Feeding trees and shrubs in early spring is carried out either mineral or organic matter.
Mineral fertilizers are divided into simple and complex. The difference between them is how many components are included. If one, then this is a simple mineral fertilizer, two or more - complex. They are also divided into groups according to the main component in the composition - nitrogen, phosphoric and potash.
The basis of organic fertilizers is rotted organic matter - manure, droppings, compost and green fertilizers.
Top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers
Fertilizing fruit trees and shrubs in early spring with mineral fertilizers requires a careful approach. The main thing in this type of fertilizer is a measure, otherwise you can harm not only the plant, but also the earth, and people.
Nitrogen fertilizers include:
- Ammonium sulfate. This substance acidifies the soil and is poorly soluble in it, so it is better to make it in the fall. To improve the properties, you can add 1.5 kg of lime to 1 kg of ammonium sulfate.
- Ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) - instant substance. The action of ammonium nitrate is fast and effective on non-acidic soils. Plants absorb it well and react to it. If the soil itself is acidified, it is best to dilute the ammonium nitrate with limestone flour in a 1: 1 ratio. It neutralizes acidity. This type of fertilizer can be applied both in spring and autumn at the rate of 150–200 kg per hectare, if it is the main component, and 100–150 kg per area in the form of top dressing.
- Another effective feeding of trees and shrubs in the spring is urea (carbamide). This fertilizer is highly concentrated and very effective for increasing yields. It can be applied directly under the rhizomes of fruit bushes and trees at the time of loosening the soil or through irrigation if the liquid form of the concentrate is used.
The main requirement that should be observed when using nitrogen fertilizers is compliance with the instructions for use, proper dosing and safety when storing and entering into the soil.
Top dressing by phosphate and potash fertilizers
Phosphorus and potash fertilizers help plants to adapt to the external environment, make them frost-resistant and strong. They also affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
Phosphate fertilizers should be applied deeper into the ground, as they are poorly absorbed, and it is recommended to do this in early spring when you first dig the soil. The most popular phosphate additives are superphosphate (based on sulfur, gypsum) and phosphoric flour, which is used on acidic soils.
Superphosphate is in greater demand because of its rapid absorption by the roots of trees and shrubs. When planting seedlings, it is enough to deposit from 400 to 600 g of superphosphate to each planting well. For adult perennial plants, the rate of feeding is 40-60 g per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle.
The property of phosphate fertilizers is the rapid growth of a plant and the development of a powerful root system. You can also note the qualitative changes in the taste of berries and fruits and the amount of the crop.
Potassium fertilizer in its pure form is better not to apply, but diluted with zinc, iron or nitrogenous substances. The most popular type of potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate, in which chlorine and sodium harmful to plants are absent.
Top dressing of trees and shrubs in spring with potash fertilizers provides a good harvest. A lack of potassium in the soil affects the size of the fruits and their taste. Potassium sulphate can be applied to any kind of soil at a dosage for top dressing of 20-25 g per 1 m 2. The best effect gives a mixture of phosphate fertilizers with potash.
Top dressing of saplings
The quantity and quality of fertilizers depends solely on the composition of the soil, but fertilizing garden trees and shrubs in the spring, especially before planting seedlings, is mandatory.
The presence of phosphorus in the soil is especially important for seedlings, since it is this that affects their growth and rapid adaptation. To make the laying of phosphorus-potash fertilizers should be before the seedlings are planted.
It is best to do this in a layer deeper than the hole, under a tree or shrub. It is also important that fertilizers be immediately laid in large quantities, with the expectation of several years. Feeding trees and shrubs in the spring with phosphorus is important only for young trees, as it stimulates their rapid growth.
Other fertilizers to trees younger than two years can not be given only if the soil has not been completely depleted before. Otherwise, it should first be carefully fertilized and restored, and only then the garden should be laid.
Top dressing with organic substances
Organic fertilizers are natural and natural for trees and shrubs. They began to be used long before the chemical industry appeared. They enrich and improve the composition of the soil without harm to it.
Top dressing of trees and shrubs in spring with manure is the most common procedure among summer residents. This is the most affordable and cheapest form of feeding with a full set of components necessary for plants - boron, manganese, cobalt, copper and molybdenum. Horse manure and bird droppings are considered to be the best for feeding trees and shrubs. They are most full of essential microelements for plant growth and high yield. The most commonly used liquid form is fertilizing fruit crops.
To obtain a solution, any container is filled with half manure, and the top is poured with water, after which they should be thoroughly mixed. After a month, the resulting mixture can be used at the rate of 1 liter for 6-8 liters of water. If the soil is dry, the solution should be made more fluid. In the wet ground make a thicker composition of the fertilizer.
If it is planned to feed fruit trees and shrubs in April, then, accordingly, a mortar should be laid in March.
