gross product in the village increases the use of energy by 2-3%. Tillage traditional methods is the most expensive. This technology over the past years has led to a decrease in humus and soil degradation. Global trends in the development of winter wheat, changes in cultivation technologies point the way to economical farming.
More than 124 million hectares of land in the world are transferred to benign technologies. One of the measures to improve energy efficiency and energy saving is the arrangement of innovative new farms - models of environmental and economic efficient production with a concentration of modern energy and resource-saving technologies. These technologies include: mulch sowing, direct sowing, effective irrigation. The development of winter wheat involves the introduction of these technologies.
The use of waste generated in agriculture is becoming a reality through the implementation of renewable energy projects around the world. In particular, when growing wheat for every ton of grain, 2 tons of straw are produced. Pre-ground straw is preferably plowed to restore the fertility of the land. But part of the straw can be used to turn it into energy fuel briquettes.
Wheat is the main food culture in many countries, due to the exceptional nutritional value of the grain and its rich composition. Where winter wheat grows well, it is traditionally the leading cereal. These are the republics of the North Caucasus, the Central Black Earth regions, Ukraine. Winter wheat perfectly uses the moisture of autumn and spring, it bushes, it ripens very early and suffers much less from drought and dry wind.