Feeding with compost
Peat and humus are types of organic fertilizers that can be used both independently and as compost. Compost is made from manure, peat or various garbage - food or fallen leaves and tops. These are fermented plant residues that were artificially prepared for a year. To do this, choose a place that does not fill with water, and put there all the components interspersed with the ground.
As the compost heap grows, it should be moistened so that the decay is more intense. It is recommended to cover the compost with a black film that does not allow moisture to evaporate and at the same time attracts solar heat. For better decay, plant waste and manure can be poured with layers of hydrated lime, and in order to have access to oxygen, use layers of twigs and straw, which allow the compost to "breathe."
The finished composition can be applied in 1-2 years. It is the purest and most beneficial fertilizer, which has a great effect on both the plants and the ground.
Feeding stone trees
Good nutrition is extremely important for the quality development and growth of stone trees. Top dressing of fruit trees and bushes in March is a guarantee of a good harvest, as it helps plants to move away from hibernation faster.
It is very convenient to give the first portion of fertilizer when there is still snow under the trees. As it melts, the nutrients will flow into the soil and feed the roots. If the stone tree is young, then it is better to start top dressing in the 2nd year of its growth. It is enough to use urea at the rate of 20 g / 1 m 2. It should be made only in the spring. In the fall, you can add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
When stone trees - cherry, plum, apricot and others - enter fruiting season, up to 10 kg of manure or compost, 20-25 g of urea, 60 g of simple or 30 g of double superphosphate and 200 g of wood ash per square meter should be introduced.
Top dressing of seed trees
For seed trees, the best fertilizer in April will be nitrogenous substances that stimulate the growth of their shoots. If the tree gives a weak crop, it is additionally recommended to add urea in a ratio of 5 g / 1 m 2 of the trunk circle. For adult trees feeding is carried out around the perimeter of the entire crown.
It is very useful to use the aisles in the garden for planting cultural herbs such as white clover, meadow fescue and others. They should be mowed as they grow and leave under the trees. At the same time, it is possible not to fertilize the garden with organic matter, but to add only mineral fertilizers.
Top dressing of berry bushes
In order for the berries to give good yields, the land should be prepared and fertilized in advance. For example, for black currants need moist places, and for raspberries, red currants and gooseberries - well-lit warm areas of the garden.
Fertilizers should be planted abundantly. Manure, humus or compost is applied at the rate of 500 kg per 100 m 2. Of mineral fertilizers, berry cultures are suitable for phosphate and potash.
If the laying of the berry was carried out correctly, then the next couple of years can be significantly reduced fertilizing the soil.
Fertilizers for fruit trees and shrubs in spring: their types
Many gardeners and gardeners wonder: How to fertilize trees in the spring? To do this, you need to know what kind of fertilizer they need. The need of fruit trees and shrubs for certain elements necessary for nutrition and development varies, depending on the vegetative processes. In the spring, plantings need potassium. Phosphorus and nitrogen are needed in the formation of fruits.
The feeding process itself is carried out with organic or mineral substances. We give them below:
- Organic fertilizers are humus (compost, dung, manure, peat), when used, the soil is enriched with vitamins.
- Mineral - are divided into simple, when they include one component, and complex, which, in turn, contain several. Their basis is phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.
Organic - natural for planting fertilizers. Their main function is to improve the composition of the soil. Do not harm. Feeding trees with manure is quite a popular method. They contain trace elements necessary for growth - copper, manganese, cobalt and others. Compost, as one of the types of fertilizers, is quite a universal remedy. It can be: 1. humus and peat - as independent components, 2. as well as a mixture of tops, leaves, and fermented organic residues with the ground.
Nitrogen fertilizers, as a type of mineral, should be applied very carefully. These include ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and carbamide (urea) concentrate.
It is important to respect the dosage, proportions and safety precautions. It is necessary to carefully read the instructions for use, so as not to harm either yourself or the plant.
Potassium Fertilizers, Be sure to use in diluted form (diluting with iron, zinc). The most commonly used agent is potassium sulphate. The correct dosage will enrich the tree or shrub with necessary elements that will provide them with good fruits. When mixing potash and phosphate fertilizers, the best effect is achieved.
Phosphoric, they help in adapting plantations to environmental factors, which makes them strong and resistant to frost. They must be introduced into the ground deeper in spring in order for the roots to absorb the remedy as much as possible. This is necessary for the root system, as a result - good quality and quantity of fruits.
Properly chosen and used fertilizer for fruit trees and shrubs in the spring will not only enrich them with the components and substances necessary for nutrition, but also improve the properties of the soil, which will ensure a good harvest.
Top dressing of fruit trees and bushes in the spring
Spring feeding of fruit trees and shrubs begins with the introduction of nitrogen-containing elements into the soil. In order to saturate the plant with vitamins and microelements, you can use urea or ammonium nitrate. The process of feeding through the root, will occur in stages and gradually. The microelements and vitamins introduced into the soil, with precipitation fall to the roots and absorb them.
For each planting has its own system, the so-called feeding, the necessary substances. Thanks to this, you can learn how to feed fruit trees and shrubs in the spring.
Spring care for an apple tree begins in April. When you see the first leaflets, you can begin the process of feeding, using nitrogen-containing mixtures - humus, urea or ammonium nitrate. They are brought in tree trunks. These substances activate the vegetative processes. Fertilizers are applied to the soil when it is digging or loosening. In this case, the feeding of the root of the tree.
Pear also needs vitamins and minerals in the spring. It is fertilized with ammonium nitrate, urea, and chicken droppings.
It is necessary to bring in a chicken manure in a small amount, otherwise there is a risk to burn the trunk and roots of the tree.
When mixing saltpeter with water, it is important to respect the proportions 1: 0.5. Every year in the spring, the amount of fertilizer used should be increased, as the tree itself grows and grows.
Before the cherry begins to bloom, you need to produce its dressing. Since there are still few leaves on the tree at the beginning of spring, it is during this period that fertilizer should be applied in liquid form. This will enrich the tree, even before flowering, with all the necessary substances for nutrition.
Liquid fertilizers should be applied periodically if there is a small amount of precipitation. Also fit chicken droppings, nitrogen and organic products in the mix.
Experienced gardeners and gardeners know that for shrubs such as gooseberries, currants, raspberries, and blackberries are also important and need feeding in the spring. They should be fertilized like this:
- potassium nitrate,
- a mixture of ash and urea,
- a mixture of several types of fertilizers.
Fertilization in spring under fruit trees and shrubs is an important factor in the formation of fruits and their normal development. Digging up and loosening the soil, annually, leads to weathering of the earth. Therefore, not only plantings, but also the soil needs to be fed. Mineral and organic fertilizers feed and enrich the soil and trees with essential substances. This is necessary not only for the growth and fruitfulness of plants, but also to improve the composition of the soil.
Top dressing of fruit trees and bushes begins in spring, before the flowering process. During this period, plantings are weak and need initial care. The root system requires recharge. This is achieved by applying fertilizer to the soil. The very process of feeding fruit trees and shrubs is the first step to a good harvest.
Feed dressing options
Fertilizing garden crops, as well as garden crops, is possible with two types of preparations: mineral and organic. Since with the advent of spring and warming, any plant activates growth and accelerates the growing season, it is at this time that they need a large amount of food.
The most essential component at this stage in the development of fruit trees and shrubs is nitrogen. This substance is responsible for the growth of green mass, and it can be found both in mineral complexes and in organic fertilizers.
At the second stage of development, trees need potassium and phosphorus, because the number of ovaries depends on these components, which means the abundance of the future crop.
The health of plants in the garden, as well as the quality and taste of fruits, are directly related to the content in the soil of such elements as:
Wood can find hydrogen with carbon directly in the soil or in the air, but with microelements it is much more difficult - they are in the right amount only in balanced mineral complexes.
This does not mean that the use of organic matter is inefficient. On the contrary, organic fertilizers are more preferable for fertilizing fruit trees and shrubs. But in order to benefit the garden, it is necessary to be able to correctly calculate the number and proportions of such dressings, because an excess of organic matter is very bad for the condition of the trees.
In addition, to find organic fertilizers in the modern world is not so simple: only residents of rural areas have them in abundance. Buying cow dung or bird droppings is not economically feasible, as these fertilizers are quite expensive.
Garden fertilizer schedule
In order to navigate the timing of spring dressings, a gardener can look at the table below. However, even a novice must understand that there are no exact dates in this matter: a lot depends on the climate in the region, weather conditions and the variety of trees and bushes.
Not all fertilizing of the orchard is the same; on the contrary, each stage of tree fertilization has its own characteristics. The amount of nutrients and composition depend on many factors. The following main feeding of fruit and berry plants are distinguished:
- fertilizer for adult fruit trees,
- feeding berry bushes,
- foliar or soil dressing,
- удобрение грунта при посадке дереве или кустарника,
- подкормка саженцев и молодых растений,
- удобрение сада на разных этапах вегетации (до цветения, во время цветения и после цветения).
Первое удобрение сада азотом
Ранней весной вопрос о том, какие удобрения выбрать для сада, не стоит – в это время всем без исключения растениям необходим азот. Однако форма азотсодержащих препаратов может иметь массу вариантов – для отдельного растения она подбирается индивидуально:
- Apple and pears best perceive nitrogen from urea (carbamide), humus, ammonium nitrate, bird droppings. After flowering of these trees, superphosphate, potassium sulfate or other potash fertilizer should be applied.
- Cherry and plum trees in early spring should be fed with the same urea or ammonium nitrate. While cherries and plums are blooming, you need to add bird droppings. And at the end of flowering - compost, liquid manure or dry organic mixture.
- Berry bushes should preferably be fertilized with nitrophosphate potash nitrate. In early spring, tree ash with urea can be added to the shrub root (half a glass of ash is mixed with three tablespoons of urea and dissolved in the water in a bucket of water). The composition of rotted manure and saltpeter well saturates the soil (a handful of saltpeter per manure bucket).
When and how to apply fertilizer
It is necessary to start feeding fruit trees and shrubs in early spring - in March. If by this time the snow has not melted completely, but the ground has already thawed a little, you can start feeding. Fertilizer should not be poured onto frozen soil until it thaws, most of the nitrogen will simply evaporate.
The most convenient way is to use industrial soluble granules. They can simply be scattered directly on the ground or on the snow around the trunk (the soil should be dug up since the fall). Surface fertilizer is good because the melt water will gradually dissolve the granules, and the nutrients dosed out will begin to penetrate to the roots.
You can reduce the radius - 50 cm will be quite enough for nitrogenous fertilizers, because the crown of old trees can be very large. It is within a radius of 50 cm from the trunk that most of the root endings are concentrated, which absorb nutrients.
An adult fruit tree will require about 100-120 grams of a nitrogenous mixture (these are 2-3 handfuls). A sapling or shrub needs to be fed with one handful of nitrogen - about 35-40 grams.
It is important to understand that any top dressing should be combined with regular soil moistening, because it is water that is the conductor of fertilizer to the roots of the tree. In early spring there is usually enough melt water, but if there is no snow in the region, it will be necessary to water the plant before and after top dressing. When the garden is located on a slope, it is better to slightly postpone fertilization, as the meltwater can simply wash them away.
Organic products are recommended for young seedlings and berry bushes. Urea, liquid manure or bird droppings are dissolved in water and the soil around the plant is watered with this compound. Under one young tree, 4-5 liters of this solution should be poured, and it is prepared in the following proportions:
- 10 liters of water 300 grams of urea,
- 4 liters of liquid manure per bucket of water
- 1.5 liters of liquid chicken manure per 10-liter bucket.
Garden fertilizer in April
On warm April days, the fruit trees begin to bloom, and young leaves appear on their shoots. During this period, the plants are in dire need of potassium and phosphorus - these are the components that must be selected for the second feeding of the garden.
But to use potassium and phosphorus need to take turns, together they are better not to make. In the first half of April, the soil is fertilized with phosphorus compounds (superphosphate, for example). Fertilizer granules are recommended to be embedded in the soil near the trunk of a tree or at the roots of a shrub. An adult plant will need about 50-60 grams of phosphorus, and 30 grams will be enough for a young seedling.
It is not recommended to deposit potassium under the trees in their pure form. It is better to use complex mixtures with this substance, such as potassium magnesia, potassium sulfate, potassium salt, furnace ash. About 20–25 grams will be needed for an adult tree; seedlings are fed with half of the indicated dose.
At the end of April, when the fruit blossoms, you can add organics. It is very effective at this stage of the growing season herbal infusion or "green fertilizer." To make it, they take fresh-cut grass and fill it with water. After this, the container with the infusion needs to be covered with a thick film, in which several holes are made in advance. "Green fertilizer" should be infused for at least three weeks, and before use it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
With the arrival of May comes the turn of the last spring feeding garden. At this time, ovaries form on trees and fruits form. The best fertilizer at this stage is considered organic: humus, compost, biohumus. If there is no organic fertilizer, you can use mineral complexes with a slight predominance of nitrogen in the composition.
The technology of the third feeding may have the following options:
- In the soil around the trees, small depressions are being prepared, where the fertilizer is embedded.
- The mineral complex or organic matter is dug up along with the earth from the near-stem circle.
- The soil under the plants is loosened beforehand, then the fertilizers are mixed with the ground.
- Organic or granules are mixed with mulch: straw, dry leaves, sawdust, peat.
Berry bushes bloom profusely in mid-May - it's time to feed them with urea or liquid manure. To enhance the effect, you can add a little saltpeter or wood ash.
May is a great time for foliar fertilizing of trees or berry bushes. Nutrient solutions are prepared in the same way as described above, but the concentration of the active substances should be reduced.
Leaves and young shoots quickly absorb valuable mineral components, trees are well saturated. Spray the plants should be early morning or evening, in cloudy weather. If foliar feeding is performed on a hot sunny day, the plant is guaranteed burns.
The foliar garden fertilizer is convenient for summer residents who do not constantly live outside the city, and occasionally come to visit their site. Trees treated in this way do not have to be watered, which is mandatory when adding organic matter or minerals at the root.
Fruit garden spring fertilizer is a vital necessity for most varieties and types of fruit and berry crops. Without adequate nutrition, it is difficult to wait for a good harvest, the trees that are fed are better able to resist diseases and pests.
The gardener should make an approximate schedule of fertilizing for his plants, procure a sufficient number of suitable fertilizers. It is very important to correctly calculate the dose of fertilizer, correctly carry out dressing and not to forget about regular watering.
Basis - calculation
The garden of the garden is different, and the proper feeding of fruit trees is carried out taking into account a number of interrelated factors:
- Type and variety of plants.
- The physiological stage of its development.
- The nature of physical development and the method of cultivation (dwarf, normal, lush / tall).
- The type and nature of the soil under the plant.
- Local climatic conditions are common and in a given year.
Formulation, dosage and fertilization schemes in accordance with these parameters are summarized in agronomic tables for individual types and varieties or are given in reference books on gardening. It is quite difficult for an incompetent to understand them, therefore, the feeding of fruit trees and berry bushes by amateurs at cottages and personal plots is carried out most often according to standard schemes or proven recipes, see below. If the climatic conditions and the soil in the garden of the author of the recommendation and her reader are more or less similar, then the garden of the latter will “keep the varieties” and relatively stably bear fruit, but most likely not at the maximum level possible in this place. In addition, the “popular” recipes for feeding fruit and berries in runet are also very dark, and to understand what they need, without experience, is perhaps no simpler than in agro tables.
The purpose of this publication is, firstly, to give the reader information that will help to understand the agronomic tables and use them to determine which fertilizers for trees and shrubs of this particular type and variety are needed on a given soil in given climatic conditions, when, in what way and what doses to bring them. Secondly, to help understand which of the typical schemes / which recipe is best suited to your dacha, what is possible in it, what is needed and what cannot be changed, based on the existing conditions and possibilities.
Actually, the calculation of fruit and berry fertilizers is generally not complicated. Suppose, according to the tables for such and such varieties in certain soil and climatic conditions (for example, Melba apple tree on black soil in the Kursk region, or it also simireko on the podzola in Vologda region) in the standard culture it turned out that the annual potash requirement of a tree of this physiological the age (see below) and size is 60 g. According to the soil conditions and availability, we select a potassium fertilizer and in the specification we look at the proportion of the active substance. Suppose there indicated 17%. Then this tree needs 60 / 0.17 = 353 g of the selected fertilizer for a year. Rounded to 350 (it is better to underfeed a little, than to overfeed).
Now we will take into account that for living wood trees, the main dressing of the soil with fertilizers should be carried out in the fall. By default, unless otherwise specified in the cultivation manual for this variety, we postpone the autumn refueling, depending on the physiological maturity of the plant (see below):
- On light permeable fertile soils - 1/4 of the annual norm.
- On them, infertile (lean sandy loam, cartilage, etc.) - 1/3 of the annual norm.
- On heavy and moderately fertile - 1/2 annual norms.
- On the same infertile - 2/3 of the annual rate.
From the remaining half we bring in the spring when refueling the soil, and the rest is evenly distributed over the seasonal top dressing. Novice gardeners on the usual garden land for autumn refueling is better to take 0.5 annual norm and another 0.25 for spring.
NPK and others
The role of the main nutrients nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) in plant life is as follows:
- Nitrogen - helps build green mass.
- Phosphorus - is necessary for the balance of physiological processes, increases the endurance of plants, their resistance to diseases and pests.
- Potassium is necessary for the growth of roots, the formation of new shoots, the synthesis of sugars in fruits. It also provides winter hardiness.
The main elements in some modern manuals include 2-valent iron and magnesium. Although they are required by plants in micro doses, chlorophyll formation and photosynthesis are impossible without them. Copper, zinc, boron, manganese, sulfur, molybdenum, calcium belong to microelements, they are necessary for the synthesis of phytohormones and other plant biochemistry. As a rule, if the soil is not completely depleted, adult plants receive them sufficiently from it or as a natural admixture to basic fertilizers, especially organic (see below).
About foliar top dressing
The effect of “first aid” for woody foliar feeding with basic elements is not given. Feeding the main trees through the leaves is possible only in good years and always with obvious signs of starvation for one of them. Also in favorable years of woody during flowering and preparation for fruiting (at the stage of ovaries) it is desirable to carry out boric-zinc-copper foliar micro-feeding (1-2, 3-5 and 30-40 g of the active substance per 10 l of water, respectively), for some cultures, for example. grapes, foliar micro-feeding at the beginning of fruiting are obligatory. In adverse years, foliar feeding of tree cultures should not be carried out.
Together or separately?
It is also ineffective and even harmful for wood top dressing with complex mineral fertilizers, excluding autumn and spring soil refueling. The main nutritional elements for tree crops should be made separately with an interval of at least 4-5 days. The sequence is phosphorus, potassium, then nitrogen. In favorable years, phosphorus and potassium are quite acceptable to bring the soil together into well and deeply moistened soil: phosphorus in the soil migrates very quickly, and potassium, on the contrary, slowly, so that they themselves separate.
Another exception to these rules is seasonal feeding of juvenile plants (see below). They can even be desirable to feed NPK in the form of nitrophoska. South approx. the Kursk-Lipetsk lines are in fairly wet years with a more concentrated nitroammophore, adhering to the same absolute dosage (in g of active substances per plant or square meter).
Stage of maturity of trees and shrubs
The application technique (see below), the formulation and the dosage of fertilizer for fruit crops, essentially depend on the degree of physiological maturity of the plants. There are such stages:
- Sapling - a tree up to 2 years, a bush for a year after planting. During this time there is a full rooting of saplings. The planting pit is filled with fertilizer during planting (see below), other feedings are not carried out,
- “Teenager” is juvenile, i.e. young quite established, but not yet flowering plant. In addition to the autumn-spring refueling, they conduct regular seasonal supplements of full NPK with trace elements,
- Young tree / shrub - flowers, bears fruit, but has not yet reached the level of productivity of this variety in the actual conditions. The productivity of young fruit and berry experienced gardeners artificially limit, removing excess ovaries. The soil is filled in the fall and spring with full NPK. Seasonal feeding of young trees is carried out in the middle and favorable years annually, see below. In an unfavorable year, seasonal top dressings are excluded,
- Adult plant - productivity stabilized. The soil is filled mainly in the fall, force spring refueling due to the autumn is undesirable. Seasonal feeding is carried out no more than once every 2 years in good years,
- Aging - productivity drops. The plant is “sent to a working retirement”: autumn-spring refueling is done as long as it maintains profitability or satisfies the owners’s own needs, and seasonal refills are completely excluded. How to continue to be with him - see for yourself, under the cutting down or at a well-deserved rest element of landscape design.
Note: One of the main tasks of the breeder of fruit and berries is to bring a variety that is unproductive and costly for the gardener, the adolescent stage “slips” as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is poorly expressed or imperceptible in many cultivated varieties.
More about what, when and how to feed the fruit and berries, let's talk further. In the meantime, we note the general features.
The first - starting from 1-1.5 years (if it was planted in spring) for shrubs and from 2-2.5 years for trees, autumn-spring soil refueling is done regularly annually.
The second, seasonal top-dressings in favorable years are carried out once, twice or three times, depending on the fertility of the soil and the irrigation of the garden:
- Garden irrigated on fertile soil - after the first leaves and at the beginning of flowering.
- The garden is irrigated, the soil is medium or infertile - after the appearance of the first leaves, at the beginning of flowering and after the appearance of the ovaries.
- Garden rainfed (non-irrigated) - after the appearance of the first leaves in favorable years, while in the soil there is an excess of moisture.
Third, in special years, emergency (irregular) feeding is possible. For example, warm, light, short warm rains are frequent. Plants laid a lot of ovaries, the harvest is planned - you will lick your fingers, or fermentation tanks for cider burst. But for one fruit you need at least a certain number of leaves, for example. room Pavlovsky lemon - 20. If they are not enough, after the first seasonal feeding, but before flowering, plants can be given nitrogen. Or vice versa, the year is hot, dry, the garden is irrigated. The harvest is supposed to be small, but valuable. Then, during the period of the formation of the fruit (the apples are tied with walnuts, plums with beans, cherries with peas), you can also give potassium or, better, wood ash. It does not go by quantity - we take quality, sugar content.
Note: emergency fertilizing of fruit and berries with organic or mineral chemical fertilizers is recommended to be done only with some experience in gardening. Without it, the plants from them or heal, or exhausted. That and the other will “spoil the variety” for years, if not forever. Ash can be fed without fear.
Organic or chemistry?
For autumn-spring refueling with the speed of the assimilation of wood nutrition by the rate of migration into the soil and the duration of its retention of active substances, nitrogen-containing organic fertilizers best fit: manure, compost, humus. When preparing them for use (see below), organic matter can be supplemented with phosphorus, but potassium is added separately. Seasonal supplements, for which potassium and phosphorus are most needed, are made quickly digestible mineral fertilizers.
The organics from autumn are used freshly - completely ripened in a plastic (slightly wet) form, in the spring - in the form of dried crushed sypts. In either case, the preparation of organic fertilizers takes approx. 2 months The initial mass is laid out in the shade at a distance from residential buildings in layers of 15-20 cm. Each layer is poured with superphosphate at the rate of:
- Horse manure - 150 g / sq. m
- Cow manure - 220 g / sq. m
- Compost from tops of garden plants - 200 g / sq. m
- Food compost - 70 g / sq. m
- Humus - 250 g / sq. m
Note: organic slush, if needed, is prepared from sypyts, but not from fresh sack.
It is also very useful to spray each layer with a 2% potassium humate solution at a rate of 250 ml / sq. m, potassium in the form of humate with phosphorus is compatible. The pile is brought to a height of 1-1.3 m, it is covered with earth from above, it is covered with turf from the sides. The dried out shed is dried in a ventilated room, it cannot be dried in the sun. С осени подготовленную органику вносят под мульчу (см. далее), весной под нее же или по снегу.
На малом частном участке самый «ленивый» и дешевый, но в то же время самый эффективный способ полной заправки почвы под плодовые с осени – посев сидеральных азотфиксирующих культур по всей площади сада. Высевают горох, люцерну, клевер. Злаки-азотфиксаторы (рожь, овес) для сада подходят плохо: они светолюбивы, в саду не разовьются в полную силу и не накопят много питательных веществ. In addition, in the hollow internodes of the stems of the grasses, the eggs and pupae of the pests successfully overwinter.
Sowing green plants after harvest. With the onset of cold weather, the earth is dug over or plowed up with worn out tops. There is no need to mulch siderat, except, on the threshold of a little snowy winter, you need to sprinkle it with a thin, 1-3 fingers, layer of earth.
Over the snow, under the mulch or in the pits?
As it is known, near-stem circles of fruit mulch. But - not so simple: under the mulch slugs, earthworms, mice prosper. Worms, of course, are only useful, but moles come to the worm. Therefore, to give fruit and berry fertilizer for mulch is desirable either in the fall under the cold, or in the order of spring dressing to heat. If the garden is on level ground, and there is enough snow accumulated during the winter, then it is better to fertilize fruit and berries in the spring: the filling will evenly and deeper impregnate the root ball, and the melt water will enhance its action without the risk of harming the plants. Organics on the snow contribute syptsom with the advent of the first thaw.
The conditions for fertilizing fruits and berries in the snow are not always created and are not possible everywhere, so the spring dressing of the soil with fertilizers in the garden is most often carried out under mulch. Here the main question is: where is it, mulch, in the spring to take, has it all over the winter? Not harmful, not contaminated or acidifying soil (see below)? On one of the ways of providing yourself with mulch in the spring, see next. video.
Video: where to get mulch in spring
Top dressing of fruit crops is an important agrotechnical event. Fertilization should start in spring. It is important to take into account the compatibility of the compositions among themselves, as well as with different types of crops. When buying ready-made funds should carefully study the instructions.
Feed the plants
Fertilizer fruit crops is held in the evening, preferably on a warm cloudy day, but not during the rain. Fertilizers are applied to abundantly moistened soil. The land for fertilizer needs an hour or two before they are shed. The approximate rate of spillage in a minimally moistened soil (compressed in a fist, the clot disintegrates when you unclasp your arm):
- Juvenile trees and shrubs (except hazelnuts) - 1.5 buckets per 1 square. m pristvolny circle.
- Young trees and hazelnuts - 2.5 buckets per square meter. m pristvolny circle.
- Mature trees - 3.5-6 buckets on the same area.
Strait is carried out in portions, waiting for complete absorption of the next bay. If 10-15 minutes after the next portion is poured, the soil squeezed in a fist sticks together with fingerprints, without sticking to them in a continuous layer, then this is a sign that it is spilled enough and after half an hour or an hour you need to apply fertilizer. After half an hour or an hour after their introduction, they are refilled in the same order in the amount of 1 / 4-1 / 3 of water per strait.
Fertilizer seedlings, as you know, is carried out during planting, and then they are not fed until rooting. The method of fertilizing fruit plants during planting is also known: the pit is filled with a bucket of two organics, then the dressing is half a dozen shovels covered with earth, filled with water, planted and watered the plant. When the planting is correct, in the fall, the pit is filled with a fresh one - it will slowly warm the roots and help the plant to overwinter the plant, slowly dozing up in the winter. Under the spring planting (which, generally speaking, is undesirable), the pit needs to be filled with crumbs: a fresh sap that intensively grows during the heat gain can burn the roots. It is useful to add 100-150 g of superphosphate or half a double dose to a bucket of sypts, but in this case, the dry mixture should be prepared for 2 weeks and allowed to cure in an open container (not metal!) In air under a canopy.
Note: When planting a walnut, you need to put a solid granite boulder or a piece of wood in the landing hole so that the growing rod rests on it. Then the first nuts will have to wait 2-3 years, not 6-8 years.
These include apple and pear trees, in the south - quince and cornel. The peculiarity of pome seeds is that the autumn-spring refueling of the soil beneath them starts after leaving the juvenile phase, after the plants first bloom. The next after the first refueling on ordinary and fertile soil is carried out, skipping a year, then - after 3-4 years, the older, the less. On marginal soils, the soil is fed annually before reaching a stable fruiting, then after 2-3 years. The order of fertilizer pome (without autumn sowing of sideral) is as follows:
- In the autumn after the fall of approx. 70-80% of the foliage in the soil in a dotted way contribute 200 g of potassium sulfate to a young tree and 300 g each for adults,
- Immediately prepare the nitrogen-phosphorus mixture: 10 kg of organic-svezhak 300 g of double superphosphate or 600 g of simple. The mixture rate per tree is 12-15 kg per young, 20-25 kg per adult, depending on soil fertility,
- Nitrogen-phosphorus mixture is left to ripen under a canopy in a container covered with a cloth for at least 2 weeks,
- Under the cold or when the plants “fall asleep” for the winter (the shoots of this year are hardened, the buds wrinkle) the nitrogen-phosphorus mixture is added under the mulch,
- If the siderate has not been sown since autumn, in the spring over snow or under mulch they give organic matter-fresh without phosphorus in the amount of 1/4 from the autumn refueling,
- After the leaves are unfolded, young trees are cracked with solutions of 30 g of carbamide (urea) per 1 liter of water, or 400 ml of slurry per 1 liter of water, or 150 ml of manure of fermented chicken manure per 1 liter of water. The solutions are used immediately after preparation,
- After flowering, feeding is done dotted into the wells with a 5% solution of superphosphate at the rate of 30 g of dry matter per sapling and twice as much per adult. Double superphosphate is used not only in half the amount, but also in half the concentration, i.e. the dose of the working solution on the tree remains the same
- After the formation of ovaries (they have reached the size of a hazelnut), they are fed with potash: potassium sulphate (preferably), potassium magnesia, wood furnace ash. The application rate for an adult tree is 20 g, 25 g and 50-70 g, respectively, for a young tree that is half as much. Potassium fertilizers are applied with 5% solutions, ash - diluted 10 times with a concentrated extract, see below,
- In especially fruitful years (see below) under white filling of fruits, they give potash top dressing in the amount of 1/4 of it under the ovary (see the previous section),
- After harvesting, the best way for beginners to prepare trees for winter is to mumble the tree trunks with humus, with the addition of wood ash in a glass to a bucket, 10-15 cm thick.
In lean years, phosphorus-potash seasonal supplements do not hold. If more than half the maximum yield is foreseen (over 70-75 kg of varieties of normal yield from an adult tree), carbamide is 1.5 times more, and potash is 25% more. To get a concentrated ash infusion, its dry dose is shut with water with thorough stirring and ground for 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Then another day allowed to settle. Sludge is the ash concentrate, the precipitate is discarded.
This plum, cherry, cherry, apricot. The soil under them is fueled in the same way as under pome seeds, but compared to the latter, seasonal top dressings have a trace. features:
- Spring feeding “on the foliage” is carried out by ammonium nitrate at the rate of 10 g / sq. m pristvolny circle for adult trees and 7 g / sq. m for young people
- In favorable (warm and moderately humid) years, after 2-3 weeks they give a nitrophore feed of 30 g / sq. m or nitroammofoskoy 20 g / sq. m,
- 4-5 days later, a 5% solution of chloride (preferably) or potassium sulphate is given. Seed chlorine ions do not like, but stone fruits are tolerant to it, but potassium chloride is absorbed faster,
- The first potash supplementation for fruiting (similar to item 8 in the previous list) is carried out when the ovary reaches the size of a pea (cherry, sweet cherry) or bean (plum, apricot),
- Additional potassium supplementation is not carried out regardless of the yield in the current year.
Shrubs "live faster" trees, so planting refueling in the pit they give half or 1/3 of the desired for the tree. Autumn-spring soil refueling begins a year after planting in autumn or 1.5 years later (in autumn) after spring. The dose of refueling is considered half by 1 square. m projection of the crown in comparison with her for a tree. For example, an apple tree obscures 10 sq. M in the summer at noon. m, and a bush of 1 square. m. We divide the dose of refueling for an apple tree by 20, we get the rate of autumn-spring introduction under the bush, bushes, they are unpretentious and economical. What is important for shrubs - after the first flowering, the autumn refueling of the soil for the cold is canceled, it is replaced by top dressing after harvest.
The basic composition of the mixture for seasonal dressing of shrubs in the middle lane can be taken the same: for an adult bush 4-5 kg of compost, 10-15 g of potassium sulfate and 20-30 g of superphosphate. The mixture is allowed to ripen for 2 weeks, the schedule of application is as follows:
- In the phase of active flowering (the first decade of May),
- In the period of intensive growth of fruitful shoots (end of May - beginning of June),
- During the formation of the ovaries (early July),
- After harvesting.
However, the methods of seasonal fertilization of shrubs, depending on the type of culture, are different, for the most popular berries, they are:
- Black currant - fertilizer scattered under the bushes and shallow, at 8-10 cm, dig.
- Raspberry - fertilizer is applied with a ribbon under the bushes and covered with sand. Option - mulch from sawdust, but then you need once a year after harvesting to control the acidity of the soil and, if necessary, carry out its liming.
- Gooseberry - is very sick on sour overmoistened soils, so it is desirable to replace the compost 10-15 ammonium nitrate with a shrub. The ground with a scattered dry mixture hoe does not deeper than 6-8 cm. After 2 years, a preventive liming of the soil is carried out for the third year, a half cup of dolomite flour per 1 sq. M. m. Lime flour is not good, because Gooseberry needs quite a lot of magnesium.
Last note: Shrubs are more responsive than trees to feed on the leaves, so in wet years, forcing their yields with foliar top dressings is quite acceptable and will not harm the plants.